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See  Herndon's  Lincoln,  page  ^59,  • 
for  an  account  of  thic  "book  in  con- 
nection with  Lincoln's  reading. 

"In  18^4,  while  still  living  in 
New  Salem  and  before  he  (Lincoln)  be- 
came a  lawyer,  he  was  surrounded  by  a 
class  of  people  exceedingly  liberal  in 
matters  of  religion.  Volney's  "Ruins" 
and  Paine 's  ''Age  of  Feapon"  passed  from 
hand  to  hand,  and  furnished  food  for 
the  evening's  discussion  in  the  tavern 
and  village  store." 

vSee  also  Wm.  K.   Barton's  ^Tne   Soul 
of  Abraha.a  Lincoln,"  pe^ges    l^^  6^,  1^46 
and  152,  for  furtUer  .leution  of  this 





'    '^//r'/r  a//    ('/////r  ///   ("////  o//rr      /A'//  /^.j//r(//   /A/./ 


R     U     I     N     S: 

O  R  1 


OF       THE 


O  F 


By    M.    VOLNEY, 

INE    Of   THE    DEPUTIES     TO   THE    NATIONAL   ASSEMBLY    OF    I'jZ^  , 



I  will  dwell  in  folitude  amldft  the  ruins  of  cities:  I  will  enquire  of  the 
monuiucnts  of  antiquity,  what  was  the  wifdom  of  former  ages :  I  will 
ad:  the  aihcs  of  legiflators,  what  caufes  have  erefled  and  overthrown 
empires  ;  what  are  the  principles  of  national  profperity  and  misfortune: 
wha:  the  maxims  upon  which  the  peace  of  focisty  and  the  happinefs  of 
man  ought  to  be  founded  ?     Ch.  iv.  p.  24. 





iThE  plan  of  this  fublicatioji   was  formed 
nearly  ten  years  ago ;  ana  allujions  to  it  may  be 
feen  in  the  Preface  to  'Travels  in  Syria  and 
Egypt,  as  well  as  at  the  end  of  that  work^ 
publijhed  in  1787.     The  performance  was  in 
fome  forwardnefs  when  the  events  of  I'jiZ  in 
France  interrupted  it.     Perfuaded  that  a  de^ 
velopement  of  the  theory  cf  political  truth  could 
not  fufficiently  acquit  a  citizen  of  his  debt  to 
fociety,  the  author  wifed  to  add  pra5ftce -,  and 
that  part icidarly  at  a  time  when  afingle  arm 
■  was  of  confequence  in  the  defence  of  the  general 
caufe,    The  fame  defre  of  public  benefit  which 
induced  him  to  fufpend  his  work^  has  fince  en^ 
gaged  him  to  refurne  it-,  and  though  it  7nay  ?2ot 
pofefs  the  fa7ne  merit  as  if  it  had  appeared 

a  3  under 


iU7dc}'  the  clrcumjtances  that  ga'ue  rife  to  it, 
yet  he  imagines  that  at  a  time  ivhen  new  paf- 
ficns  are  biirjiing  forth,  pajjions  that  mil  ft  com- 
mimicate  their  activity  to  the  religious  opinions 
of  men,  it  is  of  importance  to  difjeminatefuch 
7noral  truths  as  are  calculated  to  operate  as  a 
fort  of  curb  and  rejiraint.  It  is  with  this  'view 
he  has  endeavoured  to  give  to  thefe  truths, 
hitherto  treated  as  ahflraSl,  a  form  likely  to 
gain  them  a  reception.  It  was  found  impofible 
not  tofock  the  violent  prejudices  of fome  readers-, 
hut  the  work,  fo  far  from  being  the  fruit  of  a 
diforderly  and  perturbed fpirit ,  has  been  dilated 
by  afmcere  love  of  order  and  hiunanity. 

After  reading  this  performance  it  will  he 
afked,,  how  it  was poj/ible,  in  1784,  /^  have' had 
an  idea  of  what  did  not  take  place  till  the  year 
1790  ?  The  fohition  is  fimple :  in  the  original 
plan,  the  legifator  was  afclitious  and  hypo- 
thetical  being :  in  the  prefent,  the  author  has 
fubfituted  an  exiJUng  legifator  -,  and  the  re- 
ality has  only  made  the  fuhjccl  additionally 

I  N  V  O- 

I N  VO  C  ATIO  R 

Solitary  Ruins,  facred  Tombs, 
ye  mouldering  and  filent  Walls,  all 
hail  !  To  you  I  addrefs  my  Invoca- 
tion. While  the  vulgar  llirink  from 
your  afpeft  v/ith  fecret  terror,  my 
heart  finds  in  the  contemplation  a 
thouland  delicious  fentiments,  a  thou- 
fand  admirable  rccolleilions.  Preg- 
nant, I  may  truly  call  you,  with  ufeful 
iefibns,  with  pathetic  and  irrefiftible 
a  4  advice 


advice  to  the  man  who  knows  how 
to  confuit  you.  A  while  ago  the 
whole  world  bowed  the  neck  in 
filence  before  the  tyrants  that  op- 
preffed  it ;  and  yet  in  that  hopelefs 
moment  you  already  proclaimed  the 
truths  that  tyrants  hold  in  abhor- 
rence :  mixing  the  duft  of  the  proud  - 
eft  kings  with  that  of  the  meaneft 
ilaves,  you  called  upon  us  to  contem- 
plate this  example  of  e qu  a  l i t  y  .  From 
your  caverns,  whither  the  mufing 
and  anxious  love  of  Lteerty  led  me, 
I  fav/  efcape  its  venerable  fliade,  and 
with  unexpected  felicity  direct  its 
flight,  and  marflhal  my  fteps  the  way 
to  renovated  France. 




Tombs,  what  virtues  and  potency 
do  you  exhibit !  Tyrants  tremble  at 
your  afpeft  ;  you  poifon  with  fecret 
alarm  their  impious  pleafures  ;  they 
turn  from  you  with  impatience,  and, 
coward  like,  endeavour  to  forget  you 
amid  the  fumptuoufnefs  of  their  pa- 
laces. It  is  you  that  bring  home  the 
rod  of  juftice  to  the  powerful  op- 
preffor ;  it  is  you  that  wreft  the  ilI-> 
gotten  gold  from  the  mercilefs  ex- 
tortioner, and  avenge  thecaufe  of  him 
that  has  none  to  help  ;  you  com- 
penfate  the  narrow  enjoyments  of 
the  poor,  by  dafhing  with  care  the 
goblet  of  the  rich  ;  to  the  unfortu- 
nate you  ofter  a  iaft  and  inviolable 

aiylum  ; 


afylum  ;  in  fine,  you  give  to  the 
foul  that  juft  equilibrium  of  ftrength 
and  tendernefsj  which  conftitutes  the 
wifdom  of  the  fage  and  the  fcience 
of  life.  The  wife  man  looks  tov/ards 
you,  and  fcorns  to  amafs  vain  gran- 
deur and  ufelefs  riches  with  which 
he  mud  foon  part  :  you  check  his 
lawlefs  flio'hts,  without  difarminp*  his 
adventure  and  his  courage  :  he  feels 
the  neceffity  of  pafnng  through  the 
period  affigned  him,  and  he  gives 
employment  to  his  hours,  and  makes 
ufe  of  the  goods  that  fortune  has  af- 
figned him.  Thus  do  you  rein  in 
the  wild  fallies  of  cupidity,  calm  the 
fever  of  tumultuous  enjoyment,  free 



the  mind  from  the  anarchy  of  the 
paflions,  and  raife  it  above  thofe  little 
interefts  which  torment  the  mafs  of 
mankind.     We  afcend  the  eminence 
you  afFord  us,  and,  viewing  with  one 
glance  the  limits  of  nations  and  the 
fucceffion  of  ages,  are  incapable  of 
any  affedions  but  fuch  as  are  fublime, 
and  entertain  no  ideas  but  thofe  of 
virtue  and  glory.     Alas !    when  this 
uncertain  dream  of  life  fiiall  be  over, 
v/hat  then  will  avail  all  our  bufy  paf- 
fions,   unlefs   they  have   left  behind 
them  the  footfteps  of  utility  ! 

Ye  Ruins,  I  v/ill  return  once  more 
to  attend  your  leffons  !  I  will  refume 
my  place  in  the  midfl  of  your  wide 



fpreading  folitude.  I  will  leave  the 
tragic  fcene  of  the  paffions,  will  love 
my  fpecies  rather  from  recolle6tion 
than  adual  furvey,  will  employ  my 
activity  in  promoting  their  happinefs, 
afid  compofe  my  ov^^n  happinefs  of 
the  pleafing  remembrance  that  I  have 
haftened  theirs. 



Chap.    I. 
JL  H  E  Toui        -  -  -  z         page  i 

Chap.     II. 
Meditations         -  -  -  :^        ^        6 

Chap.    III. 
The  Apparition  -  -  r.  ^14 

Chap.    IV. 
The  Hemifphere  -  -  -  -      23 

Chap.    V. 
Condition  of  man  in  the  Univerfe        -  "33 

Chap.   VI. 
Original  ftate  of  Man  -  -  ''37 

Chap.    VII. 
Principles  of  Society  -  -  *        40 

Chap.    VIII. 
Source  of  the  evils  of  Society         ^        -        -        44 


2iV  C  O  N  T  E  N  T  S.     - 

Chap.     IX. 
Origin  of  Government  and  Laws      -         -        page  48 

Chap.     X. 
General  caufes  of  the  profperity  of  Nations         -         53 

Chap.     XI. 
General  caufes  of  the  prof!:)erity  and  ruin  of  ancient 
States         -------61 

Chap.     X[I. 
Leflbns  tauglit  by  ancient,  repeated  in  modern  Times  77 

C  H  A  p.     XIII. 
-Will  the  Fiuman  Race  be  ever  in  a  better  condition 
than  at  prefent  ?    ■    ;-  .7 -si-t.^;    -         l=         -       ^^3 

Chap.     XIV. 
Grasid  cbflacle  to  LriprovemeiiL         -         »         -      1 1  f 

00     .  .-  Chap.     XV. 

New  Age        -         -         -         -         -         -         125 

Chap.     X\'I. 
'A  free  and  legiflative  Pecplc         -  -         -         132 

Chap.     XVII. 
Univerfal  bafis  of  all  Right  and  all  Law     -         -       13^ 

Chap.     XVIIL 
Ccnfleinationandconfpiracy  o;  Tyranrs     -         -     141 

Ckap.     XIX. 
Generai  aHembly  of  the  people  -  -         J  4^ 

5  Chap. 


Chap.     XX. 
Inveftigation  of  Truth     -         -         _         -      page  154. 

Chap.     XXI. 
Problem  of  religious  contradidions         -         -         172 

Chap.     XXII. 
Origin  and  genealogy  of  religious  ideas  -  2i8 

S  E  C  T.      I. 

%'    Origin  of  the  idea  of  God:  worfhip  of  the  elements 

and  the  phyfical  powers  of  Nature         -         -         226 

S  E  C  T.      II. 

Second  {"jVitm. :  Worfliip  of  the  ftars,  or  Sabeifm      231 

Sect.     III. 
Third  fydem :  Worfhip  of  fymbols,  or  Idolatry        237 

Sect.     IV. 

Fourth   fy(km  ;    Worfhip  of  two  principles,  or 
Dualifm         -----  .         253 

Sect.     V. 
M){Hcal  or  moral  worfliip,  or  the  fyftem  of  a  future 

ilate  -  -  ,  ....         259 

Sect.     VI. 
oixth  fyilem:  the  animated  World,  or  worfhip  of 
the  univerfe  under  different  emblems       -         -      266 

Sect.     VII. 
Seventh   fyflern :    V/orfhip  of  the    Soul  of  the 
V/oRLD,  that  is,   the  element  of  fire,  the  vital 
principle  of  the  univerfe  -  -  271 



Sect.     VIII. 
Eighth  fyflem  :  The  world  a  machine  :  worfhi'p  of 
the  Demi-ourgos,  or  fupreme  artificer  pa;^e  274 

Sect.     IX. 
Religion  of  Mofes,  or  worfhip  of  the  foul  of  the 
world  (You- niter)  -  _  . 

Sect.      X. 
Religion  of  Zoroafter         -         -         -  - 

Sect.    XI. 
Budoifm,  or  religion  of  the  Samr.neans  -  282 

Sect.      XII. 
Braniinifm,  or  the  Indian  fyftem  -  -         ibid. 

Sect.     X  II. 
Chriftianity,  or  the  allegorical  worfnip  of  the  fun 
itnder  the  cabaliftical  names  of  Chris-en   cr 
Christ,  and  Yes  us  or  Jesus         -         -         283 

Chap.      XXIII. 
End  of  all  Religions  the  fame  -  -         297 

Chap.     XXIV. 
Solution  of  the  problem  of  contradiclions         -         315 


t  H  E 

R     U     I     N     S: 


CHAP.      I. 

THE     TOUR. 

N  the  eleventh  year  of  the  reign  of  Abd-iil 
HamidjfonofAhmed,  emperor  of  the  Turks  5 
when  the  Nogaian  Tartars  were  driven  from 
the  Crimea,  and  a  Muffuhnan  prince,  of  the 
blood  of  GengisKhan,  became  the  vaffal  and 
^i^jr^/ofa  woman,  aChriftian,and  a  queen*; 
I  journeyed  in  the  empire  of  the  Ottomans, 
and  traverfed  the  provinces  which  formerly 
were  kingdoms  of  Egypt  and  of  Syria. 

*  That  is  to  fay,  in  the  year  1784.  The  reader  is  re- 
quefted  not  to  lofe  fight  of  this  epocha.  See  the  notes  at 
the  end  of  the  volume*, 

B  Dire<'T:ing 

2  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

DirecfLing  all  my  attention  to  what  con- 
cerns the  happinefs  of  mankind  in  a  ilate  of 
fociety,  I  entered  cities,  and  ftudied  the  man- 
ners of  their  inhabitants 3  I  gained  admiffion 
into  palaces,  and  obferved  the  condud:!;  of 
thofe  who  govern;  I  wandered  over  the 
country,  and  examined  the  condition  of  the 
peafants:  and  no  Vv^here  perceiving  aught 
but  robbery  and  devaft^tion,  tyranny  and 
wretchednefs,  my  heart  w^as  opprefled  v/ith 
forrow  and  indignation. 

Every  day  I  found  in  my  route  fields  aban- 
doned by  the  plough,  villages  deferted,  and 
cities  in  ruins.  Frequently  I  met  with  an- 
tiquemonuments^  wrecks  of  temples,  pa- 
laces, and  fortifications;  pillars,  aquedufe, 
fepulchres.  By  thefe  objects  my  thoughts 
v^^ere  directed  to  pail  ages,  and  my  mind  ab- 
forbed  in  ferious  and  profound  meditation. 

Arrived  at  Hamfa  on  the  borders  of  the 
Orontes,  and  being  at  no  great  diilance  from 
the  city  of  Palmyra,  fituated  in  the  defert,  I 
refolved  to  exam.ine  for  myfelf  its  boafled 
m.onuments.  After  three  days  travel  in  bar- 
ren folitude,  and  having  palled  through  a 
valley  filled  with  grottoes  and  tombs,  my 
6  eyes 


eyes  were  fuddenly  flruck,  on  leaving  this 
valley  and  entering  a  plain,  with  a  moft  afto- 
nifhing  fcene  of  ruins.  It  confilled  of  a 
countlefs  multitude  of  faperb  columns  fl:and- 
ing  ereft,  and  which,  like  the  avenues  of  our 
parks,  extended  in  regular  files  farther  than 
the  eye  could  reach.  Among  thefe  columns 
magnificent  edifices  were  obfervable,  fome 
entire,  others  in  aflate  half  demoliflied.  The 
ground  Vv^as  covered  on  all  fides  with  frag- 
ments of  iimilar  buildings,  cornices,  capitals, 
fhafts,  entablatures,  and  pilafters,  all  con- 
flrufed  of  a  marble  of  admirable  v/hitenefs 
and  exquifite  workmanlliip.  After  a  walk  of 
three  quarters  of  an  hour  along  thefe  ruins, 
I  entered  the  incloiure  of  a  vafl:  edifice  which 
had  formerly  been  a  temple  dedicated  to  the 
fun ;  and  I  accepted  the  hofpitality  of  fome 
poor  Arabian  peafants,  v/ho  had  efcablifhed 
their  huts  in  the  very  area  of  the  temple. 
Here  I  reibived  for  fome  days  to  remain,  that 
I  might  contemplate,  at  leifare,  the  beauty 
of  fo  many  ftupendous  works. 

Every  day  I  vifited  fome  of  the  monu- 
ments which  covered   the  plain  ;  and  one 
evening  that,mym.2nd  lofl  in  refledlion,  I  had 
B  2  advanced 

4.  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

advanced  as  far  as  the  Valley  of  Sepulchres ^  I 
alcended  the  heights  that  bound  it,  and  from 
which  the  eye  commands  at  once  the  whole 
of  the  ruins  and  the  immenfity  of  the  defert. 
...  The  fun  had  juil  funk  below  the  horizon; 
a  ftreak  of  red  ilill  marked  the  place  of  his 
defcent,  behind  the  diftant  mountains  of  Sy- 
ria :  the  full  moon,  appearing  with  bright- 
nefs  upon  a  ground  of  deep  blue,  rofe  in  the 
eail  from  the  fmooth  bank  of  the  Euphrates: 
the  fky  was  unclouded;  the  air  calm  and 
ferene  ;  the  expiring  light  of  day  ferved  to 
foften  the  horror  of  approaching  darknefs  > 
the  refreihing  breeze  of  the  night  gratefully 
relieved  the  intolerable  fultrinefs  of  the  day 
that  had  preceded  it ;  the  ihepherds  had  led 
the  camels  to  their  flails;  the  grey  firmament 
bounded  the  filent  landfcape ;  through  the 
whole  defert  every  thing  v/as  m.arked  with 
flilinefsj  undiflurbed  but  by  the  mournful 
cries  of  the  bird  of  night,  and  of  fome  cha- 
cah  *. . .  .  The  dulk  increafed,  and  already  I 
could    diflin8:uini    nothino;  more  than   the 


'•^  An  animal  confiderably  like  the  fox,  but  lefs  cunnings 
and  of  a  frightful  alpeci.  It  lives  upon  dead  bodies, 
^nd  recks  and  ruins  are  the  places  of  its  habitation, 



•pale  phantoms  of  walls  and  columns.  .  ..The 
folitarinefs  of  the  iituatlon,  the  ferenity  of 
evening,  and  the  grandeur  of  the  fcene,  im- 
prefled  my  mind  with  religious  thoughtful- 
nefs.  The  view  of  an  illuilrious  city  de- 
ferted,  the  remembrance  of  pafl  times,  their 
comparifon  with  the  prcfent  ftate  of  things, 
all  combined  to  raife  my  heart  to  a  ftrain  of 
fublime  meditations.  I  fat  down  on  the  bafe 
of  a  column  ;  and  there,,  my  elbow  on  my 
knee,  and  my  head  refting  on  my  hand, 
fometimes  turning  my  eyes  towards  the  de- 
fert,  and  fometimes  fixing  them  on  the 
iTuins,  I  fell  into  a  profound  reverie. 

E  3  CHAP. 

6  A    SaRVEY    OF     THE 

CHAP.         IL 


XiERE,  faid  I  to  myfelf,  an  opulent  city 
once  flourifhed  -,  this  was  the  feat  of  a  power- 
ful empire.  Yes,  thefe  places,  now  fo  defert, 
a  living  multitude  formerly  animated,  and 
an  adcive  c^^vvd  circulated  in  the  flreets 
which  at  prelent  are  fo  folitary.  Within 
thofe  walls,  where  a  mournful  filence  reigns, 
the  noife  of  the  arts  and  the  iliouts  of  joy 
and  feftiviry  continually  refounded.  1  hefe 
heaps  of  marble  formed  regular  palaces,  thefe 
profiira'ie  pillars  wei-e  the  majeflic  orna- 
ments of  temples,  thefe  ruinous  galleries  pre- 
fent  the  outlines  of  public  places.  There  a 
num.eroLis  people  allembled  for  the  refpedt- 
able  duties  of  its  worihip,  or  the  anxious 
cares  of  its  fubfiflence  :  there  induflry,  the 
fruirfal  inventor  of  iburces  of  enjoyment, 
collecfted  together  the  riches  of  eveiy  climate, 
and  the  purple  of  Tyre  was  exchanged  for 
the  precious  thread  of  Serica  ;  tiie  foft  tiffjes 


of  Caffimere  for  the  fumptuous  carpets  of 
Lydia;  the  amber  of  the  Baltic  for  the 
pearls  and  perfumes  of  Arabia  ;  the  gold  of 
Ophir  for  the  pewter  of  Thule  (^).  .  .  .   - 

And  now  a  mournful  fkeleton  is  all  that 
fubfifls  of  this  opulent  city,  and  nothing  re- 
mains of  its  powerful  government  but  a  vain 
and  obfcure  remembrance  !  To  the  tumul- 
tuous throng  which  crowded  under  thefe 
porticos,  the  folitude  of  death  has  fucceeded. 
The  filence  of  the  tomb  is  fubflituted  for 
the  hum  of  public  places.  The  opulence  of 
a  commercial  city  is  changed  into  hideous 
poverty.  The  palaces  of  kings  are  become 
the  receptacle  of  deer,  and  unclean  reptiles 
inhabit  the  fanctuary  of  the  Gods.  .  .  .What 
glory  is  here  eclipfed,  and  how  m.any  labours 
are  annihilated  !  .  .  .  Thus  peri  ill  the  works 
of  men,  and  thus  do  nations  and  empires 
vanifli  away ! 

The  hiftory  of  pafl:  times  flrongly  pre- 
fented  itfelf  to  my  thoughts.  I  called  to 
mind  thofe  diftant  ages  v/hen  twenty  cele- 
brated nations  inhabited  the  country  around 
me.  I  pidurcd  to  myfelf  the  AiTyrian  on 
the  banks  of  the  Tygris,  the  Chaldean  on 
B  4  thofe 

S  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

thofe  of  the  Euphrates,  the  Pedian  v/hofe 
power  extended  from  the  Indus  to  the  Me- 
diterranean. I  enumerated  the  kingdoms  of 
Damafcus  and  Idumea ;  of  Jerufalem  and 
Samaria  ;  and  the  warlike  ftates  of  the  Phi- 
liftines ;  and  the  commercial  republics  of 
Phenicia.  This  Syria,  faid  I  to  myfelf,  now 
almofl  depopulated,  then  contained  a  hun- 
dred flouFifhing  cities,  and  abounded  with 
towns,  villages,  and  hamlets  (^).  Every 
where  one  might  have  fcQii  cultivated  fields, 
frequented  roads,  and  crowded  habitations. 
Ah  !  what  are  become  of  thofe  ages  of 
abundance  and  of  life  ?  What  are  become  of 
fo  many  produdions  of  the  hand  of  man  ? 
Where  are  thofe  ramparts  of  Nineveh,  thofe 
walls  of  Babylon,  thofe  palaces  of  Perfepolis^ 
thofe  temples  of  Eaibec  and  of  Jerufalem  ? 
Where  are  thofe  fleets  of  Tyre,  thofe  dock- 
yards of  Arad,  thofe  work-fliops  of  Sidon, 
and  that  multitude  of  mariners,  pilots,  mer- 
chants, and  foldiers  ?  Where  thofe  huiband- 
men,  thofe  harvefts,  that  picture  of  animated 
nature  of  which  the  earth  feemed  proud  ? 
Alas  !  I  have  traverfed  this  defolate  country, 
I  have    vifited  the   places   that  were    the 



theatre  of  fo  much  fplendour^  and  I  have 
nothing  beheld  but  folitude  and  defertion  1  I 
looked  for  thofe  ancient  people  and  their 
^'orks,  and  all  I  could  find  was  a  faint  trace, 
like  to  what  the  foot  of  a  paiTenger  leaves  on 
the  fand.  The  temoles  are  thrown  down, 
the  palaces  demolifhed,  the  ports  filled  v.'Oy 
the  towns  defircyed,  and  the  earth,  ftript  of 
inhabitants,  feems  a  dreary  burying-place, 
.  . .  .Great  God  !  from  whence  proceed  fuch 
-melancholy  revolutions  ?  For  what  caufe  is 
the  fortune  of  thefe  countries  fo  flrikingly 
changed  ?  Why  are  fo  many  cities  deflroy- 
ed  ?  Why  is  not  that  ancient  population 
re-produced  and  perpetuated  ? 

Thus  abforbed  in  contemplation,  new 
ideas  continually  prefented  themfelves  to  my 
thoughts.  Every  thing,  continued  I,  mif- 
leads  my  judgment,  and  fills  my  heart  with 
trouble  and  uncertainty.  When  thefe  coun- 
tries enjoyed  what  conilitutes  the  glory  and 
felicity  of  mankind,  they  were  an  unbelieving 
people  v/ho  inhabited  them :  it  was  the  Phe- 
nician,  offering  human  facrifices  to  Moloch, 
who  brought  together  within  his  walls  the 
liches  of  cvei-y  climate  J  it  was  the  Chaldean^ 


lO  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

proflrating  himfelf  before  a  fcrpent  ^,  who 
iiibjugated  opulent  cities,  and  laid  wafte  the 
palacesof  kings  and  the  temples  of  the  Gods; 
it  was  the  Perlian,  the  wcrihipper  of  lire, 
who  collected  the  tributes  of  a  hundred  na- 
tions; they  were  the  inhabitants  of  this  very 
city,  adorers  of  the  {'an  and  flars,  who  eredted 
fo  many  monuments  of  affluence  and  luxury. 
Numerous  flocks,  fertile  fields,  abundant 
harvefls,  every  thing  that  fl:jould  have  been 
the  reward  oi piety y  was  in  the  hands  oiidola^ 
ters:  and  nov/  that  a  believing  and  holy  peo- 
ple occupy  the  countries,  nothing  is  to  be 
feen  but  foiitude  and  fterility.  The  earth 
under  thefe  blejjedh^nds  produces  only  briars 
and  wormv/ocd.  Man  fow^s  m  anguiih,  and 
reaps  vexation  and  cares ;  war,  famine,  and 
peftilence,  affault  him  in  turn.  Yet,  are  net 
thefe  the  children  of  the  prophets  ?  This 
Chriftian,  thisMuilulman,  this  Jew,  are  they 
not  the  eled;  of  Heaven,  loaded  with  gifts 
and  miracles  ?  Whv  then  is  this  race,  belov- 
ed  of  the  Divinity,  deprived  of  the  favours 
which  were    formerly  fhowered  upon   the 

*  The  dragon  Bel. 

Heathen  r 


Heathen?  Why  do  the  fe  lands,  cofe  crated 
by  the  blood  of  the  martyrs,  no  1  nger  boaft 
their  former  temperature  and  fertility  ?  Why 
have  thofe  favours  been  banifhed  as  it  were, 
and  transf -rred  for  fo  many  ages  to  other 
nationo  and  different  climes  ? 

And  here,  purfuing  the  courfe  of  viciffi- 
tudes  v^hich  have  in  turn  tranfmitted  the 
fceptre  of  the  worid  to  people  fo  various  in 
manners  and  religion,  from  thofe  of  ancient 
Aiia  dowito  the  more  recent  ones  of  Europe, 
my  native  country,  defignated  by  this  name, 
was  awakened  in  my  mind,  and  turning  my 
eyes  towards  it,  all  my  thoughts  fixed  upon 
the  lituation  in  which  I  had  left  it  *. 

I  recolleded  its  fields  fo  richly  culti- 
vated, its  roads  fo  admirably  executed,  its 
towns  inhabited  by  an  immenfe  multitude, 
its  fhips  fcattered  over  every  ocean,  its  ports 
filled  with  the  produce  of  either  India;  and 
comparing  the  adlivity  of  its  commerce,  the 
extent  of  its  navigation,  the  magnificence  of 
its  buildings,  the  arts  and  induflry  of  its  in- 
habitants, with  all  that  Egypt  and   Syria 

^  In  the  year  1 782,  at  the  clofe  of  the  American  war. 


12  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

could  formerly  boafl  of  a  fimilar  nature,  I 
pleafed  myfelf  with  the  idea  that  I  had  found 
in  modern  Europe  the  pail  fplendour  of  Afia : 
But  the  charm  of  my  reverie  was  prefently 
diffolved  by  the  laft  flep  in  the  comparilbn. 
Refled:ing  that  if  the  places  before  me  had 
once  exhibited  this  animated  pidlure  :  who, 
faid  I  to  myfelf,  can  alfure  uie  that  their 
prefent  defolation  will  not  one  day  be  the  lot 
of  our  own  country  ?  who  knows  but  that 
hereafter  fome  traveller  like  myfelf  will  fit 
down  upon  the  banks  of  the  Seine,  the 
Thames,  or  the  Zuyder  fea,  where  now,  in 
the  tumult  of  enjoyment,  the  heart  and  the 
eyes  are  too  flow  to  take  in  the  multitude  of 
fenfations ;  who  knows  but  he  will  fit  down 
folitary  amid  filent  rains,  and  weep  a  people 
inurned,  and  their  greataefs  changed  into  an 
empty  name  ? 

The  idea  brought  tears  into  my  eyes ,:  and 
covering  my  head  with  the  flap  of  my  gar- 
ment, I  gave  myfelf  up  to  the  moil  gloomy 
meditations  on  human  affairs.  Unhappy 
man  !  faid  I  in  my  grief,  a  blind  fatality  plays 
with  thy  defliny  [c)  !  a  fatal  neceffity  rules 
by  chance  the  lot  of  mortals !  But,  no :  they 



are  the  decrees  of  celejflial.  jullice  that  are 
accomplifhing !  A  myfterious  God  exerclfes 
his  incompreheniible  iij^gments  !  he  has 
doubtiefs  pronounced  A  fecrct  maledidion 
againfl:  the  earth  ;  he  has  flruck  with  a  curfe 
the  prefent  race  oilmen,  in  revenge  of  pafl 
generations.  Oh  !  who  fliall  dare  to  fathom 
the  depths  of  the  Divinity  ? 

And  I  remained  immoveable,  plunged  in 
profound  melancholy. 


14  A    SURVEY   OF    THE 

CHAP.      III. 


In  the  mean  time  a  noife  flruck  my  ear, 
like  to  the  agitation  of  a  flowing  robe,  and 
the  flow  fl:eps  of  a  foot,  upon  the  dry  and 
rufl:ling  grafs.  Alarmed,  I  drew  my  m.antle 
from  my  head ;  and  cafting  round  me  a  timid 
glance,  fuddenly,^  by  the  obfcure  light  of  the 
moon,  through  the  pillars  and  ruins  of  a 
temple,  I  thought  I  faw,  at  my  left,  a  pale 
apparition,  enveloped  in  an  imm.enie  dra- 
pery, flmilar  to  what  fpedcres  are  painted 
when  iflTuing  out  of  tne  tombs,  I  fhuddered ; 
and  while  in  this  troubled  fl:ate,  I  was  hefl- 
tating  whether  to  fly,  or  afcertain  the  reality 
of  the  viflon,  a  hollow  voice,  in  grave  and 
folemn  accents,  thus  addrefled  me  : 

How  long  will  man  importune  the  heavens 
with  un]^  complainj?  How  long,  with  vain 
clamours,  will  he  accufe  Fate  as  the  author  of 
his, calamities  ?  Will  he  then  never  open  his 



eyes  to  the  light,  and  his  heart  to  the  intin-j- 
ations  of  truth  and  reafon  !  This  truth  every- 
where prefents  itfelf  in  radiant  bri,s:htn£fi ; 
and  he  docs  not  fee  it  !  The  voice  of  reafoa 
ftrikes  his  ear  ;  and  he  does  not  hear  it !  Uii- 
]u{k  man  !  if  you  can  for  a  moment  fufpend 
the  deluiion  which  fafcinates  your  fenfes  ;  if 
your  heart  be  capable  of  comprehending  the 
language  of  argumentation,  interrogate  thefe 
ruins !  read  the  leffons  which  they  prefent  to 
you  !....And  you,  facred  temples!  venerable 
tombs  !  walls  once  glorious !  the  witneffrs  of 
tv/enty  different  ages,  appear  in  the  caufe  of 
nature  herfelf !  corne  to  the  tribunal  of  found 
underftanding,  to  bear  teftimony  againfc  an 
unjull;  accufation,  to  confound  the  declama- 
tions of  falfe  wifdom  or  hypocritical  pietjy, 
and  avenge  the  heavens  and  the  earth  of 
man  who  calumniates  them  ! 

What  is  this  blind  fataUty,  that,  without 
order  or  laws,  fports  with  the  lot  of  mortals  ? 
What  this  unjud:  necefiity,  which  confounds 
the  ilTue  of  actions,  be  they  thofe  of  prudence 
or  thofe  of  folly  ?  In  what  coniifts  the  male- 
didlions  of  Heaven  denounced  againft  thefe 
countries  ?  Where  is  the  divine  curfe  that 


ID  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

perpetuates  this  fcene  of  defolation  ?  Monii-* 
ments  of  paft  ages !  fay,  have  the  heavens 
changed  their  lav^s,  and  the  earth  its  courfe  ? 
Has  the  fun  extingulflied  his  fires  in  the 
region  of  fpace  ?  Do  the  feas  no  longer  fend 
forth  clouds  ?  Are  the  rain  and  the  dew  fixed 
in  the  air  ?  Do  the  mountains  retain  their 
fprings  ?  Are  the  fcreams  dried  up  ?  and  do 
the  plants  no  more  bear  fruit  and  feed  ?  An- 
Aver,  race  of  falfehood  and  iniquity,  has  God 
troubled  the  primitive  and  invariable  order 
which  he  himfelf  affigned  to  nature  ?  Has 
heaven  denied  to  the  earth,  and  the  earth  to 
its  inhabitants,  the  bleffings  that  were  for- 
merly difpenied  ?  If  the  creation  has  re- 
mained tlie  fame,  if  its  fources  and  its  inflru- 
mients  are  exadly  v/hat  they  once  were, 
wherefore  iliould  not  the  prefent  race  have 
every  thing  v/ithin  their  reach  that  their 
ancellors  enjoyed  ?  Falfely  do  you  accufe 
Fate  and  the  Divinity:  injurioully  do  you  re- 
fer to  God  the  caufe  of  your  evils.  Tell  me, 
perverfe  and  hypocritical  race,  if  thefe  places 
are  dcfolate,  if  powerful  cities  are  reduced  to 
folitude,  i^it  he  that  has  occafioned  the 
ruin  ?  Is  it  his  hand  that  has  thrown  down 



thefe  v/alls,  Tapped  thefe  temples,  mutilated 
thefe  pillars  ?  or  is  it  the  hand  of  man  ?  Is  it 
the  arm  of  God  that  has  introduced  the 
fword  into  the  city  andfet  fire  to  thecc?untry, 
murdered  the  people,  burned  the  harvefls, 
rooted  up  the  trees,  and  ravaged  thepaftures? 
or  is  it  the  arm  of  man  ?    And  Vv^hen,  after 
this  devaflation,  famine  has  ftarted  up,  is  it 
the  vengeance  of  God  that  has  fent  it,  or  the_ 
mad  fury  of  mortals  ?   When,'  during  the 
famine,  the  people  are  fed  v/ith  unvvholefome 
provilion,and  peftiience  enfues,  is  it  infli6led 
by  the  anger  of  Heaven,  or  brought  about  by 
human  imprudence !  When  war,  famine,  and 
peflilence  united  have  fwept  avv^ay  the  inha- 
bitants, and  the  land  is  become  a  defert,  is  it 
God  v/ho  has  depopulated  it?  Is  it  his  rapa- 
city that  plunders  the  labourer,  ravages  the 
produdiive  fields,  and  lays  wallie  the  coun- 
try ;  or  the  rapacity  of  thofe  who  govern  ? 
Is  it  his  pride  that  creates  murderous  wars, 
or  the  pride  of  kings  and  their  minifters  ?  Is 
it  the  venality  of  his  decifions  that  overthrows 
the  fortune  of  families,  or  the  venality  of  the 
organs  of  the  laws?  Are  they  his  paffions 
that,  under  a  thoufand  forms,  torment  in- 
C  dividuals 

I'B  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

dividuals  and  nations ;  or  the  paffions  of 
human  beings  ?  And  if  in  the  anguiih  of 
their  misfortunes  they  perceive  not  the  re- 
medies, is  it  the  ignorance  cf  God  that  is  in 
fault,  or  their  own  ignorance  ?  Ceaie,  then, 
to  accufe  the  decrees  of  Fate  or  the  judg- 
ments of  Heaven  !  If  God  is  good,  will  he 
be  the  author  of  your  punifhment?  If  he 
is  juil,  will  he  be  the  accomplice  of  your 
crimes?  No,  no;  the  caprice  of  which  man 
complains,  is  not  the  caprice  of  deftiny:  the 
darknefs  that  miileads  his  reafon,  is  not  the 
darknefs  of  God;  the  fource  of  his  calamities, 
is  not  in  the  diflant  heavens,  but  near  to 
him  upon  the  earth,  it  is  not  concealed  in 
the  bofom  of  the  divinity;  it  reiides  in  him- 
felf,  man  bears  it  in  his  heart. 

You  murmur,  and  fiy:  Why  have  an  un- 
believing people  enjoyed  the  bleffings  of  hea- 
ven and  of  the  earth  ?  Why  is  a  holy  and  chofen" 
race  lefs  fortunate  than  impious  generations  ? 
Deluded  man !  where  is  the  ccntradicflion  at 
which  you  take  offence  ?  Where  tlie  incon- 
iiftency  in  which  you  fuppofe  the  juflice  of 
God  to  be  involved  ?  Take  the  balance  of 
bleffings  and  calamities^  of  caufes  and  effedrs, 


Devolutions  of  empires.  19 
and  tell  me — -When  thofe  infidels  obferved 
the  laws  of  the  earth  and  the  heavens,  when 
they  regulated  their  intelligent  labours  by  the 
order  of  the  feafons  and  the  courfe  of  the 
flars,  ought  God  to  have  troubled  the  equili- 
brium of  die  world  to  defeat  their  prudence  ? 
When  they  cultivated  v/ith  care  and  toil  the 
fsce  of  the  country  around  you,  ought  he  to 
have  turned  afide  the  rain,  to  have  withheld 
the  fertilizing  dews,  and  caufed  thorns  to 
fpring  up  ?  When,  to  render  this  parched 
and  barren  foil  producftive,  their  induftry 
conftruded  aqueducts,  ,  dug  canals,  and 
brought  the  diflant  waters  acrofs  the  deferts, 
ought  he  to  have  blighted  the  harvefts  which 
art  had  created;  to  have  defolated  a  country 
that  had  been  peopled  in  peace;  to  have  de- 
molifhed  the  towns  which  labour  had  caufed 
to  iiourifh  ;  in  fine,  to  have  deranged' and 
confounded  the  order  eitabliflied  by  the 
wifdom  of  man  ?  And  what  is  this  infulclitj 
which  founded  empires  by  prudence,  de- 
fended them  by  courage,  and  ftrengthened 
them  byjuflice;  which  raifed  magnificent 
cities,  formed  vafl  ports,  drained  peftilential 
marihes,  covered  the  fea  with  {}iip3,the  earth 
C  2  with 

20  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

with  inhabitants,  and,  hke  the  creative  fpirit, 
diffufed  life  and  motion  through  the  world. 
If  fuch  is  impiety,  what  is  true  belief?  Dees 
holinefs  confiil  in  deflru-flion  ?  Is  then  the 
God  that  peoples  the  air  with  birds,  ths 
earth  with  animals,  and  the  waters  with  rep- 
tiles; the  God  that  animates  univerfal  na- 
ture, a  God  that  delights  in  ruins  and  fepul- 
chres  ?  Does  he  alk  devaftation  for  homage, 
and  confiag:ration  for  facrifice  ?  Would  he 
have  groans  for  hymns,  murderers  to  worfhip 
him,  and  a  defert  and  ravaged  world  for  his 
temple  ?  Yet  fuch,  holy  2Sidifaithjiil  genera- 
tion, are  your  v/orks  !  Thele  are  the  fruits 
of  )^ur  piety  !  You  have  mafTacred  the  peo- 
ple, reduced  cities  to  aihes,  deftroyed  all 
traces  of  cultivation,  made  the  earth  a  foli- 
tude;  and  you  demand  the  reward  of  your  la- 
bours! Miracles  are  not  too  much  for  your 
advantage !  For  you  the  peafants  that  you 
have  murdered  Ihould  be  revived  ;  the  walls 
you  have  thrown  down  iliould  rife  again ;  the 
harvefts you  have  ravaged  (hould  flouriih;  the 
conduits  that  you  have  broken  down  {hould 
be  renewed  ;  the  laws  of  heaven  and  earth, 
thok  laws  which  God  has  eftabliflied  for  the 



difplay  of  his  greatnefs  and  his  magnificence, 
thofe  laws  anterior  to  all  revelations  and  to 
all  prophets,  thofe  laws  which  paffion  cannot 
alter,  and  ignorance  cannot  pervert,  Hiould 
be  fuperfeded.     Pafilon  knov^^s   them  not ; 
ignorance,  which  obferves  no  caufe  and  pre- 
dicts no  eff-^cl,  has  faid  in  the  fooliflinefs  of 
her    heart :    **   Every    thing   comes    from 
*'  chance;    a  blind  fatality  diftributes  good 
**  and  evil  upon  the  earth  ;  fuccefs  is  not  to 
'*  the  prudent,  nor  felicity  to  the  v/ife."  Or 
elfe,  affuming  the  language  of  hypocriiy, 
file   has  faid  :    *'  Every  thing  comes  from 
*^  God  ;  and  it  is  his  fovereign  pleafure  to 
'^  deceive  the    fage,    and  to   confound  the 
"  judicious."     And  flie   has   contemplated 
the    imaginary    fcene    with    complacency. 
*'  Good  !'*  flie  has  exclaimed.   '*'  I  then  am 
*'  as  well  endowed  as   the  fcience  that  de- 
*'  fpifes    me  !   The    cold    prudence    which 
^^  evermore  haunts  and  torments  me,  I  w^ill 
*^  render  ufelefs  by  a  lucky  intervention  of 
«  Providence."     Cupidity  has  joined    the 
chorus.     "  I  too  will  opprefs  the  weak ;  I 
*^  will   wring  from   him  the   fruits   of  his 
*'  labour :  for  fuch  is  the  decree  of  Heaven, 
C  3  <'  fuch 

22  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

'*  fuch  the  omnipotent  will  of  fate." — For 
myfelf,  I  fwear  by  all  laws  human  and  divine> 
by  the  laws  of  the  human  heart,  that  the 
hypocrite  and  the  deceiver  fhall  be  them- 
felves  deceived;  the  unjuflman  fhall  peri ih 
in  his  rapacity,  and  the  tyrant  in  liis_ufurpa«- 
tion :  the  fun  ihall  change  its  courfe,  before 
folly  fhall  prevail  over  wifdom  and  fcience, 
before  ftupidity  fliall  furpafs  prudence  in  the 
delicate  art  of  procuring  to  man  his  true 
enjoyments,  and  of  building  his  happinefs 
upon  a  folid  foundation. 

Q  H  A  P, 


C  H  A  P.     IV. 


1  H  u  s  fpoke  the  Apparition.  Aftoniflied 
at  his  difcourfe,  and  my  heart  agitated  by  a 
diverfity  of  refledlions,  I  was  for  fome  time 
filent.  At  length,  affuming  the  courage  to 
fpeak,  I  thus  addreffed  him  :  O  Genius  of 
tombs  and  ruins  !  your  fudden  appearance 
and  your  feverity  have  thrown  my  fenfcs  into 
diforder,  but  the  juflnefs  cf  your  reafoning 
reftores  confidence  to  my  foul.  Pardon  my 
ignorance.  Alas  !  if  man  is  blind,  can  that 
which  conftitutes  his  torment  be  alfo  his 
crime  ?  I  was  unable  to  diftinguiOi  the  voice 
of  reafon  5  but  the  moment  it  was  known  to 
me,  I  gave  it  welcome.  Oh !  if  you  can  read 
my  heart,  you  know  how  deiirous  it  is  of 
truth,  and  with  what  ardour  it  feeks  it;  you 
know  that  it  is  in  this  purfuit  I  am  now  found 
in  thefe  remote  places.  Alas  !  I  have  wan- 
dered over  the  earth,,I  have  vifited  cities  and 
C  4  countries ; 

24  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

countries;  and  perceiving  every  where  mi- 
fery  and  deiblation,  the  fentiment  of  the  evils 
by  which  my  fellow  creatures  are  tormented 
has  deeply  afHidled  my  mind !  I  have  iaid  to 
myfelf  with  a  figh:  Is  man,  then,  created  to 
be  the  vidim  of  pain  and  ani'uiih?  And  I 
have  meditated  upon  human  evils,  tliat  I 
might  iind  cut  their  remedy.  I  have  faid,  I 
will  feparate  myfelf  from  corrupt  focieties ; 
I  will  remove' far  from  palaces  where  the  foul 
is  depraved  by  fatiety^.,  and  from  cottages 
where  it  is  humbled  by  mifery.  I  will  dwell 
in  folitude  amidil:  the  ruins  of  cities  :  I  will 
enquire  of  the  monum.ents  of  antiquity  Vvdiat 
was  the  wifdom  of  former  ages  :  in  the  very 
bofom  of  fepulchres  I  will  invoke  the  fpi- 
rit  that  formerly  in  Afia  gave  fplendcur  to 
ftates  and  glory  to  their  people:  J  w^ill  en- 
quire of  the  aflies  of  legillators  what  cauics 
have  eredted  and  overthrown  empires;  what 
are  the  principles  of  national  profpcrity  and 
misfortune;  what  the  maxims  upon  which 
the  |.-eace  of  fociety  and  the  happinefs  of 
man  cuc;ht  to  be  flounded. 

I  ftoDi^ed  ;  and  caflinp;  dov/n  my  eves,  I 
waited  the  reply  of  the  Genius.     Peace  and 



happinefs^  laid  he,  defcend  upon  him  who 
pradlfes  juflice  !  Young  man,  fmce  your 
heart  fearches  after  truth  with  Sincerity-  fince 
you  can  diftinguifh  her  form  through  the  mift 
of  prejudices  v^/'hich  blind  the  eyes,  your  en- 
quiry fliall  not  be  vain :  I  will  difplay  to  your 
view  this  truth  of  which  you  are  in  purfuit; 
I  will  iliow  to  your  reafon  the  knowledge 
which  you  defire ;  I  will  reveal  to  you  the 
wifdom  of  the  tombs,  and  the  fcience  of  ages 
— Then  approaching  me,  and  placing  his 
hand  upon  my  head.  Rife,  mortal,  faid  he, 
and  difengage  yourfelf  from  that  corporeal 
frame  with  which  you  are  incumbered — In-^ 
flantly,  penetrated  as  with  a  celeflial  flame, 
the  ties  that  fix  us  to  the  earth  feemed  to 
be  loofened  ;  and  lifted  by  the  wing  of  the 
Genius,  I  felt  myfelf  like  a  light  vapour  con- 
veyed in  the  uppermoft  region.  There, 
from  above  the  atmofphere,  looking  down 
towards  the  earth  I  had  quitted,  I  beheld  a 
fcene  entirely  new.  Under  my  feet,  float- 
ing in  empty  fpace,  a  globe  fimilar  to  that 
of  the  moon,  but  fmaller,  and  lefs  luminous, 
prefented  to  me  one  of  its  faces  *;  and  this 

#  See  Plate  I.  reprefenting  half  the  terreflrial  globe. 


26  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

face  had  the  appearance  of  a  diik  varicgat-  - 
ed  with  fpots,  fome  of  them  white  and  ne- 
bulous, others  brown,  green  and  grey ;  and 
w^hile  I  exerted  my  powers  in  difcerning 
and  difcriminating  thefe  fpots — Dilciple  of 
truth,  faid  the  Genius  to  me,  have  you  any 
recolledion  of  this  fpedtacle  ?  O  Genius,  I 
repUed,  if  1  did  not  perceive  the  moon  in  a 
different  part  of  the  heavens,  I  fliould  fup- 
pofe  the  orb  below  m.e  to  be  that  planet ;  for 
its  appearance  refembles  perfedly  the  mcori 
viewed  through  a  telefcope  at  the  time  of  an 
eclipfe :  one  might  be  apt  to  think  the  va- 
riegated fpots  to  be  feas  and  continents. 

Yes,  Lid  he  to  m^e,  they  are  the  feas  and 
continents  of  the  very  hemifphere  you  in- 

What,  exclaimed  I,  is  that  the  Earth  that 
is  inhabited  by  Jiuman  beings  ? 

It  is,rep]ied  he.  That  brow^n  fpace  which 
occupies  irregularly  a  confiderable  portion  of 
the  difk,  and  nearly  furrounds  it  on  all  fides, 
is  what  you  call  the  m.ain  ccean,  which, 
from  the  fouth  pole  advancing  towards  the 
equator,  firft  forms  the  great  gulf  of  Africa 
and  India,  then  ftretches  to  the  eaft  acrofs 
the  Malay  Iflands,  as  far  as  the  confines  of 
^        .  Tartary, 


Tartary,  while  at  the  weft  it  inclofes  the 
continents  of  Africa  and  of  Europe,  reach- 
ing to  the  north  of  Afia. 

Under  our  feet,  that  peninfula  of  a  fquare 
figure  is  the  defert  country  of  Arabia,  and 
on  the  left  you  perceive  that  great  continent, 
fcarcely  lefs  barren  in  its  interior  parts,  and 
only  verdant  as  it  approaches  the  fea,  the  in- 
habitants of  which  are  diftinguiftied  by  a 
fable  complexion  ^'.  To  the  north,  and  on 
the  other  fidt  of  an  irregular  and  narrow 
fea-j-',  are  the  tradls  of  Europe,  rich  in  fertile 
meadows  and  in  all  the  luxuriance  of  culti- 
vation. To  the  right  from  the  Cafpian,  ex- 
tend the  rugged  furface  and  fnow-topt  hills 
of  Tartary.  In  bringing  back  the  eye  again 
to  the  fpot  over  which  we  are  elevated,  you 
fee  a  large  white  fpace,  the  melancholy  and 
uniform  defert  of  Gobi,  cutting  off  the  em- 
pire of  China  from  the  refl  of  the  world. 
China  itfelf  is  that  furrowed  furface  which 
feems  by  a  fudden  obliquity  to  efcape  from 
the  viev/.  Farther  on,  thofe  vail  tongues  of 
jand  and  fcattered  points,  are  the  peninfula, 

*  Africa.  f  The  Mediterranean, 


28  A    SURVEY    Ox^^    THE 

and  illands  of  the  Malayans,  the  unfortunate 
proprietors  of  aromatics  and  perfumes.  S till 
Bearer  you  obfcrve  a  triangle  which  projedls 
flrongly  into  the  fea,  and  is  the  too  famous 
peninfula  of  India  (^/).  You  fee  the  crook- 
ed windings  of  the  Ganges,  the  ambitious 
mountains  of  Thibet,  the  fortunate  valley 
of  Cafrimere  (12),  the  difccuraging  deferts 
of  Perfia,  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates,  and 
the  Tigris,  the  rough  bed  of  the  Jordan  (4), 
znd  the  mouths  of  the  folitary  Nile.  (See 
the  Plate.) 

O  Genius,  faid  I,  interrupting  him,  the 
organ  of  a  mortal  w^ould  in  vain  attempt  to 
diftinguifhobjedls  at  fo  great  a  diiiance.  Im- 
mediately he  touched  my  eyes,  and  they  be- 
camt  more  piercing  than  thofe  of  the  eagle ^ 
notwithflanding  which  rivers  appeared  to  me 
nom.ore  than  meandering  ribbons,  ridges  of 
miountains  irregular  furrows,  and  great  cities 
a  nefi:  of  boxes  varied  among  themfelves  like 
the  fquares  in  a  chefs-board. 

The  Genius  proceeded  to  point  out  the 
different  objedis  to  me  with  his  finger,  and 
to  develope  them  as  he  proceeded.  Thefe 
heaps  of  ruins,  faid  he,  that  you  obferve  in 



this  narrow  valley,  laved  by  the  Nile,  are  all 
that  remain  of  the  opulent  cities  that  gave 
laflre  to  the  ancient  kingdom  of  Ethiopia  (^)- 
Here  is  the  monument  of  its  fplendid  metro- 
polis, Thebes  with  its  hundred  palaces  {/), 
the  progenitor  of  cities,  the  memento  of  hu- 
man frailty.     It  was   there  that  a  people, 
iince  forgotten,   difcovered  the  elements  of 
fcience  and  art,  at  a  time  when  all  other  men 
were  barbarous,  and  that  a  race,  now  regard- 
ed as  the  refufe  of  fociety,  becaufe  their  hair 
is  woolly,  and  their  fkin  is  dark,  explored 
among  the  phenomena  of  nature,  thofe  civil 
and  religious  fyilems  which  have  iince  held 
mankind  in  awe.     A  little  lower   the  dark 
fpots  that  you  obferve  are  the  pyramids  ( i ) 
whofe  maiTes  have  overwhelmed  your  ima- 
gination.    Farther  on,  the  coafl:  (3 )  that  you 
behold  limited  by  the  fea  on  one  fide,  and 
by  a  ridge  of  mountains  on  the  other,  was 
the  abode  of  the  Phenician  nations ;   there 
flood  the  powerful  cities  of  Tyre,  Sidon, 
Afcalon,  Gaza,  and  Berytus.     This  ftream 
of  water,  which  feemis  to  difembogue  itfelf 
into  no  fea  (4),  is  the  Jordan  ,  and  thefe  bar- 
ren xQoks  were  formerly  the  fcene  of  events, 


36  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

whofc  tale  may  not  be  forgotten.  Here  you 
find  the  defert  of  Horeb,  and  the  hill  of  Si- 
nai (5),  where,  by  artifice  which  the  vulgar 
were  unable  to  penetrate,  a  fubtle  and  dar- 
ing leader  gave  birth  to  inftltutions  of  me- 
morable influence  upon  the  hifcory  of  man- 
kind. Upon  the  barren  llrip  of  land  which 
borders  upon  this  defert,  you  fee  no  longer 
any  trace  of  fplendour;  and  yet  here  was 
formerly  the  magazine  of  the  world.  Here 
were  the  ports  of  the  Idumeans  {g),  from 
whence  the  fleets  of  the  Phenicians  and  the 
jews,  coafting  the  peninfula  of  Arabia,  bent 
their  voyages  to  the  Perfian  gulf,  and  im- 
ported from  thence  the  pearls  of  Havila,  the 
gold  of  Saba  and  Ophir.  It  was  here,  on 
the  fide  of  Oman  and  Bahrain,  that  exifled 
that  fite  of  magnificent  and  luxurious  com- 
merce, Vv'hich,  as  it  was  tranfplanted  from 
country  to  country,  decided  upon  the  fate  of 
ancient  nations.  Hither  were  brought  the 
vegetable  aromatics,  and  the  precious  fi:ones 
of  Ceylon,  the  fhav/ls  of  Caffimere,  the  dia- 
monds of  Golconda,  the  amber  of  the  Mal- 
dives, the  muflc  of  Thibet,  the  aloes  of  Co- 
chin, the  apes  and  the  peacocks  of  the  con- 

, ,  -  tinent 


tiiTent  of  India,  the  incenfe  of  Hadramut, 
the  myrrh,  the  filver,  the  gold  daft,  and  the 
ivory  of  Africa.     From  hence  were  export- 
ed,  by  the  Black  Sea,  in  fliips  of 
E?ypt  and  Syria,  thefe  commodities,  which 
conftituted  the  opulence  of  Thebes,  Sidon, 
Memphis,  and  Jerufalem  ;  fometimiCs    af- 
cending  the  courfe  of  the  Tygris   and  the 
Euphrates,  they  awakened  the  adllvity  of 
the  AfTyrians,  the  Medes,  the    Chaldeans, 
and  the  Perfians,  and  according  as  they  were 
ufed  or  abufcd,  cherifhed  or  overturned  their 
wealth  and  profperity.    Hence  grew  up  the  of  Perfepolis,  of  which  you 
may  obferve  the  mouldering  columns  (8)  ; 
of  Ecbatana  (9),  whofc  feven-fold  walls  are 
levelled  with  the  earth ;   of  Babylon  (10), 
the  ruins  of  which  are  trodden  under  foot 
of  men  {/j) ;  of  Nineveh  (ii),  whofe  name 
feems  to  be  threatened  v/ith  the  fam^e  obli- 
vion,  that  has  overtaken  its  greatnefs ;   of 
Thapfacus,  of  Anatho,  of  Gerra,  and  of  the 
melancholy  and  memorable   Palmyra.     O 
names,  for  ever  glorious  !   celebrated  fields  t 
famous  countries !    how  replete  is  your  af- 
pedt  with  fublime  inftrudtion  !  How  many 
i  .  profound 

32  A    SURVKY    OF    THE 

profound  truths  are  written  on  the  furface 
of  this  earth !  Ye  places  that  here  witnefTed 
the  life  of  man,  in  fo  many  different  ages,  aid 
my  recolled:ion  while  I  endeavour  to  trace 
the  revolutions  of  his  fortune  !  Say,  what 
were  the  motives  of  his  condu6t,  and  what 
his  powers !  Unveil  the  caufes  of  his  mif- 
fortunes,  teach  him  true  v/ifdom,  and  let  the 
experience  of  paft  ages  become  a  mirror  of 
inftrud:ion,  and  a  germ  of  happinefs  to  pre- 
fent  and  future  generations ! 



CHAP.    V. 


After  a  (hort  filence,  the  Genius  thus 
refumed  his  inftrudions  1 

I  have  already  obferved  to  you,  O  friend 
of  truth,  that  man  vainly  attributes  his  mif- 
fortunes  to  obfdure  and  imaginary  agents, 
and  feeks  out  remote  and  myilerious  caufes, 
from  which  to  deduce  his  evils.  In  the  ge- 
neral order  of  the  univerfe,  his  condition  is 
doubtlefs  fubjed:ed  to  inconveniencies,  and 
his  exiftence  over-ruled  by  fuperior  powers; 
but  thefe  powers  are  neither  the  decrees  of  a 
blind  defliny,  nor  the  caprices  of  fantaftic 
beings.  Man  is  governed,  like  the  world  of 
which  he  forms. a  part,  by  natural  laws,  re- 
gular in  their  operation,  confequent  in  their 
effedts,  immutable  in  their  effence;  and  thefe 
laws,  the  common  fource  of  good  and  evil, 
are  neither  written  in  the  diftant  ftars,  nor 
concealed  in  myfterious  codes  :  inherent  in 
the  nature  of  all  terreftrial  beings,  identified 
D  with 

^4  ^    SURVEY    OF    THE 

with  their  exiftence,  they  are  at  all  times  and 
in  all  places  prefent  to  the  human  mind ;  they 
ad:  upon  the  fenfes,  inform  the  intellecfl,  and 
annex  to  every  adtion  its  punifliment  and  its 
reward.  Let  man  fludy  thefe  laws,  let  him 
tinderfland  his  own  nature,  and  the  nature  of 
the  beings  that  furround  him,  and  he  will 
know  the  fprings  of  his  deftiny,  the  caufes  of 
his  evils,  and  the  remedies  to  be  applied. 

When  the  fecret  power  that  animates  the 
univerfe,  formed  the  globe  of  the  earth,  he 
flamped  on  the  beings  wWch  compofe  it  ef- 
fential  properties,  that  became  the  rule  of 
their  individual  adion,  the  tie  of  their  reci- 
procal connexions,  and  the  caufe  of  the  har- 
mony of  the  whole.  He  hereby  eflabliflied 
a  regular  order  of  caufes  and  effeds,  of  prin- 
ciples and  confequences,  which,  under  an 
appearance  of  chance,  governs  the  univerfe, 
and  maintains  the  equilibrium  of  the  world. 
Thus  he  gave  to  fire  motion  and  activity,  to 
air  elalHcity,  to  matter  weight  and  denfity; 
he  made  air  lighter  than  water,  metals  hea- 
vier than  earth,  wood  lefs  cohefive  than 
fteel ;  he  ordered  the  flame  to  afcend,  the 
ftone  to  fall,  the  plant  to  vegetate  -,  to  man, 
"-''''  whom 


whom  he  decreed  to  expofe  to  the  encoun- 
ter of  fo  many  fubftances,  and  yet  wiihed  to 
preferve  his  frail  exiftence,  he  gave  the  fa- 
culty of  perception.  By  this  faculty,  every 
adlion  injurious  to  his  life  gives  him  a  fen- 
fation  of  pain  and  evil,  and  every  favourable 
adlion  a  fenfation  of  pleafure  and  good.  By 
thefe  impreffions,  fometimes  led  to  avoid 
what  is  ofFenfive  to  his  fenfes,  and  fometimes 
attracted  towards  the  obj  efts  that  foothe  and 
gratify  them,  man  has  been  neceffitated  to 
love  and  preferve  his  exiftence.  Self-love, 
the  defire  of  happinefs,  and  an  averfion  to 
pain,  are  the  effential  and  primary  laws  that 
nature  herfelf  impofed  on  man,  that  the 
ruling  power,  whatever  it  be,  has  eftabliflied 
to  govern  him  :  and  thefe  laws,  like  thofe  of 
motion  in  the  phyfical  world,  are  the  fimple 
and  prolific  principle  of  every  thing  that 
takes  place  in  the  moral  world* 

Such  then  is  the  condition  of  man  :  oft 
6ne  fidej  fubjedled  to  the  adlion  of  the  ele- 
ments around  him,  he  is  expofed  to  a  variety 
of  inevitable  evils  ;  and  if  in  this  decree  Na- 
ture appears  too  fevere,  on  the  other  hand, 
juft  and  even  indulgent,  £he  has  not  only 
D  2  tempered 

36  A    SURVEY    or*    THK 

tempered  thofe  evib  with  an  equal  portion 
of  benefits,  fhe  has  moreover  given  him  the 
•power  of  augmenting  the  one,  and  diminifh- 
ing  the  other.  She  has  feemingly  faid  to 
him,  **  Feeble  work  of  my  hands,  I  ov/e  you 
"  nothing,  and  I  give  you  life.  The  world 
**  in  which  I  place  you  was  not  made  on 
•*  your  account,  and  yet  I  grant  you  the  ufe 
•*  of  it.  You  v/ill  iind  in  it  a  mixture  of 
•*  good  and  evil.  It  is  for  you  to  diflinguiHi 
'*  them  ',  you  muft  direct  your  own  fteps  in 
**  the  paths  of  flowers  and  of  thorns.  Be  the 
"  arbitrator  of  your  lot  -,  I  place  your  defliny 
*'  in  your  hands.''  'Yes,  man  is  become 
the  artificer  of  his  fite;  it  is  himfeifwho 
has  created  in  turn  the  viciiTitudes  of  hia 
fortune,  his  fucceiies  and  his  difappoint- 
ments ;  and  if,,  when  he  refleds  on  the  for- 
rows  which  he  has  affociated  to  human  life„ 
he  has  reafon  to  lament  his  weaknefs  and 
his  folly,  he  has  perhaps  flill  more  right  to 
prefume  upon  his  force,  anc  be  confident  in 
his  energies,  when  he  recolledts  from  what 
point  he  has  fet  out,  and  fo  what  heights  ha 
has  been  capable  of  elevating  himfeif. 

,     .  «    a  C  H  A  1^0 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         37 

CHAP,     VL 

0?wIGINAL    STATE    OF    MAN. 

1 N  the  origin  of  things,  man,  formed  equals 
ly  naked  both  as  to  body  and  mind,  found 
himfelf  thrown  by  chance  upon  a  land  con*^ 
fufed  and  favage.     An  orphan,  deferted  by 
the  unknown  power  that  had  produced  him, 
he  faw  no  fupernatural  beings  at  hand  to  ad-i 
vertife  him  of  wants  that  he  owed  merely  to 
his  fenfes^and  inform  him  of  duties  fpringing 
folely  from  thofe  wants.     Like  other  ani- 
mals, without  experience  of  the  paft,  with- 
out knowledge  of  the  future,  he  wandered  in 
forefts,  guided  and  governed  purely  by  the 
affedions  of  his  nature.     By  the  pain  of 
hunger  he  was  directed  to  feek  food,  and  he 
provided  for  his  fubfiflence ;  by  the  incle- 
mencies of  the  weather,  the  deiire  was  ex- 
cited of  covering  his  body,  and  he  made 
himfelf  cloathing :  by  the  attracftion  of  a 
powerful  pleafure,  he  approached  a  fellow- 
i)eiiig,  and  perpetuated  his  fpecies> 

D  3  Thus 

3B  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

Thus  the  impreffions  he  received  from 
external  object's,  awakening  his  faculties, 
developed  by  degrees  his  underftanding, 
and  began  to  inftrucl  his  profound  igno- 
rance :  his  wants  called  forth  his  induflry; 
his  dangers  formed  his  mind  to  courage  3  he 
learned  to  difcinguifh  ufeful  from  pernicious 
plants,  to  refill:  the  elements,  to  feize  upon 
his  prey,  to  defend  his  life  ^  and  his  mifery 
was  alleviated. 

T\msfe!f'Iovey  averfion  to  pat?z,  and  defire 
of  happinefsy  were  the  fimple  and  powerful 
motives  which  drew  man  from  the  favage 
and  barbarous  ftate  in  which  Nature  had 
placed  him :  and  now  that  his  life  is  fown 
with  enjoyment,  that  he  can  every  day  count 
ujion^fome  pleafure,  he  may  applaud  himfelf 
and  fay:  "  It_isJ[  who  have  produced  the 
**  bleflings  that  encompafs  mje ;  I  ani  the 
*'  fabricator  of  my  own  felicity ;  a  fecure 
*'  habitation,  commodious  raiment, an  abun- 
*'  dance  of  wholefome  provifion  in  rich  va- 
**  riety,  fmiling  valleys,  fertile  hills,  popu- 
**  lous  empires,  thefe  are  the  works  of  my 
**  hand;  but  forme,  the  earth,  given  up  to 
**  diforder,  would  have  been  nothing  moce 

«*  thai> 


**  than  a  poifonous  fwamp,  a  favage  foreft, 
*'  and  a  hideous  defert  !"  True,  mortal 
creator  !  I  pay  thee  homage  !  Thou  haft 
meafiired  the  extent  of  the  heavens,  and 
counted  the  ftars,  thou  haft  drawn  the  Hght- 
ning  from  the  clouds  -,  conquered  the  fury 
of  the  fea  and  the  tempeft,  and  fubjeded 
all  the  elements  to  thy  will !  But,  oh  !  how 
many  errors  are  mixed  with  thefe  fublime 
energies  ! 


40  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

CHAP.    vir. 


Xn  the  mean  time,  wandering  in  woods 
and  upon  the  borders  of  rivers,  in  purfuit  of 
deer  and  of  fifh,  the  firil  human  beings, 
hunters  and  fifhermen,  befet  with  dangers, 
affailed  by  enemies,  tormented  by  hunger,  by 
reptiles,  and  by  the  animals  they  chafed,  felt 
their  individual  weaknefs ;  and,  impelled  by 
a  common  want  of  fafety,  and  a  common 
fentiment  of  the  fame  evils,  they  united  their 
powers  and  their  ftrength.  When  one  man 
was  expofed  to  danger,  numbers  fuccoured 
and  defended  him ;  when  one  failed  in  pro- 
vilion,  another  fliared  with  him  his  prey. 
Men  thus  affociated  for  the  fecurity  of  their 
exigence,  for  the  augmentation  of  their  fa- 
culties, for  the  protedion  of  their  enjoy- 
ment ;  and  the  principle  of  ibciety  was  that 

Afterwards,  inflrucfhed  by  the  repeated  ex- 
perience of  diverfe  accidents,  by  the  fatigues 

§        .  of 


of  a  wandering  life,  by  the  anxiety  refulting 
jFfom  frequent  fcarcity,  men  reafoned  with 
themfelves,  and  faid: ''  Why  fhould  we  con- 
f*  fume  our  days  in  fearch  of  the  fcattered 
**  fruits  which  a  parsimonious  foil  affords  ? 
^'  Why  weary  ourielves  in  the  purfuit  of 
^'  prey  that  eicape  us  in  the  woods  or  the 
f*  waters  ?  Let  us  afTembie  under  our  hand 
"  the  animails  that  nourifh  us  3  let  us  apply 
^^  our  cares  to-the  increafe  and  defence  of 
**  them.  Their  produce  will  ?.fford  us  a  lap- 
**  ply  of  food,  with  their  fpoils  we  may 
^^  clothe  ourfelves,  and  we  fliall  live  exempt 
**  from  the  fatigues  of  the  day,  and  folicitude 
*^  for  the  morrow."  And  aiding  each  other, 
they  feized  the  nimble  kid  and  the  timlgl 
(heep;  they  tarned  the  patient  camel,  the  fe- 
rocious bull,  and  the  impetuous  horfe;  and 
applauding  themfelves  on  the  fuccefs  of  their 
induftry,  they  fat  down  in  the  joy  of  their 
hearts,  and  began  to  tafte  repofe  and  tranquil- 
lity: and  thus  felf-Iove,  ihe  principle  of  all 
their  reafoning,  was  the  infligator  to  every 
art  and  every  enjoyment. 

ISlow  that  men   could  pafs  their  days  in 
leifare,andthe  communication  of  their  ideas, 


42  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

they  turned  upon  the  earth,  upon  the  hea-r 
yens,  and  upon  themfelves  an  eye  of  curioiity 
and  reflection.  They  obferved  the  courfe  of 
the  feafons,  the  adtion  of  the  elements,  the 
properties  of  fruits  and  plants;  and  they  ap- 
plied their  minds  to  the  multiplication  of 
their  enjoyments.  Remarking  in  certain 
countries  the  nature  of  feeds,  which  contain 
within  themfelves  the  faculty  of  re- producing 
the  parent  plant,  they  employed  to  their  own 
advantage  this  property  of  Nature :  they  com- 
mitted to  the  earth  barley,  wheat,  and  rice, 
and  reaped  a  produce  equal  to  their  mofl  fan- 
guine  hopes.  Thus  they  found  the  means 
of  obtaining  within  a  fmall  compafs,  and 
without  the  neceflity  of  perpetual  wander- 
ings, a  plentiful  and  durable  flock  of  pro^ 
vifion  ',  and  encouraged  by  this  difcovery, 
they  prepared  for  themfelves  fixed  habita- 
tions, they  conflruded  houfes,  villages,  and 
towns  ;  they  affumed  the  form  of  tribes  and 
of  nations  :  and  thus  ^2.%  f elf -love  rendered 
the  parent  of  every  thing  that  genius  has 
effected,  or  human  power  performed. 

By  the_fJDle  aid  then  ofjiisjacultiesi  has 
•man  been  able  to  raifehimfelf  to  the  aftonifh- 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    iliyfPIRES.  45 

ing  height  of  his  prefent  fortune.  Too 
J^appy  would  have  been  his  lot,  had  he,  fcru- 
puloufly  obferving  the  law  imprinted  on  his 
nature,  conflantly  fulfilled  the  objetft  of  it! 
But,  by  a  fatal  imprudence,  fometime^  over- 
looking and  fometimes  tranfgreffing  its  li* 
mits,  he  plunged  in  an  abyfs  of  errors  an4 
misfortunes  ;  zwdfe/f-love^  now  difordered, 
and  now  blind,  was  converted  into  a  prolifiQ 
fource  of  calamities. 


44  ^    SURVEY    OF    THE 

C    H    x\    P.        VIIL 


In  reality,  fcarcely  were  the  faculties   of 
men  expanded,  than,  feized  by  the  attradlion 
of  objed:s  which  flatter  the  fenfes,  they  gave 
themfelves  up   to  unbridled  defires.     The 
fweet  fenfations  which  nature  had  annexed 
to  their  true  wants,  to  attach  them  to  life,  no 
longer  fufficed.   Not  fatisfied  with  the  fruits 
which  the  earth  offered  them,  or  their  in- 
duftry  produced,  they  were  defirous  of  heap- 
ing up  enjoyments,  and  they  coveted  thofe 
which  their  fellow^creatures  pofleffed.     A 
flrong  man  rofe  up  againfl:  a  weak  one  to 
tear  from  him  the  profit  of  his  labour :  the 
weak  man  folicited  the  fuccour  of  a  neigh- 
bour, weak  like  himfelf,  to  repel  the  violence. 
The  flrong  man  in  his  turn  ailbciated  himr 
felf  with  another  ilrong  man,  and  they  faid  i 
*'  Why  Ihould  we  fatigue  our  arms  in  pro- 
*'  ducing  enjoyments  which  we  find  in  the 
^*  hands  of  the  feeble,  who  are  i^nable  to  de- 



*^  fend  themfdves  ?  Let  us  unite,  and  plun- 
*'  der  them.  They  fhall  toil  for  us,  and  we 
**  fhall  enjoy  in  indolence  the  fruit  of  their 
"  exertions/*  The  ilrong  thus  afTociating 
for  the  purpofc  of  oppreffion,  and  the  weak 
for  re li fiance,  men  reciprocally  tormented 
each  otherj_  and  a  fatal  and  general  difcord 
was  eflablifhed  upon  the  earth,  in  which  the 
pafTions,  afTuming  a  thoufand  new  forms, 
have  never  ceafed  to  generate  a  regular  train 
of  calamities. 

Thus  that  very  principle  of  felf-love, 
which,  when  re  (trained  within  the  limits  of 
prudence,  Was  a  fource  of  improvement  and 
felicity,  became  transformed,  in  its  blind  and 
difordered  ^ate,  into  a  contagious  poifon. 
Cupidity,  the  daughter  and  companion  of 
ignorance,  has  produced  all  the  mifchiefs 
that  have  defolated  the  globe. 

Yes,  ignorance  and  the  love  of  accumu- 
lation, thefe  are  the  two  fources  of  all  the 
plagues  that  infefl  the  life  of  man  !  They 
have  infpired  him  with  falfe  ideas  of  his 
happinefs,  and  prompted  him  to  mifconflrue 
and  infringe  the  laws  of  nature,  as  they  re- 
lated to  the  connexion  between  him  and 


46  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

exterior  objeds.  Through  them  his  condudl: 
has  been  injurious  to  his  own  exiftence,  and 
he  has  thus  violated  the  duty  he  owes  to 
himfelf ;  they  have  fortified  his  heart  againft 
compaffion,  and  his  mind  againft  the  didates 
of  juftice,  and  he  has  thus  violated  the  duty 
he  owes  to  others.  By  ignorance  and  inor- 
dinate defire,  man  has  armed  himfelf  againft 
man,  family  againft  family^  tribe  againft 
tribe,  and  the  earth  is  converted  into  a 
bloody  theatre  of  difcord  and  robbery. 
They  have  fown  the  feeds  of  fecret  war 
in  the  bofom  of  every  ftate,  divided  the 
citizens  from  each  other,  and  the  fame  fo- 
ciety  is  conftituted  of  oppreifors  and  op- 
preiTed,  of  mafters  and  flaves.  They  have 
taught  the  heads  of  nations,  with  audacious 
infolence,  to  turn  the  arms  of  the  fociety 
againft  itfelf,  and  to  build  upon  mercenary 
avidity  the  fabric  of  political  defpotifm : 
or  they  have  taught  a  more  hypocritical 
and  deep-laid  projecft,  that  impofed,  as  the 
di(ftate  of  heaven,  lying  fanvftions  ^  and  a 
facrilegious  yoke :  thus  rendering  avarice 
the  fource  of  credulity.  In  fine,  they  have 
corrupted  every  idea  of  good  and  evil,juft  and 



unjuft,  virtue  and  vice :  they  have  mifled 
nations  in  a  never-ending  labyrinth  of  cala- 
mity and  miftake.  Ignorance  and  the  love 
of  accumulation  !....Thefe  are  the  malevo- 
lent beings  that  have  laid  wafte  the  earth  ; 
thefe  are  the  decrees  of  fate  that  have  over- 
turned empires;  thefe  are  the  celeftial  ma- 
ledidions  that  have  flruck  thofe  walls  once 
fo  glorious,  and  converted  the  fplendour  of  a 
populous  city  into  a  fad  fpecflacle  oT  ruins !... 
Since  then  it  was  from  liis  own  bofom  all 
the^£vilsj>roceededlh^  life 

Qfjnan,Jt  was  there  alfo  he  ought  to  have 
ioughtjhe  remedies,  where^only  they_are  to 
be  foundo 


48  A    SURVEY    OF    THB 

C  H  A.  P.       IX. 


In  truth,  the  period  foon  arrived  when 
men,  tired  cf  the  ills  they  occafioned  each 
other,  fighed  after  peace ;  and  refledling  on 
the  nature  and  caufes  of  thofe  ills,  they  faid : 
*'  We  mutually  injute  one  another  by  our 
*'  pafiions,  and  fronfi  a  defire  to  grafp  every 
*'  thiiig  we  in  reality  poiTefs  nothing.  What 
*'  one  raviihes  to-day,  another  tears  from 
**  him  to-morrow,  and  our  cupidity  rebounds 
^'^  upon  our  own  heads.  Let  us  eftablifli 
"  arbitrators,  who  fliall  decide  our  claims 
"  and  appeafe  our  variances.  When  the 
"  ilrong  rifes  up  againft  the  weak,  the  arbi- 
"  trator  fliall  repel  him ;  and  the  Yi£e  and 
*'  property  of  each  being  under  a  common 
"  guarantee  and  protedlion,  Vv'e  fhall  enjoy 
**  ail  the  bleffings  of  nature." 

Conventions,  tacit  or  expreffed,  were  thus 
introduced  into  fociety,  and  became  the  rule 
of  the  actions  of  individuals,  the  meafure  of 


Revolutions  of  empires.  49 
their  claims,  and  the  law  of  their  reciprocal 
relations.  Chiefs  were  appointed  to  enforce 
the  obfervance  of  the  compadt,  and  to  thefe 
the  people  entrufted  the  balance  of  rights^ 
and  the  fword  to  punifli  violations. 

Then  a  happy  equilibrium  of  powers  and 
of  action  was  eflablifhed,  which  conftituted 
the  public  fafety.  The  names  of  equity 
and  juftice  were  acknowledged  and  revered. 
Every  man,  able  to  enjoy  in  peace  the  fruits 
of  his  labour,  gave  himfelf  up  to  all  the 
energies  of  his  foul;  and  adlivity,  awakened 
and  kept  alive  by  the  reality  or  the  hope  of 
enjoyment,  forced  art  and  nature  to  difplay 
all  their  treafures.  The  fields  were  covered 
with  harvefls,  the  valleys  with  flocks,  the 
hills  with  vines,  the  fea  with  ihips,  and 
man  was  happy  and  powerful  upon  the 

The  diforder  his  imprudence  had  caufed, 
his  wifdomthus  remedied.  But  this  wifdom 
was  ftill  the  efFedl  of  the  laws  of  nature  in 
the  organization  of  his  being.  It  was  to  fe- 
cure  his  own  enjoyments,  that  he  was  led  to 
refped:  thofe  of  another,  and  the  defire  of 
E  accumulation 

^O  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

accumulation  found  its  corredivc  in  en- 
lightened felf-love. 

Self-love,  the  eternal  fpring  of  adion^  in 
every  individual,  w^as  thus  the  neceffary  baiis 
of  all  aflbciations ;  and  upon  the  obfervance 
of  this  natural  law  has  the  fate  of  every  na- 
tion depended.  Have  the  factitious  and 
conventional  laws  of  any  fociety  accorded 
with  this  law,  and  correfponded  to  its  de- 
mands ?  In  that  cafe  every  man,  prompted 
by  an  overpowering  inftind:,  has  exerted  all 
the  faculties  of  his  nature,  and  the  public 
felicity  has  been  the  refult  of  the  various 
portions  of  individual  felicity.  Have  thefe 
laws,  on  the  contrary,  reftrained  the  effort  of 
man  in  his  purfuit  of  happinefs  ?  In  that  cafe 
his  heart,  deprived  of  all  its  natural  motives^ 
has  languifhed  in  inadlion,  and  the  oppref- 
iion  c£  individuals  has  engendered  general 

Self-love,  impetuous  and  rafh,  renders 
man  the  enemy  of  man,  and  of  confcquence 
perpetually  tends  to  the  dilTolution  of  fociety. 
It  is  for  the  art  of  legiilation,  and  for  the 
virtue  of  minifters,  to  temper  the  grafping 
•  -  *  feliiihnefs 


felfifhnefs  of  individuals,  to  keep  each  man's 
defire  to  poffefs  every  thing  in  a  nice  equi- 
poife,  and  thus  to  render  the  fubjeds  happy, 
in  order  that,  in  the  ftruggle  of  this  with 
any  other  fociety,  all  the  members  fhould 
have  an  equal  intereft  in  the  prefervation  and 
defence  of  the  commonwealth. 

From  hence  it  follows,  that  the  internal 
Iplendour  and  profperity  of  empires,  have 
been  in  proportion  to  the  equity  of  their  go- 
vernments ;  and  their  external  power  re- 
fpedlively,  in  proportion  to  the  number  of 
perfons  interefted  in  the  maintenance  of  the 
political  conftitution,  and  their  degree  of  in- 
tereft in  that  maintenance. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  multiplication  of 
men  by  complicating  their  ties,  having  ren- 
dered the  demarcation  of  their  rights  a  point 
of  difficult  decifion  ;  the  perpetual  play  of 
the  paiiions  having  given  rife  to  unexpected 
incidents;  the  conventions  that  were  formed 
having  proved  vicious,  inadequate,  or  null ; 
the  authors  of  the  laws  having  either  mifun- 
derftood  the  objed:  of  them,  or  dilTem-bled 
it,  and  the  perfons  appointed  to  execute 
them,  inftead  of  reftraining  the  inordinate 
E  a  defires 

^2  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

defires  of  others,  having  abandoned  them- 
fclves  to  the  fvvay  of  their  own  avidity — fo- 
ciety  haSjbythefe  caufes  united,  been  thrown 
into  trouble  and  diforder ;  and  defedive  laws 
andunjuft  governments,  the  refult  of  cupi- 
dity and  ignorance,  have  been  the  founda- 
tion of  the  misfortunes  of  the  people,  and 
the  fubverfion  of  ftates. 



CHAP.       X. 


Such,  O  man,  who  enqulreft  after  wifdom, 
have  been  the  caufes  of  the  revolutions  of 
thofe  ancient  flates  of  which  you  contem- 
plate the  ruins !  Upon  whatever  fpot  I  fix  my 
view,  or  to  whatever  period  my  thoughts 
recur,  the  fame  principles  of  elevation  and 
decline,  of  profperity  and  deflrucflion^prefent 
themfelves  to  the  mind.  If  a  people  were 
powerful,  if  an  empire  flourifhed,  it  was  be- 
caufe  the  laws  of  convention  were  conform- 
able to  thofe  of  nature  i  becaufe  the  govern- 
ment procured/ to  every  man  refpedively  the 
free  ufe  of  his  faculties,  the  equal  fecurity  of 
his  perfon  and  property.  On  the  contrary,  if 
an  empire  has  fallen  to  rain  or  difappeared, 
it  is  becaufe  the  laws  Vv^ere  vicious  or  imper- 
fedt,  or  a  corrupt  government  has  checked 
their  operation.  If  laws  and  government,  at 
firft  rationaland  jui1:,have  afterv/ards  become 
E  3  depraved. 

54  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

depraved,  it  is  becaufe  the  alternative  of  good 
and  evil  derives  from  the  nature  of  the 
heart  of  man,  from  the  fucceffion  of  his  in- 
cKnations,  the  progrefs  of  his  knowledge, 
the  combination  of  events  and  circumftances; 
as  the  hiftory  of  the  human  fpecies  proves. 

In  the  infancy  of  nations,  when  men  ftill 
lived  in  forefts,  all  fubjed:  to  the  fame 
wants,  and  endowed  v^ith  the  fame  faculties, 
they  v/ere  nearly  equal  in  ilrength  -,  and  this 
equality  was  a  circumftance  highly  advan- 
tageous to  the  formation  of  fociety.  Each 
individual  finding  himfelf  independent  of 
every  other,  no  one  was  the  flave,  and  no 
one  had  the  idea  of  being  maPter  of  another. 
Untaught  man  knev/  neither  fervitude  nor 
tyranny.  Supplied  with  the  means  of  pro- 
viding fufficiency  for  his  fubfiflence,  he 
thought  not  of  borrowing  from  ftrangers. 
Owing  nothing,  and  exacting  nothing,  he 
judged  of  the  rights  of  others  by  his  own. 
Ignorant  alfo  of  the  art  of  multiplying  en- 
joyments, he  provided  only  what  was  necef- 
fary;  and  fuperfluity  being  unknown  to  him, 
thedelire  toengrofs  ofconfequence  remained 
unexcitedi  or  if  excited,  as  it  attacked  others 



in  thofe  pofieffions  that  were  wholly  indif- 
penfible,  it  was  reiifled  with  energy,  and  the 
very  fore  fight  of  this  refiilance  maintained  a 
Talutary  and  immoveable  equilibrium. 

Thus  original  equality,  without  the  aid 
of  convention,  maintained  perfonal  liberty, 
fecured  individual  property,  and  produced 
order  and  good  manners.  Each  man  labour- 
ed feparately  and  forhimifelf:  and  his  heart 
being  occupied,  he  Vv'andered  not  in  purfuit 
of  unlawful  defires.  -  His  enjoyments  were 
few,  but  his  wants  were  fatisfied  :  and  as 
mature  had  made  thefe  wants  lefs  extenlive 
than  his  ability,  the  labour  of  his  hands 
foon  produced  abundance;  abundance  popu- 
lation ;  the  arts  developed  themfelves,  culti- 
vation extended,  and  the  earth,  covered  with 
numerous  inhabitants,  was  divided  into  dif-^ 
ferent  domains. 

The  relations  of  men  becoming  compli- 
cated, the  interior  order  of  fociety  was  more 
difficult  to  maintain.  Time  and  induftry 
having  created  affluence,  cupidity  awoke 
from  its  flumber ;  and  as  equality,  eafy  be- 
tween individuals,  could  not  fubfifl:  between 
ifamilies,  the  national  balance  was  dellroyed. 
E4  ^  It 

56  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

It  was  neceffary  to  fupply  the  lofs  by  means 
of  an  artificial  balance ;  it  was  neceffary  to 
appoint  chiefs,  and  eftablifli  laws;  but  as 
thefe  were  occafioned  by  cupidity,  in  the  ex- 
perience of  primitive  times  they  could  not 
but  partake  of  the  origin  from  which  they 
fprung.  Various  circumilances  however  con- 
curred to  temper  the  diforder,  and  make  it 
indifpenfible  for  governments  to  bejufl. 

States  being  at  firft  weak,  and  having  ex- 
ternal enemies  to  feaf,  it  was  in  reality  of 
importance  to  the  chiefs  not  to  opprefs  the 
fuhjedl.  By  diminifliing  the  intereil:  of  the 
citizens  in  their  government,  they  v^^ould have 
diminiflied  their  means  of  refiilance  -,  they 
would  have  facilitated  foreign  invafion,  and 
thus  endangered  their  own  exigence  for 
fuperfluous  enjoyments. 

Internally,  the  character  of  the  people  was 
repellent  to  tyranny.  Men  had  too  long  con- 
tracted habits  of  independence;  their  wants 
were  too  limited,  and  the  confcioufnefs  of 
their  own  ilrength  too  infeparable  from  their 

States  being  clofely  knit  together,  it  was 
difficult  to  divide  the  citizens,  in  order  to 



©pprefs  fome  by  means  of  others.  Their 
communication  with  each  other  was  too  eafy, 
and  their  intereils  too  iimple  and  evident. 
Betide,  every  man  being  at  once  proprietor 
and  cultivator,  he  had  no  inducement  to  fell 
himfelf,  and  the  defpot  would  have  been  un- 
able to  find  mercenaries. 

If  diffeniions  arofe,  it  was  between  family 
and  family,  one  fadlion  with  another;  and  a 
toniiderable  number  had  ftill  one  common 
intereft.  Difputes,  it  is  true,  were  in  this 
cafe  more  warm,  but  the  fear  of  foreign  in- 
vafion  appeafed  the  difcord.  If  the  oppref- 
fion  of  a  party  was  effeded,  the  earth  being 
open  before  it,  and  men,  flill  fimple  in  their 
manners,  finding  every  where  the  fame  ad- 
vantages, the  party  migrated  and  carried 
their  independence  to  another  quarter. 

Ancient  (tates  then  enjoyed  in  themfelves 
numerous  means  of  profperity  and  power. 

As  every  man  found  his  well-being  in  the 
conftitution  of  his  country,  he  felt  a  lively 
intereft  in  its  prefervation ;  and  if  a  foreign 
power  invaded  it,  having  his  habitation  and 
his  field  to  defend,  he  carried  to  the  combat 
the  ardour  of  a  perfonal  caufe,  and  his  pa- 

58  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

triotic  exertions  were  prompted  by  felf-de- 

As  every  adllon  ufeful  to  the  public  ex- 
cited its  efleem  and  gratitude*  each  was  ea- 
ger to  be  ufeful,  and  talents  and  civil  virtues 
were  multiplied  by  felf-love. 

As  every  citizen  was  called  upon  indifcri- 
minately  to  contribute  his  proportion  of  pro- 
perty and  perfonal  effort,  the  armies  and  the 
treafuriesof  the  ftate  were  inexhauftible. 

As  the  earth  was  free,  and  its  pofleffion 
cafy  and  fecure,  every  man  was  a  proprie- 
tor, and  the  divifion  of  property,  by  render- 
ing luxury  impoflible,  preferved  the  purity 
of  manners. 

As  everyman  ploughed  his  own  field,  cul- 
tivation was  more  adive,  provifions  more 
abundant,  and  individual  opulence  confti- 
tuted  the  public  wealth. 

As  abundance  of  provifion  rendered  fub- 
fiftence  eafy,  population  rapidly  increafed, 
and  ftatcs  quickly  a^Tived  at  their  plenitude. 

As  the  produce  was  greater  than  the  con- 

fumption,  the  defire  of  commerce  ftarted  up, 

and  exchanges  were  made  between  different 

Daticns,  which  were  an  additional  flimulus  to 

/  their 


tlieir  adivity,  and  increafed  their  reciprocal 

In  fine,  as  certain  places  in  certain  epo- 
chas  combined  the  advantage  of  good  go- 
vernment w^ith  that  of  being  placed  in  the 
road  of  circulation  and  commerce,  they  be- 
came rich  magazines  of  trade,  and  powerful 
feats  of  dominion.  It  was  in  this  manner 
that  the  riches  of  India  and  Europe,  accu- 
mulated upon  the  banks  of  the  Nile,  the 
Tigris,  and  the  Euphrates,  gave  fucceffive 
exiftence  to  the  fplendour  of  a  thoufand 

The  people,  become  rich,  applied  their 
fuperfluity  of  means  to  labours  of  public  uti- 
lity; and  this  was,  in  every  ftate,  the  sra  of 
thofe  works,  the  magnificence  of  which  afto- 
niihes  the  mind;  thofe  wells  of  Tyre  (/),  thofe 
artificial  banks  of  the  Euphrates,  thofe  con- 
duits of  Medea  {k),  thofe  fortreffes  of  the 
Defert,  thofe  aqueduds  of  Palmyra,  thofe 
temples,  thofe  porticos. . .  .  And  thefe  im- 
menfe  labours  were  little  oppreffive  to  the 
nations  that  completed  them,  becaufe  they 
were  the  fruit  of  the  equal  and  united  effort 
pf  individuals  free  to  ad:  and  ardent  to  defire. 


6o  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

Thus  ancient  ftates  profpered,  becaufe  fo- 
clal  inflitutions  were  conformable  to  the  true 
laws  of  nature,  and  becaufe  the  fubjed:s  of 
thofe  ftates,  enjoying  hberty  and  the  fecurity 
of  their  perfons  and  their  property,  could 
difplay  all  the  extent  of  their  faculties,  and 
all  the  energy  of  felf-love. 



CHAP.     XL 


In  the  mean  time  the  inordinate  defire  of 
accumulation  had  excited  a  conftant  and 
univerfal  flruggle  among  men,  and  this 
ftruggle,  prompting  individuals  and  focie- 
ties  to  reciprocal  invafions,  occafioned  per- 
petual commotions  and  fucceffive  revolu- 

At  firft,  in  the  favage  and  barbarous  ftatc 
of  the  firft  human  beings,  this  inordinate 
defire,  daring  and  ferocious  in  its  nature, 
taught  rapine,  violence,  and  murder  -,  and 
the  progrefs  of  civilization  was  for  a  long 
time  at  a  ftand. 

Afterwards,  when  focieties  began  to  be 
formed,  the  eifed:  of  bad  habits  communi- 
cating itfelf  to  laws  and  government,  civil 
inftitutions  became  corrupt,  and  arbitrary 
and  faditious  rights  were  eftablifhed,  which 
gave  the  people  depraved  ideas  of  juftice  and 


^a  A    SURVEY    OP    TK1» 

Becaufe  one  man,  for  example,  was  ftrong" 
cr  than  another,  this  inequaUty,  the  refuit  of 
accident,  was  taken  for  the  law  of  nature  (/) ; 
and  becaufe  the  life  of  the  weak  was  in  his 
power,  and  he  did  not  take  it  from  him,  he 
arrogated  over  his  perfon  the  abfurd  right  of 
property,  and  individual  ilavery  prepared  the 
way  for  the  Ilavery  of  nations. 

Becaufe  the  chief  of  a  tamily  could  exer- 
cife  an  abfolate  authority  in  his  own  h^ufe, 
he  made  his  inclinations  and  affections  the 
fole  rule  of  his  conduifl ;  he  conferred  and 
withheld  the  conveniences  and  enjoyments 
of  life  without  refpecfl  to  the  law  of  equality 
orjaftice,and  paternal  ?:yranny  laid  thefoun-^ 
dation  of  political  defpotifm  {m). 

In  focieties  formed  upon  fuch  bafes,  time 
and  induflry  having  developed  riches, inordi- 
nate defirc,  reftrided  by  the  laws,  became 
•artificial  without  being  lefs  adtive.  Under 
the  maik  of  union  and  civil  peace,  it  engen- 
dered in  the  bofpm  of  every  if  ate  an  inteftine 
v.'ar,  in  which  the  citizens  divided  into  op- 
pofite  corps  of  orders,  clalles,  and  families, 
aimed  to  appropriate  to  themfelves,  under 
the  name  oi  fiipremc  poivcr^  the  ability  of 



grafping  and  controllings  every  thing  at  the 
will  of  their  paffions.  It  is  this  fpirit  of  ra- 
pacity, the  difgtiifes  of  which  are  innume- 
rable, but  its  operation  and  end  uniformly 
the  fame,  that  has  been  the  perpetual  fcourge 
of  nations. 

Sometimes  oppofing  focial  compadl,  or  de- 
ftroying  that  which  already  exifted,  it  has 
abandoned  the  inhabitants  of  a  country  to 
the  tumultuous  fliock  of  all  their  jarring 
principles ;  and  the  diffolved  ftates,  under 
the  name  of  anarchy y  have  been  torment- 
ed by  the  paffions  of  every  individual  mem- 

Sometimes  a  people  jealous  of  its  liberty^ 
having  appointed  agents  to  adminifter,  thefe 
agents  have  affiimed  to  themfelves  the  powers 
of  which  they  were  only  the  guardians  5  have 
employed  the  public  funds  in  corrupting 
eledions,  gaining  partizans,  and  dividing  the 
people  againft  itfelf.  By  thefe  means,  from 
temporary,  they  have  become  perpetual, 
from  eledlive,  hereditary  magiftrates;  and 
the  ftate,  agitated  by  the  intrigues  of  the 
ambitious,  by  the  bribes  of  the  wealthy 
leaders  of  factions,  by  the  venality  of  the 
indolent  poor,  by  the  empiricifm  of  declaim- 


64  A    SIJRVEY    OF    THE 

ers,  has  been  troutled  with  all  the  incon- 
verienccs  o^i  democracy. 

In  one  country ,  the  ch  iefs,  equal  in  fli  ength, 
mutually  afraid  of  each  other,  have  formed 
vile  compacts  and  coalitions,  and  portioning 
out  power,  rank,  honours,  have  arrogated  to 
the'Tuelvcs  privileges  and  immunides  ;  have 
erecled  themfelves  into  feparate  bodies  and 
diftind  claiTes ;  have  tyrannifed  in  common 
ov-:r  the  peoole,  and,  under  the  name  of 
arifiocracy^  the  ftate  has  been  tormented  by 
the  paffions  of  the  wealthy  and  the  great. 

In  another  country,  tending  to  the  fame 
end  by  different  mt'^s,  [acred  vmpojlors  have 
taken  advantage  of  the  credulity  of  the  igno- 
rant. In  the  fecrecy  of  tem.ples,  and  behind 
the  veil  of  altars,  they  have  made  the  Gods 
fpeak  and  act;  have  delivered  oracles,  worked 
pretended  miracles,  ordered  facriiices,  impof- 
ed  offerings,  prefcribed  endowments;  and, 
imder  the  namie  oi  theocracy  and  religion,  the 
fhate  has  been  tormented  by  the  paffions  of 

Sometimes,  weary  of  its  diforders  or  of  its 
tyrant:-, a  nation,  to  diminiih  the  fourcesof  its 
evils,  gave  itfelf  a  fmgle  maffer.  In  that  cafe, 
if  the  powers  of  the  prince  were  limited, 



his  only  defire  was  to  extend  them  ;  if  In- 
definite, he  abufed  the  trufl  that  was  con- 
fided to  him  ;  and,  under  the  name  of  mo^ 
narchy,  the  flate  was  tormented  h^j  the  paf- 
fions  of  kings  and  princes. 

Then  the  fadious,  taking  advantage  of  the 
general  difcontent,  flattered  the  people  with 
the  hope  of  a  better  mailer  ^  they  fcattered 
gifts  and  promifes,  dethroned  the  defpot  to 
fubflitute  themfelves  in  his  Head ;  and  dif- 
putes  for  the  fucceffion  or  the  divifion  of 
power,  have  tormented  the  ftate  with  the  dif- 
orders  and  devaluations  of  civil  war^ 

In  finC)  among  thefe  rivals,  one  individual 
more  artful  or  more  fortunate  than  the  reft, 
gaining   the    afcendancy,     concentred    the 
whole  power  in  himfelf.    By  a  fingular  phe- 
nomenon, one  man  obtained  the  mafterv  over 
millions  of  his  fellovz-creatures,  againft  their 
will,  and  without  their  confent ;  and  thus 
the  art  of  tyranny  appears  alfo  to  have  been 
the  offspring  of  inordinate  defire.  Obferving 
the  fpirit  of  egotifm  that  divided  mankind, 
the  ambitious  adroitly  fomented  this  fpirit : 
lie  flattered  the  vanity  of  one,  excited  the 
Jeaioufy  of  another,  favoured  the  avarice  of  a 
F  third. 

66  A    SURVtY    OF    THE 

third,  enflamed  the  refentment  of  a  fourth^ 
irritated   the  paffions  of  all.      By  oppofing 
interefts  or  prejudices,  he  fowed  the  feeds 
of  divifions  and  hatred.    He  promifed  to  the 
peer  the  fpoil  of  the  rich,  to  the  rich  the 
fubjugation  of  the  poor;    threatened  this 
man  by  that,  one  clafs  by  another ;  ahd  ifo- 
kting  the  citizens  by  diflruft,  he  formed  his 
own  ilrength  out  of  their  weaknefs,  and  im- 
pofed  on  them  the  yoke  of  opinioriy  the  knots 
of  which  they  tied  with  their  own  hands. 
By  means  of  the  army  he  extorted  contribu- 
tions ;  by  the  contributions  he  difpofed  of 
the  army  5    by  the   correfpondlng   play  of 
money  and  places,  he  bound  all  the  people 
with  a  chain  that  was  not  to  b-e  broken,  and 
the  flates  w^hich  they  compofed  fell  into  the 
flow  decay  o^  defpoiifn:. 

Thus  did  one  and  the  fame  fpring,  vary- 
ing it?  adion  under  all  the  forms  that  have 
been  enumerated,  inceilantly  attack  the  con- 
tinuity of  ilates,  and  an  eternal  circle  of  vi- 
ciffitudes  have  fprung  from  an  eternal  circle 
of  pailions. 

Tills  coniTant  fpirit  of  egotlfm  operated 
tv/o  principal  efFedsequAliydeftructive:  the 



one,  that  by  dividing  focieties  into  all  their 
fradlions,  a  ftate  of  debility  was  produced^ 
which  facilitated  their  diffolution ;  the  other, 
that  always  tending  to  concentre  the  power 
in  a  iingle  hand,  it  occafioned  a  fucceffive 
abforption  of  focieties  and  ftates,  fatal  to 
their  peace  and  to  their  common  exift- 
ence  {n). 

Juft  as  in  a  fingle  ftate,  the  nation  had 
been  abforbed  in  a  party,  that  party  in  a 
family, and  that  family  in  an  individual,  there 
alfo  exifted  an  abforption  of  a  fimilar  kind 
between  flats  and  flate,  attended  with  all 
themifchiefs  in  the  relative  fitaation  of  na- 
tions, that  the  other  produced  in  the  civil 
relation  of  individuals.  One  city  fubjeded 
its  neighbour  city,  and  the  refult  of  the  con* 
queft  was  a  province ;  province  fwailowed 
up  province,  and  thus  produced  a  kingdom; 
between  two  kingdoms  a  conqueft  took 
place,  and  thus  furniflied  an  empire  of  un- 
weildy  bulk.  Did  the  internal  force  of  thefe 
ftates  increafe  in  proportion  to  their  mafs? 
On  the  contrary,  it  was  diminifhed;  and  far 
from  the  condition  of  the  people  being  hap* 
pier,  it  became  every  day  more  oppreffive  and 
F  2  wretched. 

j58  a  survey  of  the 

wretched,  by  caufes  inevitably  flowing  from 
the  nature  of  things. 

Becaufe,  as  the  boundaries  of  ftates  be- 
came extended,  their  adniiniflration  became 
more  compUcated  and  difficult;  and  to  give 
motion  to  the  mafs  it  was  necelfary  to  in- 
creafe  the  prerogatives  of  the  fove reign,  and 
all  proportion  was  thus  annihilated  between 
•the  duty  of  governors  and  their  power. 

Becaufe  defpots,  feeling  their  weaknefs, 
dreaded  all  thofe  circumftances  that  deve- 
loped the  force  of  nations,  and  made  it  their 
fludy  to  attenuate  it.         •  • 

Becaufe  nations,  eftranged  from  each  other 
by  the  prejudices  of  ignorance  and  the  fero- 
city of  hatred,  feconded  the  perveriity  of 
governments,  and  employing  a  {landing  force 
for  reciprocal  offence,  aggravated  their  ila- 

Becaufe,  in  proportion  as  the  balance  be- 
tv>^ccn  itates  was  broken,  it  becam.e  eaiy  for 
the  ftrong  to  overwhelm  the  weak. 

Becaufe,  in  proportion  as  flate  became 
blended  with  jflate,  the  people  were  flripped 
of  their  laws,  their  culloms,  every  thing  by 
which  they  were  diftinguilhed  from  each 



Other,  and  thus  loft  the  great  xnov cv  feljijh^ 
nefs,  which  gave  them  energy. 

And  defpcts,  confidering  empires  in  the 
light  of  domains,  and  the  people  as  their 
property,  abandoned  themfelves  to  depreda- 
tions, and  the  licentioufhefs  of  the  moft  ar- 
.bitrary  authority. 

And  all  the  force  and  wealth  of  nations 
were  converted  into  a  fuoply  for  individual 
expence  and  perfonal  caprice  ;  and  kings, 
in  the  wearifomenefs  of  fatiety,  followed  the 
di4i:ates   of  every  faditious    and   depraved, 
tafle  {o).  They  muft  have  gardens  conftrud:- 
edupon  arches,  and  rivers  carried   to  the 
fummit  of  mountains  i  for  them  fertile  fields 
muft  be  changed  into  parks  for  deer,  lakes 
formed  where  there  was  no  water,  and  rocks 
elevated  in  thofe  lakes;  they  muil  have  pa- 
laces  confiruded  of  marble  and  porphyry, 
and  the  furniture  ornamented  with  gold  and 
diamonds.    Millions  of  hands  were  thus  em- 
ployed in  fterile  labours ;  and  the  luxury  of 
princes  being  imitated  by  their  paralites,  and 
defcending  ilep  by  ftep  to  the  loweft  ranks, 
became  a  general  fource  of  corruption. and. 

F  3  And 

yO  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

And  the  ordinary  tributes  being  no  longer 
adequate  to  the  infatiable  thirft  of  enjoy- 
ment, they    were   augmented:    the  confe- 
queree  of  which  was,  that  the  cultivator, 
finding  his  toil  increafe  without  any  indem- 
nity, loll  his  courage  ;  the  merchant,  feeing 
himfelf  robbed,  took  a  difguft  to  induitry  y 
the  multitude,condemned  to  a  ftate  of  poverty, 
exerted  themfelves  no  farther  than  the  pro- 
curement of  neceflaries  required,  and  every 
fpecies  of  produdive  adivity  was  at  a  iland. 
And  the  furcharge  of  taxes  rendering  the 
poifeffion  of  lands  burtricnfom.e,  the  humble 
proprietor  abandoned  his  fiv^ld,  or  fold  it  to 
the  man  of  opulence;  and  the  mafs  of  wealth 
centered  in  a  few  individuals.     As  the  laws 
and  inflitutions  favoured  this  accumulation, 
nations  were  divided  into  a  fmall  body  of 
indolent  rich,  and  a  multiude  of  mercenary 
poor.     The  people,   reduced  to  indigence, 
debafed  themfelves ;  the  great,  cloyed  with 
fuperfluity,  became  depraved;  and  the  num.- 
ber  of  citizens  interefled  in  the  prefervation 
of  the   jflate   decreafing,    its   flrength   and 
exigence  were  by  fo  much  the  more  pre- 


In  another  view,  as  there  was  nothing  to 
excite  emulation  or  encourage  inflru6tion, 
the  minds  of  men  funk  into  profound  igno- 

The  adminillration  of  affairs  being  fecret 
and  myfterious,  there  exifted  no  means  of  re- 
form or  hope  of  better  times;  and  as  the 
chiefs  ruled  only  by  violence  and  fraud,  the 
people  conlidered  them  but  a?  a  faction  of 
public  enemies,  and  all  harmony  between  the 
governed  and  the  governors  was  at  an  end. 

The  ftates  of  opulent  Afia  become  ener- 
vated by  all  thefe  vices,  it  happened  at  length 
that  the  vagrant  and  poor  inhabitants  of  the 
deferts  and  the  mountains  adjacent,  coveted 
the  enjoyments  of  the  fertile  plains,  and 
inftigated  by  a  common  cupidity,  they  at- 
tacked poliflied  empires,  and  overturned  the 
thrones  of  defpots.  Such  revolutions  were 
rapid  and  eafy,  becaufe  the  policy  of  tyrants 
had  enfeebled  the  citizens,  razed  the  for- 
treffes,  deflroyed  the  warlike  fpirit  of  refift- 
ance,  and  becaufe  theoppreffed  fubje(5l  was 
without  perfonal  intereft,  and  the  mercenary 
foldier  without  courage. 

Hordes  of  barbarians  having  reduced  whole 
F  4  pat  ions 

^2  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

nations  to  a  flate  of  flavery,  it  followed  that 
empires,  formed  of  a  conquering  and  a 
vanquifhed  people,  united  in  their  bofom 
two  claffes  of  men  efientially  oppofite  and 
inimical  to  each  other.  All  the  principles  of 
fociety  were  diiTolved,  There  was  no  longer 
either  a  common  int  ^refl,  or  public  fpirit : 
on  the  contrary,  a  diflindlion  of  cafts  and 
conditions  was  eftabliilied,  that  reduced  the 
maintenance  of  diforder  to  a  regular  fyflem ; 
and  accordingly  as.  a  man  was  defcended 
from  this  or  that  blood,  he  was  born  vallal 
or  tyrant,  live  ftock  or  proprietor. 

The  opprcfTors  being  in  this  cafe  lefs 
numerous  than  the  oppreifed,  it  became  ne- 
cefTary,  in  order  to  fupport  this  falfe  equi- 
librium, to  bring  the  fcience  of  tyranny  to 
perfedion.  The  art  of  governmg  was  now 
nothing  more  than  that  of  fubjediing  the 
many  to  the  few.  To  obtain  an  obedience 
fo  contrary  to.  inflindl,  it  was  necellary  to 
eflabhili  the  moft  fevere  penalties;  and  the 
cruelty  of  the  laws  rendered  the  manners 
atrocious.  The  difliindion  of  perfons  alfo 
eftablifhing  in  the  (late  two  codes  of  juftice, 
two  fpecies  of  rights,    the   people,  placed 



between  the  natural  inclinations  of  their 
hearts,  and  the  oath  they  were  obliged  to 
pronounce,  had  two  contradictory  con- 
fciences ;  and  their  ideas  of  juft  and  unjuft 
had  no  longer  any  foundation  in  the  under- 

Under  fuch  a  fyT:em  the  people  fell  into 
a  ftate  of  depreflion  and  defpair  ;  and  the 
accidents  of  nature  increafing  the  prepon- 
derance of  evil,  terrified  at  this  groupe  of 
calamities,  they  referred  the  caufesof  them 
to  fuperior  and  invifible  powers  :  becaufe 
they  had  tyrants  upon  earth,  they  fjppofed 
there  to  be  tyrants  in  heaven ;  and  fuperiri- 
tion  came  in  aid  to  ao-gravate  the  difailers  of 


Hence  originated  gloomy  and  mifanthro- 
pic  fy fliems  of  religion,  v/hich  painted  the 
Gods  malignant  and  envious  like  human  de- 
fpots.  To  appeafe  them,  man  offered  the  fa- 
crifice  of  all  his  enjoyments,  puniihed  him- 
felf  with  privations,  and  overturned  the  laws 
of  nature.  Conlidering  his  pleafures  as 
crimes,  his  fafferings  as  expiations,  he  en- 
deavoured to  cherifh  a  paffion  for  pain,  and 
to  renounce  felf-Jove  3   he  perfecuted  his 

fenfes  j 

74  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

ienies,  detefted  his  life,  and  by  a  felf-de-^ 
nying  and  unfocial  fyftem  of  morals,  na- 
tions were  plunged  in  the  iluggifhnefs  of 
death.  ...  ;..-.:.  i^.u  ; -.^Ai'^i. 

But  as  provident  nature  had  endbwed  the 
heart  of  man  Vvdth  inexhaullible  hope,  per- 
ceiving his  defires  dilappcintf  d  of  h^ppinefs 
here,  he  purfued  it  elfe where  i  by  a  fweet 
illufion,  he  formed  to  himfeif  another  coun- 
try, an  afylum,  where,  out  of  the  reach  of 
tyrants,  he  ihould  regain  all  his  rights. 
Hence  a  new  diforder  arofe.  Smitten  with 
his  imaginary  world,  man  defpifed  the  world 
of  nature  :  for  chimerical  hopes  he  negledled 
the  rcaLty.  He  no  longer  confidered  his 
Lfc  but  as  a  fatiguing  journey,  a  painful 
dream;  his  body  a«^  a  nrifon  that  withheld 
him  from  his  felicity;  the  earth  as  a  place 
of  exile  and  pilgrimage,  which  he  difdaincd 
to  cultivate.  A  facred  floth  then  eftabliflied 
itfelf  in  the  world;  the  fields  were  deferted, 
wafte  lands  increafcd,  empires  were  difpeo- 
pled, monuments  negle^ed^and  every  where 
ignorance,  fuperftition  and  fanaticifm  unit- 
ing their  baleful  effects,  m.ultiplied  devafta^ 
tions  and  ruins.  .  ;  •,,.  . 
•.>•(    '  ^  Thus, 


Thus,  agitated  by  their  own  paffions, 
men,  whether  in  their  individual  capacity, 
or  as  collective  bodies,  always  rapacious  and 
improvident,  pafling  from  tyranny  to  llavery, 
from  pride  to  abjednefs,  from  prefumption 
to  defpair,  have  been  themfelves  the  eternal 
inllruments  of  their  misfortunes. 

Such  was  the  fimplicity  of  the  principles 
that  regulated  the  fate  of  ancient  ftates;  fuch 
was  the  feries  of  caufes  and  effedls,  confe- 
cutive  and  connedied  with  each  other,   ac- 
cording to  which  they  rofe  or  fell  in  the  fcale 
of  human  welfare,  jaft  as  the  phyiical  caufes 
of  the  human  heart  were   therein  obferved 
or  infringed.     A  hundred  divers  nations,  a 
hundred  powerful  empires,  in  their  inceifant 
viciffitudes,  have  read  again  and  again  thefe 
inilrudtive  leilons  to  mankind  .  . .  And  thefe 
leflbns  are  mute  and  forgotten  !    The  dif- 
eafes  of  paft  times  have  appeared  again  in 
the   prefent  !     The  heads  of  the  different 
governments  have  pradifed  again,  without 
reftraint,  exploded  projedls  of  deception  and 
defpotifm  !    The  people  have  wandered  as 
before  in  the  labyrinths  of  fuperftition  and 

ignorance ! 


-jd  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

And  what,  added  tlie  Genius,  calling  up 
his  energies  afrefn,  is  the  confequence  of.all 
this  ?  Since  experience  is  ufelels,  fince  fa- 
lutary  examples  are  forgotten,  the  fcenes 
which  were  a6led  before  are  now  about  to 
be  renewed;  revolutions  will  again  agitate 
people  and  empires ;  powerful  thrones  will, 
as  before,  be  overturned;  and  terrible  ca- 
taftrophes  remind  the  human  Ij^ecies,  that 
the  la\vs  of  nature,  and  the  precepts  of 
wifdom  and  truth,  cannot  be  trampled  upoi) 
in  vain. 



CHAP.     XII. 


In  this  manner  did  the  Genius  addreis  me. 
Struck  with  the  reafonablenefs  and  cohe- 
rence of  his  difcourfe,  and  a  multiplicity  of 
ideas  crowding  upon  my  mind,  which,  while 
they  thwarted  my  habits,  led  my  judgment 
at  the  fame  time  captive,!  remained abforbed 
in  profound  filence.  Meanwhile,  as  in  this 
fombre  and  thoughtful  difpoiition  I  kept  my 
eyes  fixed  upon  Afia,  clouds  of  fmoke  and 
of  flames  at  the  north,  on  the  fhores  of  the 
Black  Sea,  and  in  the  fields  of  the  Crimea, 
fuddenly  attracted  my  attention.  They  ap- 
peared to  afcend  at  once  from  every  part  of 
the  peninfula,  and  paffing  by  the  iflhmus  to 
the  continent,  they  purfued  their  courfe,  as 
if  driven  by  an  eafterly  wind,  along  the  miry 
lake  of  Afoph,  and  were  loil  in  the  verdant 
plains  of  the  Coban.  Obferving  more  at- 
tentively the  courfe  of  thsfe  clouds,  I  per- 

yS  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

ccived  that  they  were  preceded  or  followed 
by  fwarmsof  Hvmg  beings,  which,  like  ants 
difturbed  by  the  foot  of  a  pafienger,  were  in 
lively  action .  Sometimes  they  feemed  to 
move  tow-ards  and  rufh  againll:  each  other, 
and  numbers  after  the  concuffion  remained 
motionlefs.  Difquieted  at  this  fpedtacle,  I 
was  endeavouring  to  diftinguiOi  the  objedls, 
when  the  Genius  faid  to  me  :  Do  you  fee 
thofe  fires  which  fpread  over  the  earth,  and 
are  you  acquainted  with  their  caufes  and 
efftdts  ? — O  Genius,  I  replied,  I  fee  columns 
of  flame  and  fmoke,  and  as  it  were  infed:s 
that  accompany  them  j  but  difcerning  with 
difficulty,  as  I  do^  the  mafles  of  towns  and 
monuments,  howcanldiflinguifh  fuch  petty 
creatures?  I  can  fee  nothing  more  than  that 
thefe  infedts  feem  to  cari-y  on  a  fort  of  mock 
battles;  they  advance,  they  approach  towards 
each  other,  they  attack,  they  purfue. — It  is 
no  mockery,  faid  the  Genius,  it  is  the  thing 
itfelf. — And  what  name,  replied  I,  fhall  we 
give  lO  thcfe  foolifli  animalcules  that  deftroy 
tach  other  r  Do  they  live  only  for  a  day,  and 
is  this  Ihort  life  further  abridged  by  violence 
and  murder  ? — The  Genius  then  once  more 



touched  my  eyes  and  my  ears.  Liften,  faid 
he  to  me,  and  obferve. — Immediately,  turn- 
ing my  eyes  in  the  fame  direction,  alas  !  faid 
I,  tranfpierced  with  anguiih,  thefe  columns 
of  flame,  thefe  infefe,  O  Genius !  they  are 
men,  and  the  ravages  of  war  !  Thefe  tor- 
rents of  flame  afcend  from  towns  and  vil-^ 
lages  fet  on  fire  !  I  fee  the  horfemen  that 
light  them.  I  fee  them  fword  in  hand  over- 
run the  country.  Old  men,  women,  and 
children,  in  confufed  m.ultitudes,  fly  before 
them.  I  fee  other  horfemen,  who,  with  their 
pikes  upon  their  fhoulders,  accompany  and 
diredl  them :  I  can  even  diftinguifh  by  their 
led  horfes,  by  their  kalpacks,  and  by  their 
tufts  of  hair  (/>),  that  they  are  Tartars;  and 
without  doubt  thofe  who  purfue  them  in  tri- 
angular hats  and  green  uniforms  are  Mufco- 
vites.  I  underftand  the  whole:  I  perceive 
that  the  war  has  jufl  broken  out  afrelh  be- 
tween the  empire  of  the  Czars  and  the  Sul- 
tans*— Not  yet,  replied  the  Genius ;  this  is 
only  the  prelude.  Thefe  Tartars  have  been, 
and  would  ftill  be  troublefome  neighbours ; 
the  Mufcovites  are  ridding  themfelves  of 
them.  Their  country -is  an  object  of  conve- 
7  nience 

Ho  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

iiicnce  to  their  lefs  uncivilized  enemies*  it 
rounds  and  makes  complete  their  domi- 
nions; and  as  the  firfl  ilep  in  the  projedt 
that  has  been  conceived,  the  throne  of  the 
Gucrals  is  overturxied. 

In  reality  I  law  the  Ruffian  flag  hoifted 
over  the  Crimea,  and  their  veflels  fcattered 
upon  the  Euxine. 

Meanwhile,  at  the  cries  of  the  fugitive 
Tartars,  the  Muffulman  empire  was  in  com- 
motion. *•'  Our  brethren,"  exclaimed  the 
children  of  MahomaCt,  "  are  driven  from,  their 
*'  habitations ;  the  people  of  the  prophet  are 
*^  outraged  5  infidels  are  in  poiTeffion  of  a  con- 
*'  fecratedland  {q),  and  profane  the  temples 
*^  oflflamifm!  Letus  arm  ourfelves  to  avenge 
"  the  glory  of  God  and  our  own  caufe.'* 
•  A  general  preparation  for  war  then  took 
place  in  the  two  empires.  Armed  men,  pro- 
vihons,  ammunition,  and  all  the  murderous 
accoutrements  of  battle,  were  every  where 
affembled.  My  attention  was  particularly 
attradtcd  by  the  immenfe  crowds  that  in 
either  nation  thronged  to  the  temples.  On 
one  {idc  the  Muffulman s,  afiembled  before 
their  mofques,  waflied  their  hands  and  feet, 
6  •*  pared 

KEVOLUTlOlslS    OP    EMPIRES.  8l 

pat'ed  their  nails,  and  combed  their  beard  : 
then  fpreading  carpets  upon  the  ground,  and 
turning  themfelves  towards  the  fouth,  with 
their  arms  fometimes  croffed  and  fometimes 
extended,  they  performed  their  genuflexions 
and  proftrations.  Recolleding  the  difafters 
they  had  experienced  during  the  lafl  war, 
they  cried  :  '^  God  of  clemency  and  pity,  haft 
**  thou  then  abandoned  thy  faithful  people  ? 
*^  Why  doft  thou,  who  has  promifed  to  thy 
**  prophet  the  dominion  of  nations,  and  fig- 
*'  nalized  religion  by  fo  many  triumphs,  de- 
*'  liver  up  true  believers  to  the  fword  of  in- 
fidels ?"  And  the  Imans  and  the  Santdns  faid 
to  the  people :  "  It  is  the  chaftifement  of 
**  your  fins.  You  eat  pork,  you  drink  wine, 
**  you  touch  things  that  are  unclean  :  God 
**  has  puniflied  you.  Do  penance  -,  purify 
^*  yourfelves  ;  fay  your  creed  ^ ;  fafl:  from  the 
**  riling  of  the  fan  to  its  (etting ;  give  the 
**  tenth  _of  your  goods  to  the  mofques  *.  go 
*'  to  Mecca  ;  and  God  will  make  your  arms 
**  vidtcrious."  Then,  affuming  courage,  the 
people  gave  a  general  fhout.    *^  There  is  but 

*  Ther§  is  but  one  God,  and  Mahomet  Is  his  prophet. 
Q  ©ne 

82  A    SURVEY    OF    THt 

*^  one  God,"  faid  they  in  a  tranlport  of  ragc> 
•*  and  Mahomet  is  his  prophet  !  accurfed  be 
**  everyone  that  believeth  not!  ....  Indul- 
*'  gent  God!  grant  us  the  favour  to  exter- 
*'  minate  thefe  Chriitians :  it  is-  for  thy  glory 
**  we  fight,  and  by  cur  death  we  are  mar- 
*'  tyrs  to  thy  name." — And  having  offer- 
ed facrifices,  they  prepared  themfelves  for 

On  the  other  hand,  the  Ruffians  on  their 
knees  exclaimed:  "  Let  us  give  thanks  to 
"  God,  and  celebrate  his  power  :  he  has 
"  ftrengthened  our  arm  to  humble  his  ene- 
"  mies.  Beneficent  God  !  incline  thine  ear 
*'  to  oup  prayers.  To  pleafe  thee  we  will 
*^  for  three  days  cat  neither  meat  nor  eggs. 
'**  Permit  us  to  exterminate  thefe  impious 
*'  Mahometans,  and  overthrow  their  empire, 
*'  and  Vv'e  v^^ill  give  thee  the  tenth  of  the  fpoil, 
"  and  ercd:  new  temples  to  thy  honour." 
The  priefls  then  filled  the  churches  with 
fmokc,  and  faid  to  the  people  :  "  We  pray 
"  for  you,  and  God  accepts  our  incenfe,  and 
"  blcfies  your  arms.  Continue  to  faft  and 
"  to  fight;  tell  us  the  faults  you  have  fecret- 
*'  ly  committed;  beflow  your  goods  on  the 

<'  church  i 


^^  church  ',  we  will  abfolve  you  of  your  fins, 
'^^  and  you  (hall  die  in  a  ilate  of  grace."  And 
they  fprinkled  water  on  the  people,  diilri- 
buted  among  them  little  bones  of  departed 
faints  to  ferve  as  amulets  and  talifmans;  and 
the  people  breathed  nothing  but  war  and 

Struck  with  this  contrafting  pidlure  of  the 
fame  paffions,  and  lamenting  to  myfelf  their 
pernicious  confequences,  I  was  reHediing  on 
the  difficulty  the  common  Judge  would  find 
in  complying  with  fuch  oppofite  demands, 
when  the  Genius,  from  an  impulfe  of  anger. 
Vehemently  exclaimed  : 

What  madnefs  is  this  which  ftrikes  my 
ear  ?  What  blind  and  fatal  infanity  poff^iTes  - 
the  human  mind  ?  Sacrilegious  prayers,  re- 
turn to  the  earth  from  whence  you  came  ! 
Ye  concave  heavens,  repel  thefe  murderous 
vows,  thefe  impious  thankfgivings  !  Is  it 
thus,  O  man^  you  worfhip  the  Divinity  ?  And 
do  you  think  that  he,  whom  you  call  Father 
of  all,  can  receive  with  complacence  the 
homage  of  free- hooters  and  murderers?  Ye 
conquerors,  with  what  fentiments  does  he 
behold  your  arms  reeking  with  blood  that  he 

G  2  has 

8;^  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

has  created  ?  Ye  conquered,  what  hope  can 
you  place  in  ufclefs  moans?  Is  he  a  man  that 
he  fhould  change,  or  the  fon  of  man  that  h« 
fliould  repent  ?  Is  he  governed  hke  you  by 
vengeance  and  compaflion,  by  rage  and  by 
wearinefs  !  Bafe  idea,  how  much  unworthy 
of  the  Being  of  Beings !  Hear  thefe  men,  and 
you  would  imagine  that  God  is  a  Being  ca- 
pricious and  mutable  j  that  now  he  loves,  and 
now  he  hates  ;  that  he  chaflifes  one,  and  in- 
dulges another ;  that  hatred  is  engendered 
and  nouriihed  in  his  bofom;  that  he  fpreads 
fnares  for  men,  and  delights  in  the  fatal  ef- 
feds  of  imprudence ;  that  he  permits  ill,  and 
punilhes  it ;  that  he  forefees  guilt,  and  ac- 
quiefces ;  that  he  is  to  be  bought  with  gifts 
like  a  partial  judge  ^  that  he  reverfes  his  edidls 
like  an  undifcerning  dcfpot;  that  he  gives 
and  revokes  his  favours  becaufe  it  is  his  will, 
and  is  to  be  appeafed  only  by  fervility  like  a 
favage  tyrant.  I  now  completely  underfland 
what  is  the  deceit  of  mankind,  who  have 
pretended  that  God  m.ade  man  in  his  own 
image,  and  who  have  really  made  God  in 
theirs;  who  have  afcribed  to  him  their  weak- 
nefs,  their  errors,  and  their  vices;  and  in  the 



conclufion,  furprifed  at  the  contradidtoiy 
nature  of  their  own  alTertions,  have  attempt- 
ed to  cloke  it  with  hypocritical  humihty, 
and  the  pretended  impotence  of  human  rea- 
fon,  calling  the  delirium  of  their  own  under- 
flandings  the  facred  myfteries  of  heaven. 

They  have  faid,  God  is  without  variable- 
nefs,  and  they  pray  to  him  to  change.  They 
have  faid  that  he  is  incomprehenfible,  and 
they  have  undertaken  to  be  interpreters  of 
his  will. 

A  race  of  impoftors  has  made  its  appear- 
ance upon  the  earth,  v/ho,  pretending  to  be 
in  the  confidence  of  God,  and  taking  upon 
themfelves  the  office  of  inftrufting  the  peo- 
ple, have  opened  the  flood-gates  of  falfehood 
and  iniquity.  They  have  affixed  merit  to 
actions  which  either  are  indifferent  or  ab* 
furd.  They  have  dignified  with  the  appella- 
tion of  virtue  the  obfervance  of  certain  pof- 
tures,  and  the  repetition  of  certain  words 
-and  names.  They  have  taught  the  impiety 
of  eating  certain  meats  on  certain  days  ra- 
ther than  on  others.  It  is  thus  the  Jew 
would  fooner  die  than  work  on  the  fabbath. 
It  is  thus  the  Perfian  would  endure  fuffocation 
G  3  before 

86  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

before  he  would  blow  the  fire  with  his 
breath.  It  is  thus  the  Indian  places  fu- 
preme  perfection  in  fmcaring  himfelf  with 
cow-dung,  and  myfterioufly  pronouncing 
the  word  Aum  (r).  It  is  thus  the  MulTul- 
man  believes  himfelf  purified  from  all  his  fins 
by  the  ablution  of  his  head  and  his  arms ; 
and  difputes,  fabre  in  hand,  whether  he 
ought  to  begin  the  ceremony  at  the  elbow 
(j)  or  the  points  of  his  fingers.  It  is  thus 
the  Chrifl:ian  would  believe  himfelf  damned, 
were  he  to  eat  the  juice  of  animal  food  in- 
ftead  of  milk  or  butter.  What  fublime  and 
truly  cclelliial  dodrines  !  V/hat  purity  of 
morals,  and  how  worthy  of  apoftleihip  and 
martyidom  !  I  will  cros  the  feas  to  teach 
thefe  admirable  laws  to  favage  people  and 
didant  nations.  I  will  hy  to  them:  "  Chil- 
"  drtn  of  nature,  how  long  wid  ycu  wander 
"  in  the  paths  of  ignorance  ?  How  long  will 
*'  ycu  be  bbnd  to  the  true  principles  of  mo- 
**  rality  and  religion  ?  Vifit  civilized  na- 
**  tic  ns,  and  take  ieflons  of  pious  and  learn- 
"  ed  people.  They  will  teach  you,  that,  to 
*'  pleafe  God,  you  niufi:  m  certam  months 
^*  of  the  year  faint  all  day  with  hunger  and 
'  '  .     'Mhirft, 


^^  thirfl.  They  will  teach  you  how  you 
**  may  fhed  the  blood  of  your  neighbour, 
"  and  purify  ycurfelves  from  the  i!ain,  by 
*'  repeating  a  profeffion  of  faith,  and  mak- 
"  ing  a  methodical  ablation  :  how  you  may 
*^  rob  him  of  his  goods,  and  be  abfolved 
"  from  the  guilt,  by  (baring  them  with  cer- 
*'  tain  perfons  whofe  profeffion  it  is  to  live 
*'  in  idlenefs  upon  the  labour  of  others." 

Sovereign  and  myfterious  Power  of  the 
Univerfe  !  fecret  Mover  of  Nature  !  uni- 
verfal  Soul  of  every  thing  that  lives  !  infinite 
and  incomprehenfible  Being,  Vv^hom,  under 
fo  many  forms,  mortals  have  ignorantly  wor- 
fhipped  !  God,  who  in  the  immenfity  of  the 
heavens  dofl:  guide  revolving  worlds,  and 
people  the  abyfs  of  fpace  with  millions  of 
funs :  fay,  what  appearance  do  thofe  human 
infe(fts,  which  I  can  with  difficulty  diHin- 
guiih  upon  the  earth,  make  in  thy  eyes  ? 
When  thou  diredeil:  the  ftars  in  their  orbits, 
what  to  thee  are  the  worms  that  crawl  in 
the  duft  ?  Of  what  importance  to  thy  infinite 
greatnefs  are  their  difi;ind:ions  of  fed:s  and 
parties  ?  ^And  how  art  thou  concerned  with 
the  fubtleties  engendered  by  their  folly  ? 

G  4  And 

88  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

And  you,  credulous  men,  flaew  me  the 
efficacy  of  your  pradices !  During  the  many 
ages  that  you  have  obferved  or  altered 
them,  what  change  have  your  prejcriptions 
wrought  in  the  laws  of  nature  ?  Has  the 
fun  flione  with  greater  brilliance  ?  Has  the 
courfe  of  the  feafons  at  all  varied  ?  Is  the 
earth  more  fruitful,  are  the  people  more 
happy  ?  If  God  be  good,  how  can  he  be 
pleafed  with  your  penances  ?  If  he  be  in- 
finite, what  can  your  homage  add  to  his 
glory  ?  Inconiifcent  nien,  anfy/er  tbefe  quef- 
tions  !        '     .       .        .  ■     . 

Ye  conquerors,  v/ho  pretend  by  your  arms 
to  ferve  God,  what  need  has  he  of  your 
aid  ?  If  he  wiihes  to  punifh,  are  not  earth-? 
quakes,  volcanoes,  and  the  thunderbolt  in 
his  hand  ?  And  does  a  God  of  clemency 
know  no  other  v/ay  of  correding  but  by  ex- 
termination  ? 

Ye  MuiTulmans,  if  your  misfortunes  were 
the  chaflifements  of  heaven  for  the  violation 
of  the  jive  precepts^  would  profperity  be 
fhowered  on  the  Franks  who  laugh  at  thefe 
things  ?  If  it  is  by  the  laws  of  the  Koran 
that  God  judges  the  earth,   what  were  th^ 



principles  by  which  he  governed  the  nations 
that  exifted  before  the  prophet,  the  nume- 
rous people  v/ho  drank  wine,  ate  pork,  and 
travelled  not  to  Mecca,  yet  to  whom  it  was 
given  to  raife  powerful  empires  ?  By  what 
laws  did  he  judge  the  Sabeans  of  Nineveh 
and  of  Babylon;  the  Perfian,  who  worfhip- 
pedfire;  the  Greek  and Rom^n idolaters;  the 
ancient  kingdoms  of  the  Nile,  and  your  own 
progenitors  the  Arabs  and  Tartars  ?  How 
does  he  at  prefent  judge  the  various  nations 
that  are  ignorant  of  your  worj[liip,the  nume- 
rous cafls  of  Indians,  the  vaft  empire  of  the 
Chinefe,  the  fwarthy  tribes  of  Africa,  the 
iflanders  of  the  Atlantic  Qcean,  the  colonies 
pf  America ! 

Prefumptuous  and  ignorant  men,  v/ho  ar- 
rogate to  yourfelves  the  whole  earth,  were 
God  to  fummon  at  once  all  paft  and  prefent 
generations,  what  proportion  would  thofe 
Chriflian  and  Muffulman  {qO:s,  calling  them- 
felves  imiverfaU  bear  m  the  vafl  allemblage  ? 
What  would  be  the  judgment  of  his  fair  and 
impartial  jullice  refpeding  the  adual  mafs 
pf  mankind  ?  It  is  in  eflimating  the  general 
fyftem  of  bis  government  that  you  wande? 


^0  A    GURVEY    OF    THE 

among  multiplied  abfurdities;  and  it  is  therei 
that,  in  reality,  truth  prefents  itfelf  in  all  its 
evidence.  It  is  there  that  we  trace  the 
limple  but  powerful  laws  of  nature  and  rea-. 
fon  ;  the  laws  of  the  common  mover,  the 
general  caufe^  of  a  God  impartial  and  juft, 
who,  that  he  might  fend  his  rain  upon  a 
country,  afks  not  who  is  its  prophet ;  who 
caufes  his  fun  equally  to  Ihine  on  all  tribes  of 
men,  whether  diftinguiflied  by  a  fair  or  a 
fable  complexion,  on  the  Jew  as  on  the 
Mufiulman,  on  the  Chriftian  as  on  the  Hea-^ 
then;  who  multiplies  the  inhabitants  of  every 
country  with  whom  order  and  induflry  reign  ^ 
who  gives  profperitv  to  every  empire  where 
juftice  is  cbferved,  where  the  powerful  is 
reftrained,  and  the  poor  protected  by 
the  lawsi  where  the  weak  lives  in  fafety,  and 
where  all  enjoy  the  rights  which  they  derive 
from  nature  and  an  equitable  compa<fl. 

Such  are  the  principles  by  which  nations, 
are  judged  !  This  is  the  true  religion  by 
which  the  fate  of  empires  is  regulated,  and 
which,  O  Ottomans,  has  ever  decided  that - 
of  your  own  empire  !  Interrogate  your  an- 
ceflors ;  alt  them  by  what  means  they  rofe 



to  greatnefs,  when,  Idolators,  few  in  number 
^nd  poor,  they  came  from  the  deferts  of 
Tartary  to  encamp  in  thefc  Lrtlle  countries? 
Aflc  them  if  it  v/a*^  by  iflaiijifm,  at  that  pe- 
riod unknown  to  them,  th.^t  they  conquered 
the  Greeks  and  A'-ibs;  or  by  tneir  courage, 
prudence,  niodcratioij,  and  unanimity,  the 
true  powers  of  the  focial  flate  ?  The  n  the 
Sultan  himfeh^admiuiftercdjuilice  and  main- 
tained order  :  then  the  prevaricating  judge 
and  the  rapacious  governor  were  punifhed., 
and  the  multitude  Uved  in  eafe  :  the  culti- 
vator was  fecure  from  the  rapine  of  the  jani- 
zary, and  the  fields  were  produdlive:  the 
public  roads  were  fafe,  and  commerce 
flouriflied.  It  is  true  you  were  a  league  of 
vobbers,  but.  among  yourfelves  you  v/ere 
jurt.  You  fubjugated  nations,  but  you  did 
not  opprefs  them.  Vexed  by  their  own 
princes  they  preferred  beingyour  tributaries. 
*^  Of  what  importance  is  it  to  me,  faid  the 
*'  Chriftian,  whether  my  mailer  be  pleafed 
"  with  images  or  breaks  them  in  pieces, 
i'  provided  he  is  jufl  towards  me  ?  God  will 
^'  judge  his  dodrine  in  heaven."  You  were 
temperate  and  hardy  >  your  enemies  foft  and 

effeminate : 

92  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

efFcmlnate :  you  were  fkilled  in  the  art  of 
battle;  they  had  forgotten  its  principles:  you 
had  experienced  chiefs,  warlike  and  difci- 
plined  troops  ^  the  hope  of  booty  excited  ar- 
dour;  bravery  was  recompenfed^difobedience 
and  cowardice  punifhed,  and  all  the  fprings  of 
the  human  heart  were  in  adion.  You  thus 
conquered  a  hundred  nations,  and  out  of  the 
mafs  founded  an  immenfe  empire. 

But  other  manners  fucceeded.  The  laws 
of  nature,  however,  did  not  lefs  operate  in 
your  misfortunes  than  in  your  profperity. 
You  deftroyed  your  enemies,  and  your  grafp- 
ing  ambition,  ftili  in  force, preyed  upon  your- 
felves.  Having  becom-e  rich,vou  commenced 
an  internal  contefl  refpediing  the  divifion  and 
the  enjoyment ofyour  riches,  and  diforder  was 
generated  through  every  clafs  of  yourfociety. 
The  Sultan,  intoxicated  v/ith  his  greatnefs, 
mifuiiderflood  the  object  of  his  fundions, 
and  all  the  vices  of  arbitrary  power  prefently 
unfolded  themfelves.  Meeting  with  no  ob- 
ftacle  to  his  defires,  he  became  a  depraved 
charadler.  Weak,  and  arrogant  at  the  fame 
time,  he  fpurned  the  people,  and  v/ould  no 
longer  be  influenced  and  direded  by  their 



Voice.  Ignorant, and  yet  flattered,  he  neglect- 
ed all  in{lrud:ion,all  fl:ady,and  funk  into  total 
incapacity.  Become  himfelf  unqualified  for 
the  condud:  of  affairs,  he  committed  the 
truil  to  hirelings,  and  thefe  hirelings  deceiv- 
ed him.  To  fatisfy  their  ov^n  paffions,  they 
ftimulated  and  increafed  his;  they  multi- 
plied his  v^ants,  and  his  enormous  luxury 
devoured  every  thing.  He  was  no  longer 
content  v/ith  the  frugal  table,  the  mode  ft 
attire,  and  the  fimple  habitation  of  his  an- 
ceftors :  the  earth  and  fea  muft  be  exhauftcd 
to  fatisfy  his  pride  ;  fcarce  furs^  muil  be 
fetched  from  the  pole,  andcoftly  tiffues  from 
the  equator;  he  confumed  at  a  meal  the  tri- 
bute of  a  city,  and  in  a  day  the  revenue  of  a 
province.  He  became  infefled  with  an  army 
of  women,  eunuchs,  and  courtiers.  He 
was  told  that  the  virtue  of  kings  confifted 
in  liberality  ;  and  the  munificence  and  trea- 
fures  of  the  people  were  delivered  into  the 
hands  of  parafites.  In  imitation  of  the  maf- 
ter,  the  flaves  were  alfo  defirous  of  having 
magnificent  houfes,  furniture  of  exquifite 
workmanfhip,  carpets  richly  embroidered, 
vafes  of  gold  and  filver  for  the  vileft  ufes ;  and  all 


g^  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

the  wealth  of  the  empire  was  fwallowed  up 

in  the  Serai. 

To  fupply  this  inordinate  luxury  the  flaves 
and  the  women  fold  their  influence;  and  ve-* 
nality  introduced  a  general  depravation. 
They  fold  the  favour  of  the  prince  to  the  Vi- 
fier,  and  the  Vifler  fold  the  empire.  They  fold 
the  law  to  the  Cadi,  and  the  Cadi  fold  juf- 
tice.  They  fold  the  altar  to  the  prieft,  and 
the  priefc  fold  heaven.  And  gold  obtain- 
ing every  thing,  nothing  was  left  unpradifed 
to  obtain  gold.  For  gold,  friend  betrayed 
friend  j  the  child  his  father  ;  the  fervant  his 
mailer;  the  wife  her  honour  ;  the  merchant 
his  confcience ;  and  there  no  longer  exifled 
in  the  ftate  either  good  faith,  manners,  con- 
cord, or  ftability. 

The  Pacha,  who  purchafed  his  office,  pre- 
fently  had  recourfe  to  the  fyilem  of  farming 
it  for  a  revenue,  and  exerciling  upon  it  every 
fpecies  of  extortion.  He  fold  the  colledlion 
of  the  taxes,  the  command  of  the  troops,  the 
adminiftration  of  the  diilridls;  and  inpropor^ 
tion  as  every  employment  was  temporary,  ra- 
pine, diffufing  itfelf  from  rank  to  rank,  was 
rapid  and  precipitate.  The  excifeman  op-» 
6  prefled 


prefled  the  merchant  by  his  exactions,  and 
trade  was  annihilated.  The  Aga  ftript  the 
huffcandnian,  and  cultivation  was  degraded. 
The  labourer,  robbed  of  his  little  capital,  had 
not  wherewith  to  fow  his  field :  taxes  never- 
thelefs  became  due,  and  he  was  unable  to 
pay  thein ;  he  was  threatened  with  corporal 
punifhrnent,  and  driven  to  the  expedient  of 
a  loan  :  fpec'e,  for  want  of  fecurity,  was 
withdrav/n  xrom  circulation ;  the  intereft  of 
money  became  enormous,  and  ufury  aggra- 
vated the  mifery  of  the  poor. 

Inclement  feafons,  periods  of  dearth,  had 
rendered  the  harvefts  abortive,  but  govern- 
ment would  neither  forgive  nor  poftpone  its 
demands.  Diftrefs  began  its  career :  a  part 
of  the  inhabitants  of  the  villao-es  took  refup-e 

o  o 

in  the  cities ;  the  burthen  upon  thofe  that 
remained  became  greater, their  ruin  was  con- 
fummated,  and  the  country  depopulated. 

Driven  to  the  laft  extremity  by  tyranny 
and  infult,  certain  villages  broke  out  into  re- 
bellion. The  Pacha  coniidered  the  event  as 
a  fubjeft  of  rejoicing ;  he  made  war  upon 
them,  took  their  houfes  by  ftorm,  ranfacked 
their  goods,  and  carried  off  their  cattle.  The 


5^  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

foil  became  a  defert,  and  he  exclaimed  * 
*'  What  care  I ;  1  fliall  be  removed  from  it 

Yet  again,  the  want  of  cultivation  led  one 
ftep  farther.  Periodical  rains  or  fwelling 
tides  overflowed  the  banks  and  covered  the 
country  with  fwamps :  thefe  fwamps  exhaled 
a  putrid  air,  which  fpread  chronical  difeafes, 
peftilence,  and  ficknefs  of  a  thoufand  formsy 
and  was  followed  by  a  flill  farther  decreafe 
of  population,  by  penury  and  ruin. 

Oh!  who  can  enumerate  all  the  evils  of 
this  tyrannical  fyftem  of  government  I 

Sometimes  the  Pachas  make  war  of  them- 
felves,  and  to  avenge  their  perfonal  quarrels^ 
provinces  are  laid  wafte.  Sometimes,  dread- 
ing their  mailers,  they  aim  at  independence^ 
and  draw  upon  their  fubjedis  the  chaftife- 
ment  of  their  revolt.  Sometimes,  fear- 
ing thefe  very  fubjeds,  they  call  to  their 
aid  and  keep  in  pay  foreign  trgops,  and  to 
be  fure  of  them,  they  indulge  them  in  every 
kind  of  robbery.  In  one  place,  they  com- 
mence an  action  againft  a  rich  man,  and 
plunder  him  upon  falfe  pretences.  In  an- 
other, they  fubcrn  witneffes,  and  impofe  a 


fine  for  an  imaginary  offence.  On  all  oc- 
calions  they  excite  the  hatred  of  fcdts  againft 
each  other,  and  encourage  informations  for 
the  fake  of  increafing  their  own  corrupt  ad- 
vantages. They  extort  from  men  their  pro- 
perty ;  they  attack  their  perfons  3  and  when 
their  imprudfent  avarice  has  heaped  into  one 
mafs  the  riches  of  a  province,  the  fupreme 
government,  with  execrable  perfidy,  pre- 
tending to  avenge  the  oppreffed  inhabitants^ 
draws  to  itfelf  their  fpoil  m  the  fpoil  of  the 
culprit,  and  wantonly  and  vainly  expiate  in 
blood  the  crime  of  which  it  was  itfelf  the 

O  iniquitous  beings,  fovereigns  or  mini- 
flers,  who  fport  with  the  life  and  property 
of  the  people  !  was  it  you  who  gave  breath 
to  man,  that  you  take  it  from  him  .?  Is  it 
you  who  fertilize  the  earth,  that  you  diffipate 
its  fruits  ?  Do  you  fatigue  your  arms  with 
ploughing  the  field  ?  Do  you  expofe  your- 
feives  to  the  heat  of  the  fun,  and  endure 
the  torment  of  third  in  cutting  down  the 
harveft  and  binding  it  into  flieaves  ?  Do  you 
watch  like  the  f[:iepherd  in  the  nocturnal 

H  dew  ? 

98  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

dew  ?  Do  you  traverfe  dcferts  like  the  inde- 
fatigable merchant?  Alas!  when  1  have  je- 
fiedled  on  the  cruelty  and  infolence  of  the 
powerful,  my  indignation  has  been  roufed, 
and  I  liave  faid  in  my  anger  :  What !  will 
there  never  appear  upon  the  earth  a  race  of 
men  who  fhall  avenge  the  people  and  punifh 
tyrants!  A  Imall  number  of  robbers  devour 
the  multitude,  and  the  multitude  fuffer  them- 
felves  to  be  devoured  !  O  degraded  people, 
awake  to  the  recognition  of  your  rights  ! 
authority  proceeds  from  you,  yours  is  all  the 
power.  Vainly  do  kings  command  you  i?i 
the  none  of  God  and  by  thtir  lance  :  foldiers, 
obey  not  the  fummons.  Since  God  fupports 
the  Sultan,  your  fuccour  is  ufelefs;  fmce  the 
fword  of  heaven  fuffices  him,  he  has  no  need 
of  yours;  let  us  fee  what  he  can  do  of  him- 
felf. .  . .  The  foldiers  have  laid  down  their 
armsi  and  lo,  the  mafters  of  the  world  are  as 
feeble  as  the  meaneft  of  their  fubjedts  !  Ye 
people,  know  then  that  thofe  who  govern 
you  are  your  chiefs  and  not  your  mafters  -, 
your  guardians  appointed  by  yourfelves,  and 
not  your  proprietors;  that  your  wealth  is 



your  own,  and  to  you  they  are  accountable 
for  the  adminiftration  of  it ;  that  kings  or 
fubjects,  God  has  made  all  men  equal,  and 
no  human  being  has  a  right  to  opprefs  his 

But  this  nation  and  its  chiefs  acknowledge 
not  thefe  facred  truths.  ...  Be  it  fo ;  they 
will  fufFer  the  confequences  of  their  error. 
The  decree  is  gone  forth;  the  day  approaches 
when  this  coloffus  of  power  ihall  be  dalhed 
to  pieces,  and  fall  crulhed  by  its  own  weight. 
Yes,  I  fwear  by  the  ruins  of  fo  many  de- 
moliihed  empires,  that  the  crefcent  fhall 
undergo  the  fame  fate  as  the  flates  whofe 
mode  of  government  it  has  imitated  !  A 
foreign  people  (hall  drive  the  Sultans  from 
their  metropolis;  the  throne  of  Orkhan  fhall 
be  fub verted  5  the  laft  fhoot  of  his  race  fhall 
be  cut  off;  and  the  horde  of  the  Oguzians  (/), 
deprived  of  their  chief,  fhall  be  difperfed  like 
that  of  the  Nogaians.  In  this  diffolution 
the  fubjeds  of  the  empire,  freed  from  the 
yoke  that  held  them  together,  will  refume 
their  ancient  diflindlions,  and  a  general  anar- 
chy will  take  place,  as  happened  in  the  em- 
H  2  pirc 

iOO  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

pire  of  the  Sophls  (?/),  till  there  fhall  arife 
among  the  Arab?,  the  Armenians,  or  the 
Greeks,  legiflators  who  fliall  form  nevvftates. 
Oh !  were  a  fagacious  and  hardy  race  of  men 
to  be  found,  what  n.aterials  of  greatnefs  and 
glory  are  here  !  ....But  the  hour  of  defliny 
is  arrived.  The  cry  of  war  llrikes  my  ear, 
and  the  cataftrophe  is  about  to  commence. 
In  vain  the  Sultan  draws  out  his  armies  ; 
his  ignorant  foldiers  are  beaten  and  fcattered. 
In  vain  he  calls  upon  his  fubjecfts :  their 
hearts  are  callous  j  his  fubjedls  reply :  *'  It 
**  is  decreed;  and  what  is  it  to  us  who  is 
*^  to  be  our  mafter  ?  Vve  cannot  lofe  by  the 
"  change."  In  vain  thefe  true  believers  in- 
voke heaven  and  the  prophet,  the  prophet 
is  dead,  and  heaven  without  pity  anfwcrs : 
"  Ceafe  to  call  upon  me.  You  are  the  au- 
V^  thors  of  your  calamities,  find  yourfelves 
"  their  remedy.  Nature  has  eftablifluxl 
*'  law^s,  it  becomes  you  to  pradife  them. 
**  Examine  and  reiiettt  upon  the  events  that 
**  take  place,  and  profit  by  experience.  It 
**  is  the  folly  of  man  that  works  his  deftrnc- 
**  tion  J  it  is  his  wifdom  that  muft  fave  him. 

''  The 


"  The  people  are  ignorant ;  let  them  get  un- 
"  derftanding :  their  chiefs  are  depraved;  let 
'^  them  correct  their  vices  and  amend  their 
"  lives,  for  fuch  is  the  decree  of  nature  : 
"  Smce  the  evils  of  fociety  fiow  from  igno- 

*^  RANGE    ^W  INORDINATE    DESIRE,    men 

"  will  never  ceafe  to  he  tormented  till  they 

^^  floall  become  intelligent  ajid  wife  \  till  they 

^'  fiall  praBife  the  art  of  jiiftice,  foimded  on 

*^  a   knowledge   of  the    various   relations  in 

"  which  they  f  and,  and  the  laws  of  their  own 

**  organization  *." 


*  A  fingular  moral  phenomenon  made  its  appearance 
In  Europe  in  the  year  1788.  A  great  nation,  jealous  of 
its  liberty,  contraded  a  fondnefs  for  a  nation  the  enemy 
of  liberty  ;  a  nation  friendly  to  the  arts  for  a  nation  that 
detefts  them ;  a  mild  and  tolerant  nation  for  a  perfecuting 
and  fanatic  one;  a  focial  and  gay  nation  for  a  nation 
whofe  chara6i:eriftic  are  gloom  and  mifanthropy ;  in  a 
word,  the  French  were  fmitten  with  a  pafHon  for  the 
Turks  :  they  were  defirous  of  engaging  in  a  war  for 
them,  and  that  at  a  time  when  a  revolution  in  their  own 
country  was  juft  at  its  commencement.  A  man  who 
perceived  the  true  nature  of  the  fituation,  wrote  a  book 
to  difiuade  them  from  the  war  :  it  was  immediately  pre- 
tended that  he  was  paid  by  the  government,  which  in 
reality  wifhed  the  war,  and  which  was  upon  the  point  of 
(hutting  him  up  in  a  ftate  prifon.     Another  man  wrote 

H  3  tq 

102  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

CHAP.     XIII. 


Oppressed  with  forrow  at  the  predic- 
tions  of  the  Genius,  and  the  feverity  of  his 
reafoning  :  Unhappy  nations,  cried  I,  burfl- 

to  recommerid  the  war  :  he  was  applauded,  and  his  word 
was  taken  in  payment  for  the  fcience,  the  politenefs  and 
importance  of  the  Turks.  It  is  true  that  he  beheved  in 
his  own  thefis,  for  he  had  found  among  them  people  who 
call  a  nativity,  and  alchcmifts  who  ruined  his  fortune; 
as  he  found  Martinifts  at  Paris,  who  enabled  him  to  fup 
with  Sefoflris,  and  iVIagnetifers  who  concluded  with  de- 
ftroyiiig  his  cxiflcnce.  Notwithlbnding  this,  the  Turks 
were  beaten  by  che  Ruffian^:,  and  the  man  who  then 
predided  the  fall  of  their  empire,  perfifts  in  the  predic- 
tion. The  refuk  of  this  fall  will  be  a  conaplete  change 
of  the  political  fyftem,  as  far  as  it  relates  to  the  coaft  of 
the  Mediter.aneun  If,  however,  the  French  become 
important  in  proportion  as  they  become  free,  and  if  they 
make  ufc  of  ihe  advantage  they  will  obtain,  their  progrefs 
may  eafily  prove  of  the  moft  honourable  iort,  inafmuch 
as,  by  the  wife  decrees  of  fate,  the  true  intereft  of  man- 
yjmd  eveimore  accords  with  their  true  morality. 


ing  into  tears  !  Unhappy  my  own  lot  !  I 
now  defpair  of  the  felicity  of  man  !  iince 
his  evils  flow  from  his  owa  heart,  fmce  he 
muft  himfelf  apply  the  remedy,  woe  for 
'  ever  to  his  exigence  !  For  what  can  reftraih 
the  inordinate  defire  of  the  powerful  ?  ¥/ho 
fhall  enlighten  the  ignorance  of  the  weak  ? 
Who  inftradt  the  multitude  in  the  know- 
ledge of  its  rights,  and  force  the  chiefs  to 
difcharge  the  duties  of  their  ftation  ?  Indivi- 
dual will  not  ceafe  to  opprefs  individual,  one 
nation  to  attack  another  nation,  and  never 
will  the  day  of  profperity  and  glory  again 
dawn  upon  thefe  countries.  Alas  !  con- 
querors will  come;  they  v/ill  drive  away  the 
oppreffors,  and  will  eflablifh  themfelves  in 
their  place  ;  but,  fucceeding  to  their  power, 
they  will  fucceed  alfo  to  their  rapacity,  and 
the  earih  will  have  changed  its  tyrants, 
without  leffening  the  tyranny. 

Then  turning  towards  the  Genius :  O 
Genius !  faid  I,  defpair  has  taken  hold  of 
my  heart.  While  you  have  inftrudled  me 
in  the  nature  of  man,  the  depravity  of  go- 
vernors, and  the  abjednefs  of  thofe  who 

H  4  are 

104  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

are  governed,  have  given  me  a  difguft  to 
life  ;  and  firxe  there  is  no  alternative  but 
to  be  the  accoFxiplice  or  the  vidliai  of  op- 
prefTion,  what  has  the  virtuous  man  to  do 
but  to  join  his  ailics  to  thofe  of  the  tonibs ! 

The  Genius,  fixing  upon  me  a  look  of 
fcverity  mixed  with  compaffion,  v^as  filent. 
After  a  few  minutes  he  replied  :  Is  it  then 
in  dying  that  virtue  confifts  ?  The  wicked 
man  is  indeflitigable  in  the  confummation  of 
vice,  and  the  juft  diflieartened  at  the  firft 
obftacle  which  flands  in  the  way  of  doing 
good  !  .  .  . .  But  fuch  is  the  human  heart : 
fuccefs  intoxicates  it  to  prefumption,  difap- 
pointment  dejeds  and  terrifies  it.  Always 
the  vicflim  of  the  fenfation  of  the  moment, 
it  judges  not  of  tilings  by  their  nature  but 
by  the  impulfe  of  pafhon. .  .  .  Mortal,  v/ho 
defpaireft  of  the  human  race,  upon  what 
profound  calculation  of  reafonings  and  events 
is  your  judgment  formed  ?  Have  you  fcru- 
tinized  the  organization  of  fenfible  beings, 
to  determine  with  precifion  whether  the 
fprings.that  incline  them  to  happinefs  are 
weaker  than  thofe  v/hich  repel  ?   or  rather, 



viewing  at  a  glance  the  kiilory  of  the  fpecies, 
and  judging  of  the  future  by  the  example 
of  the  pail,  have  you  hence  difcovered  with 
certainty,  that  all  proficiency  is  impofiible  ?. 
Let  me  afk :  Have  focieties,  iince  their 
origin,  made  no  flep  towards  inftruction  and 
a  better  (late  of  things  ?  Are  men  fllll  in 
the  woods,  deilitute  of  every  thing,  igno- 
rant, fl:upid,  and  ferocious  ?  Are  there  no 
nations  advanced  beyond  the  period,  when 
nothing  w^as  to  be  feen  upon  the  face  of  the 
globe  but  favage  freebooters  or  favage  Haves  ? 
If  individuals  have  at  certain  times,  and  in 
certain  places,  become  better,  v/hy  fliould 
not  the  mafs  improve  ?  If  particular  focieties 
have  attained  a  conliderable  des^ree  of  oer- 
fedion,  why  fliould  not  the  prcgrefs  of  the 
general  fociety  advance  ?  If  firil:  obftacles 
have  been  overcome,  why  fhould  fucceed- 
ing  ones  be  infurmountable  ? 

But  you  are  of  opinion  that  the  human 
race  is  degenerating  ?  G  uard  yourfelf  againfi: 
the  illufion  and  paradoxes  of  mifanthropy. 
DifTatisfied  with  the  prefent,  man  fuppofes 
in  the  pall  a  perfedion  which  does  not  exifl:, 


I06  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

and  v/hich  is  merely  the  difcoloration  of  his 
chagrin.  He  praiies  the  dead  from  enmity 
to  the  living,  and  employs  the  bones  of  the 
fathers  as  an  inftrumuent  of  chafLifement 
againfi:  the  children. 

To  eftablilh  this  principle  of  a  retrograde 
perfedion,  it  is  neceffary  that  we  Ihould  con- 
tradict the  tcftimony  of  fa 61s  and  reaibn. 
Nor  is  this  all ;  the  fads  of  hiftory  might 
indeed  be  equivocal,  but  it  is  farther  necef- 
farv  that  we  Ihould  contradid  the  living  fad 
of  the  nature  of  maan  -,  that  we  Ihould  a&rt 
that  he  is  born  with  a  perfed  fcience  in  the 
life  of  his  fcnfes  ^  that,  previous  to  e:Lpe- 
rience,  lie  is  ab'e  to  diflinguiLJi  poifon  from 
diment;  that  the  fagacity  of  the  infant  is 
greater  than  that  of  his  bearded  progenitor; 
that  the  blind  man  can  walk  with  m.ore 
affurance  than  the  endued  with  fight ; 
that  ma:i,  the  creature  of  civilization,  is  lefs 
favoured  by  circumflances  than  the  canni- 
bal; in  a  word,  that  there  is  no  truth  in 
the  exifting  gradation  of  inftrudtion  and  ex-? 

Young  man,  believe  the  voice  of  tombs 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         I07 

and  the  teftimony  of  monuments.  There  are 
countries  which  have  doubtlefs  fallen  off 
from  what  they  were  at  certain  epochas  : 
but  if  the  under  (landing  were  to  anilyfe 
thoroughly  the  wifdom  and  felicity  of  their 
inhabitants  at  thofe  periods,  their  glory 
would  be  found  to  have  lefs  of  reality  than 
of  fplendour;  it  would  be  feea,  that  evea  in 
the  moft  celebrated  flates  of  antiquity,  there 
exifted  enormous  vices  and  cruel  abuf^s,  the 
precife  caufe  of  their  inftability  -,  that  ia 
general  the  principles  of  government  vv'ere 
atrocious ;  that,  from  people  to  people, 
audacious  robbery,  barbarous  wars,  and  im- 
placable animofities  were  prevalent  (x) ;  that 
natural  right  was  unknown  ;  that  morality 
was  perverted  by  fenfelefs  fanaticifrn  and  de- 
plorable fuperdition ;  that  a  dream,  a  vifion, 
an  oracle,  were  the  frequent  occaiioa  of  the 
moil  terrible  commotions.  Nations  are  not 
perhaps  yet  free  from  the  power  of  thefe 
evils  ;  but  their  force  is  at  leall  diminiihed, 
and  the  experience  of  pail  times  has  not 
been  v/holly  loft.  Within  the  three  laft 
centuries  efpecially,  the  light  ot  knowledge 


joS  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

has  been  increafed  and  dilTeminatcd;  civili- 
zation, aided  by  various  happy  circumftances, 
has  perceptibly  advanced,  and  even  inconve- 
niences and  abufes  have  proved  advantageous 
to  it :  for  if  conquers  have  extended  king- 
doms and  fcates  beyond  due  bounds,  the 
people  of  different  countries,  uniting  under 
the  fame  yoke,  have  loft  that  fpirit  of  ef- 
trangement  and  divifion  which  made  them 
all  enemies  to  one  another.  If  the  hands  of 
power  have  been  flrengthened,  an  additional 
degree  of  fyflem  and  harmony  has  at  lead 
been  introduced  in  its  exercife.  If  wars 
have  become  more  general  in  the  m.afs  of 
their  influence  and  operation,  they  have  been 
lefs  dcfLnidtive  in  their  details.  If  the  peo- 
ple carry  to  the  combat  lefs  perfonality  and 
Icfs  exertion,  their  ftruggles  are  lefs  fangui- 
nary  and  ferocious.  If  they  are  lefs  free, 
they  are  lefs  turbulent  -,  if  they  are  more 
effeminate^  they  are  more  pacific.  Defpo- 
tifm  itfelf  feems  not  to  have  been  unpro- 
ductive of  advantages  :  for  if  the  govern- 
ment has  been  abfolute,  it  has  been  lefs  per- 
turbed and  tempcfl'uous  3    if  thrones  have 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         I09 

been  regarded  as  hereditary  property,  they 
have  excited  lefs  diffention,  and  expofed  the 
people  to  fewer  con vulfions ;  in  fine,  if  def- 
pots,  with  timid  and  myfteriousjealoufy  have 
interdicted  all  knowledge  of  their  admini- 
ftration,  all  rivalfliip  for  the  diredion  of  af- 
fairs, the  paffions  of  mankind,  excluded  from 
the  political  career,  have  fixed  upon  the  arts 
and  the  fcience  of  nature;  the  fphere  of  ideas 
has  been  enlarged  on  every  fide;  man,  de- 
voted to  abfiract  fi:iidies,  has  better  under- 
fcood  his  place  in  the  fyllem  of  nature,  and 
his  focial  relations ;  principles  have  been 
more  fully  difcufi^ed,  objecfls  more  accurately 
difcerned,  knowledge  more  widely  difFufed, 
individuals  made  more  capable,  manners 
more  fociable,  life  more  benevolent  and 
pleafing  ;  the  fpecies  at  large,  particularly 
in  certain  countries,  have  been  evidentlv 
gainers  :  nor  can  this  improvement  fail  to 
proceed,  fince  its  two  principal  obfi:acles, 
thofe  v/hich  have  hitherto  rendered  it  fo 
ilow,  and  frequently  retrograde,  the  difii- 
culty  of  tranfmitting  ideas  from  age  to  age, 
and  communicating  them  rapidly  from  man 
to  man,  have  been  removed. 


110  A    SURVEY    OF     TH2 

With  the  people  of  antiquity,  twtry  can- 
ton and  every  city,  having  a  language  pecu- 
liar to  itleif,  flood  aloof  from  the  reft,  and 
the  refult  was  favourable  to  ignorance  and 
anarchy :  they  had  no  communication  of 
ideas,  no  participation  of  diicoveries,  no. 
harmony  of  interefls  or  of  will,  no  unity  of 
adion  or  condudt.  Befide,  the  only  means 
of  diffufiiig  and  tranfmitting  ideas  being 
thjit  of  fpeech,  fugitive  and  limited,  and 
thiit  of  writing,  flow  of  execution,  expenfive, 
and  acquired  by  f-w,  there  refulted  an  ex- 
treme difficulty  as  to  inflrudtion  in  the  firft 
iiaftance,  the  lofs  of  advantages  one  genera- 
tion might  derive  from  the  experience  of 
another,  inftability,  retrogradation  of  fci- 
ence,  and  one  unvaried  fcene  oi  chaos  and 

On  the  contrary.  In  the  modern  world, 
and  particularly  in  Europe,  great  nations 
having  allied  themfclves  by  a  fort  of  uni- 
verfal  language,  the  firm  of  opinion  has  been 
placed  upon  a  broader  bafis  ;  the  minds  of 
men  have  fympathifed,  their  hearts  have  en- 
larged ;  we  have  feen  agreement  in  think- 
ing, and  concord  in  adting :  in  fine,  that 
2  facred 


facred  art,  that  memorable  gift  of  celeftial 
genius,  the  prefs,  furniflied  a  means  of  com- 
municating, of  diffusing  at  one  inftant  any 
idea  to  millions  of  the  fpecies,  and  of  giving 
it  a  permanence  which  all  the  power  of  ty- 
rants has  been  able  neither  to  fufpend  nor 
to  fapprefs.  Hence  has  the  vaft  mafs  of 
inftruAion  perpetually  increafed  -,  hence  has 
the  atmofphere  of  truth  continually  grown 
brighter,  and  a  ftrength  of  mind  been  pro- 
duced that  is  in  no  fear  of  counteraction. 
And  this  improvement  is  the  neceiTary  effedl 
of  the  laws  of  nature ;  for  by  the  law  of 
fenfation,  man  as  invincibly  tends  to  make 
himfelf  happy,  as  the  flame  to  afcend,  the 
ftone  to  gravitate,  the  water  to  gain  its  level. 
His  ignorance  is  the  obftacle  which  mifleads 
him  as  to  the  means,  and  deceives  him  re- 
fpcdling  caufes  and  effedls.  By  force  of 
experience  he  will  become  enlightened;  by 
force  of  errors  he  will  fet  himfelf  right;  he 
will  become  wife  and  good,  becaufe  it  is  his 
intereft  to  be  fo :  and  ideas  communicating 
themfelves  through  a  nation,  v/hole  claffes 
will  be  inflrufted,  fcience  will  be  univer- 


112  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

lally  familiar,  and  all  men  will  underiland 
what  are  the  principles  of  individual  happi- 
nefs  and  of  public  felicity  ^  they  will  under- 
ftand  what  are  their  refpedtive  relations, 
their  rights,  and  their  duties,  in  the  focial 
order  ;  they  will  no  longer  be  the  dupes  of 
inordinate  delire ;  they  will  perceive  that 
morality  is  a  branch  of  the  fcience  of  phy* 
fics,  compofed  it  is  true  of  elements,  com- 
plicated in  their  operation,  but  fimple  and 
invariable  in  their  nature,  as  being  no  other 
than  the  elements  of  human  organization  it- 
felf.  They  will  feel  the  neceffity  of  being 
moderate  and  jufl,  becaufe  therein  confiits 
the  advantage  and  fecurity  of  each ;  that  to 
wifh  to  enjoy  at  the  expence  of  another  is  a 
falfe  calculation  of  ignorance,  becaufe  the 
refult  of  iuch  proceeding,  are  reprifals,  en- 
mity, and  revenge  -,  and  that  difhonefty  is 
invariably  the  offspring  of  folly. 

Individuals  will  feel  that  private  happi- 
nefs  is  allied  to  the  happinefs  of  fociety  : 

The  weak,  tliat  inftead  of  dividing  their 
interefcs,  they  ought  to  unite,  becaufe  equa.- 
lity  conftitutes  their  ftrength  ; 



The  rich,  that  the  meafure  of  enjoyment 
is  limited  by  t'  e  conftitution  of  the  organs, 
and  that  laflitude  foiiows  fatiety  : 

The  poor,  that  the  highefl  degree  of  hu- 
man felicity  coniifts  in  peace  of  mind  and 
the  due  employment  of  time  : 

Public  opinion,  reaching  kings  on  their 
thrones,  will  oblige  them  to  keep  themfelves 
within  the  bounds  of  a  regular  authority  : 

Chance  itieif,  ierving  ihe  caufe  of  nations, 
will  give  them  fometimes^  incapable  chiefs, 
who,  throuo-h  weaknef^,  will  fuff;;r  them  to 
become  free  ;  and  fometimes  enlightened 
chiefs,  who  will  virtuoufly  emancipate  them: 
Individuality  Will  be  a  term  of  greater  com- 
preheniion,  and  nations,  free  and  enlightened 
will  hereafter  become  one  complex  individu- 
al, as  iingle  men  are  now:  the  confequences 
will  be  proportione-i  to  the  flate  of  things. 
The  communication  of  knowledge  will  ex- 
tend from  fociety  to  fociety,  till  it  compre- 
hends the  whole  earth.  By  the  law  of  imi- 
tation the  example  of.  one  people  will  be 
followed  by  others,  who  will  adopt  its  fpirit 
and  its  laws.  Defpots  themfelves,  per- 
ceiving that  they  can  no  longer  maintain 

I  their 

114  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

their  power  without  juilice  and  beneficence^ 
will  be  induced,  both  from  necefiity  and  ri- 
valihip,  to  foften  the  rigour  of  their  govern- 
ment ;  and  civilization  will  be  univerfal. 

Among  nations  there  will  be  eflablidied 
an  equilibrium  of  force,  which,  confining 
them  within  the  limits  of  juft  refped:  for 
their  reciprocal  rights,  will  put  an  end  to  the 
barbarous  practice  of  Vv^ar,  and  induce  them 
to  fubmit  to  civil  arbitration  the  dccifion  of 
their  dlfputes  {y)  ;  and  the  whole  fpecies  will 
become  one  grand  fociety,  one  individual 
family  governed  by  the  fame  fpirit,  by  com- 
mon lav/s,  and  enjoying  all  the  felicity  of 
which  human  nature  is  capable. 

This  great  work  VnhU  doubtlefs  be  long 
accompliining,  becaulc  it  is  necefi^ary  that 
one  and  the  fame  miOtion  (liould  be  commu- 
nicated to  the  various  parts  of  an  immenfe 
body;  that  the  fam^e  kaven  Iliould  afiimilate 
an  enormous  mafs  of  heterogeneous  elements : 
but  this  motion  will  effe^lually  operate  Al- 
ready fociety  at  large,  having  pafied  through 
the  fame  ftages  as  particular  focieties  have 
done,  promifes  to  lead  to  the  fame  rcfults. 
At  firft,  difconnedted  in  its  parts,  each  in- 


dividual  flood  alone  ;  and  this  intelleduai 
folitude  conftituted  its  age  of  anarchy  and 
childhood.  Divided  afterwards  into  fedlions 
of  irregular  iize,  as  chance  direcled,  which 
have  been  called  dates  and  kingdoms,  it  has 
experienced  th^  fatal  efFeds  which  refult 
from  the  inequality  of  wealth  and  condi- 
tions ;  and  the  ariftocracy  by  w^hich  great 
empires  have  domineered  over  their  depen- 
dencies, have  formed  its  fecond  age.  In  pro- 
cefs  of  time,  thefe  paramount  chiefs  of  the 
globe  have  difputed  w^ith  each  other  forfupe- 
riority,  and  then  was  feen  the  period  of  fac- 
tions and  civil  broils.  And  novv  the  parties, 
tired  of  their  difcords  and  feeling  the  want  of 
laws,  iigh  for  the  epocha  ot  order  and  tran- 
quillity. Let  but  a  virtuous  chief  arife,  a 
powerful  and  juft  people  appear,  and  the 
earth  will  arrive  at  fupreme  powder.  It  waits 
a  legiilative  people;  this  is  the  objed:  of  its 
wiflies  and  its  prayers,  and  my  heart  hears  its 

voice Then  turning  to  the  quarter  of 

the  Weil: :  Yes,  continued  he,  a  hollow  noifc 
dready  ilrikes  my  ear ;  the  cry  of  liberty, 
uttered  upon  the  farther  fhore  of  the  Atlan- 
tic, has  reached  to  the  old  continent.  At 
I  2  this 

Il6  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

this  cry  a  fecret  murmur  againft  oppreffion 
is  excited  in  a  powerful  nation  -,  a  falutary 
alarm  takes  place  refpeding  itsfituation  ;  it 
enquires  what  it  is  and  what  it  ought  to  be  ; 
it  examines  into  its  rights,  its  refources,  and 
what  has  been  the  conduct  of  its  chiefs  .... 
One  day,  one  reflection  more  ....  and  an 
immenfe  agitation  will  arife,  a  new  age  will 
make  its  appearance,  an  age  of  aflonifiiment 
to  vulgar  minds,  cf  furprife  and  dread  to 
tyrants,  of  emancipation  to  a  great  people, 
and  of  hope  to  the  wdiole  world. 



CHAP.      XIV. 


1  H  E  Genius  ftopt.  My  mind  however, 
preoccupied  with  gloomy  forebodings,  yield- 
ed not  to  perfuafion  ;  but  fearful  of  offend- 
ing him  by  oppoiition,  I  made  no  reply. 
After  a  fhort  interval;  fixing  on  me  a  look 
that  tranfpierced  my  foul :  You  are  iilent, 
faid  he,  and  your  heart  is  agitated  with 
thoughts  which  it  dares  not  utter  ! — Con- 
fufed  and  terrified  :  O  Genius,  I  made  an- 
fwer,  pardon  my  weaknefs  :  truth  alone  has 
doubtlefs  proceeded  from  your  lips;  but  your 
celeflial  intelligence  can  diilinguifh  its  traits, 
where  to  my  grofs  faculties  there  appear  no- 
thing but  clouds.  I  acknowledge  it,  con- 
vidlion  has  not  penetrated  my  foul,  and  I 
feared  that  my  doubts  might  give  you  of- 

And  what  is   doubt,   replied  he,   that  it 

fhould  be  regarded  as  a  crime  ?   Has  man 

the  power  of  thinking  contrary  to  the  im- 

preflions  that  are  made  upon  him?  If  a  truth 

I  3  b« 

Il8  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

be  palpable,  and  its  obfervance  important, 
let  us  ipi''.y  the  man  who  does  not  perceive  it : 
his  puniflimcnt  will  infallibly  foring  from  his 
blindnefs.  If  it  be  uhcer>:ain  and  equivocal, 
how  is  he  to  find  in  it  what  does  not  exifl  ? 
To  believe  without  evidence  arid  demionftra- 
tion  is  an  adl  of  ignorance  and  folly.  The 
credulous  man  involves  himieif  in  a  labyrinth 
ofcontradidions;  the  man  of  fenfe  examines 
and  difcufies  every  queftion,  that  he  may  be 
confiflent  in  his  opinions;  he  can  endure  con- 
tradition,  becaufe from  the  colliiion  evidence 
arifes.  Violence  is  the  argument  of  falfe- 
hood ;  and  to  impofe  a  creed  authoritatively, 
is  the  index  and  proceeding  of  a  tyrant. 

Emboldened  by  thefe  fentiments,  I  re- 
plied :  O  Genius,  fince  my  feafon  is  free,  I 
ftrive  in  vain  to  welcome  the  flattering  hope 
with  which  you  would  conible  me.  The 
fenfible  and  virtuous  foul  is  prone  enough  to 
be  hurried  away  by  dreams  of  fancied  hap- 
pinefs ;  but  a  cruel  reahty  incefiantly  recais 
its  attention  to  fuffering  and  wretchednefs. 
The  mors  I  meditate  on  the  nature  of  man, 
the  more  I  examine  the  prefent  ftateof  focie- 
ty,  the  lefs  poffible  does  it  appear  to  me 
'  .    .   •  that 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         119 

that  a  world  of  wifdom  and  felicity  fliould 
ever  be  realized,  1  farvey  the  face  of  our 
whole  hemifphere,  and  no  where  can  I  per- 
ceive the  germ  of  a  happy  revolution.  All 
Aiia  is  buried  in  the  moft  profound  dark- 
nefs.  The  Chinefe,  fubjeded  to  an  info- 
lent  defpotifm  (2;),  dependent  for  their  for- 
tune upon  the  deciiion  of  lots,  and  held  in 
awe  by  flrokes  of  the  bamboo,  enilaved  by 
the  immutability  of  their  code,  and  by  the 
irremediable  vice  of  their  language,  offer  to 
my  view  an  abortive  civilization  and  a  race 
of  automata.  The  Indian,  fettered  by  pre- 
judice, and  manacled  by  the  inviolable  infti- 
tution  of  his  cafts,  vegetates  in  an  incurable 
apathy.  The  Tartar,  wandering  or  fixed, 
at  all  times  ignorant  and  ferocious,  lives  in 
the  barbarity  of  his  ancefliors.  The  Arab, 
endowed  with  a  happy  genius,  lofes  its  force 
and  the  fruit  of  his  labour  in  the  anarchy  of 
his  tribes,  and  the  jealoufy  of  his  families. 
The  African,  degraded  from  the  ftate  of 
man,  feems  irremediably  devoted  to  fervi- 
tude.  In  the  North  1  fee  nothing  but  ferfs, 
reduced  to  the  level  of  cattle,  the  live  flock 
of  the  eftate  upon  which  they  live  ( i ).  Jg- 
I  4  norance, 

ISO  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

norance,  tyranny,  and  wretchednefs  have 
every  where  flruck  the  natjons  with  ilupor  ; 
and  vicious  habiis,  depraving  the  natural 
fenfes,  have  deriroye,;  the  very  inftind:  of 
happinefs  and  truth.  In  fome  countries  of 
Europe,  indeed,  reafon  begins  to  expand  its 
wings  ;  but  even  there,  is  the  knowledge  of 
individual  minds  common  to  the  nation  ? 
Has  the  fuperiority  of  the  government  been 
turned  to  the  advantage  of  the  people  ?  And 
the'e  people,  who  call  themfelves  poliflied, 
are  they  not  thofe  who  three  centuries  ago 
filled  the  earth  with  their  inju (lice  ?  Are  they 
not  thofe  who,  under  the  pretext  of  corn- 
merce,  laid  India  vvafle,  difpcopled  a  new 
continent,  and  who  at  prefent  fubjedt  x'\frica 
to  the  mOil:  ialiuman  llavery  ?  Can  liberty 
fpring  up  out  of  the  bofom  of  defpots,  and 
juftice  be  adminijftered  by  the  hands  of  ra- 
pacity and  avarice?  O  Genius !  I  have  be- 
held civilized  countries,  and  the  illulion  of 
their  wifdom  has  vanilTicd  from  my  fight. 
I  faw  riches  accumulated  in  the  hands  of 
a  few  individuals,  and  the  multitude  poor 
and  deftitute.  I  faw  ail  right  and  pov/er 
concentered  in  certain  claffes,  and  the  mafs 
^1  of 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        121 

of  the  people  paffive  and  dependent.  I  faw 
the  palaces  of  princes,  but  no  incorporation 
of  individuals  as  fuch,  no  common- hall  of 
nations.  I  perceived  the  deep  attention  that 
v^as  given  to  the  interefts  of  government;  but 
no  public  interefl,-  no  fympathetic  fpirit.  I 
faw  that  the  whole  fcience  of  thofe  who  com- 
mand confided  in  prudently  oppreffing;  and 
the  refined  fervitude  of  poliffied  nations  onl}^ 
appeared  to  me  the  more  irremediable. 

With  one  obftacie  in  particular  my  mind 
was  feniibly  flruck.  In  furveying  the  globe, 
I  perceived  that  it  was  divided  into  twenty 
different  fyilems  of  religious  worihip.  Each 
nation  has  received,  or  formed  for  itfelf,  op- 
pofite  opinions,   and  afcribing  to   itfelf  ex- 

♦  clulively  the  truth,  has  imagined  every  other 
to  be  in  error.    But  if,  as  is  the  fad:,  in  this 

,  difcordance  the  majority  deceive  them- 
felves,  and  deceive  themfelves  with  lincerity, 
it  follows  that  the  human  mind  as  readily 
imbibes  falfehood  as  truth;  and  in  that  cafe 
how  is  it  to  be  enlightened  ?  How  are  preju- 
dices to  be  extirpated  that  firft  take  root  in 
the  mind  ?  How  is  the  bandage  to  be  re- 
moved from  the  eyes,  when  the  firft  article 


112  A    SURVEY   OF     THE 

in  every  creed,  the  firfl  dogma  of  all  religions, 
is  the  profcription  of  doubt,  of  examination, 
and  of  the  right  of  private  judgment?  How 
is  truth  to  make  itfelf  known  ?  If  /he  refort 
to  the  demonftration  of  argument,  pufilla- 
nimous  man  appeals  againfl:  evidence  to  his 
confcience.  If  fhe  call  in  the  aid  of  divine 
authority,  already  prepoHelled,  he  oppofes  an 
authority  of  a  iimilar  kind,  and  treats  all  in- 
novation as  blafphemy.  Thus,  in  his  blind- 
nefs,  riveting  the  chains  upon  himfelf,  does 
he  become  the  fport  of  his  ignorance  and 
paflions.  To  dilTolve  thefe  fatal  fhackles, 
a  miraculous  concurrence  of  happy  circum- 
ftances  would  be  necefTary.  It  would  be 
rieceilary  that  a  whole  nation,  cured  of  the 
delirium  of  fuperftition,  fliould  no  longer  be 
liable  to  the  impreffions  of  fanaticifm;  that, 
freed  from  the  yoke  of  a  falfe  doctrine,  it 
fhould  voluntarily  embrace  the  genuine  fyf- 
tem  of  morality  andreafon;  that  it  (liould  be- 
come at  once  courageous  and  prudent,  wife 
and  docile;  that  every  individual,  acquainted 
with  his  rights,  fhould  fcrupulouily  obferve 
their  limits;  and  the  poor  fhould  know  how 
to  reiifl  fedudiion,  and  the  rich  the  allure- 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         123 

ments  of  avarice ;  that  there  fhould  be 
found  upright  and  diiinterefted'chiefs  ;  that 
its  tyrants  lliould  be  feized  with  a  fpirit  of 
madnefs  and  folly ;  that  the  people,  reco- 
vering their  powers,  (hould  perceive  their 
inability  to  exercife  them,  and  confent  to 
appoint  delegates  -,  that  having  firfl  created 
their  magiilrates,  they  fliould  know  both 
how  to  refped:  and  how  to  judge  them  •  that 
in  the  rapid  renovation  of  a  whole  nation 
pervaded  with  abufe,  each  individual,  re- 
moved from  his  former  habits,  ihould  fuifer 
patiently  the  pains  and  felf-denials  annexed; 
in  fine,  that  the  nation  fhould  have  the  cou- 
rage to  conquer  its  liberty,  the  wifdom  to 
fecure  it,  the  power  to  defend  it,  and  the  ge- 
nerofity  to  communicate  it.  Can  fober  judg- 
ment exped:  this  combination  of  circum- 
ilances  ?  Should  fortune  in  the  infinite  va- 
riety of  her  caprices  produce  them,  is  it 
likely  that  I  fliould  live  to  fee  that  day? 
Will  not  this  frame  long  before  that  have 
mouldered  in  the  tomb  ? 

Here,  opprefied  with  forrow,  my  heart 
deprived  me  of  utterance.  The  Genius  made 
no  reply;  but  in  a  low  tone  of  voice  I  heard 


124  ^    SURVEY    OF     THE 

him  fay  to  himfelf:  '*  Let  us  revive  the  hope 
"  of  this  man;  for  if  he  who  loves  his  fellow- 
**  creatures  be  fuffered  to  defpair,  what  is  to 
^'  become  of  nations  ?  The  paft  is  perhaps 
*'  but  too  much  calculated  to  dejedi  him. 
"  Let  us  then  anticipate  futurity  3  let  us  un- 
**  veil  the  aflonilhing  age  that  is  about  to 
*'  arife,  that  virtue,  feeing  the  end  of  its 
*'  wifhes,  animated  with  new  vigou;*,  may 
*'  redouble  its  efforts  to  haften  the  accom- 
^*  phfhment  of  it." 


REVOLUTIONS   OF    EMPIRES.         12^ 

CHAP.       XV. 

NEW    AGE. 

OCARCELY  had  the  Genius  uttered  to 
himfelf  thefe  words  than  an  immenfe  noifc 
proceeded  from  the  Weft,  and  turning  my 
eyes  to  that  quarter,  I  perceived  at  the  extre- 
mity of  the  Mediterranean,  in  the  country 
ofoneofthe  European  nations,  a  prodigious 
movement,  fimilar  to  v/hat  exifls  in  the  bo- 
fom  of  a  large  city  when,  pervaded  with  fedi- 
tion,  an  innumerable  people,  like  waves,  fluc- 
tuate in  the  ilreets  and  public  places.  My 
ear,  flruck  with  their  cries,  which  afcend-- 
ed  to  the  very  heavens,  diilinguifhed  at  in- 
tervals thefe  phrafes : 

"  What  is  this  new  prodigy  ?  What  this 
**  cruel  and  myfterious  fcourge  ?  We  are  a 
"  numerous  people,  and  we  want  ftrength  ! 
*^  We  have  an  excellent  foil,  and  we  are 
**  deftitute  of  provifion  !  We  are  adtive  and 
"  laborious,  and  we  live  in  indigence  !  We 
^*  pay  enormous  tributes,  and  we  are  told 

«  that 

126  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

"  that  they  are  not  fufficicnt !  We  are  at 
"  peace  without,  and  our  pcrlbns  and  pro- 
*'  perty  are  net  iafe  within  !  What  then  is 
**  the  flcret  enemy  that  devours  us  ?*' 

From  the  n-idfl:  of  the  ccncourfe,  feme 
individual  voices  replied:  *'  Erecft  a  flandard 
*^  of  diflincl.'cn,  and  let  all  thofe  who,  by 
*'  ufeful  kbcurs,  contribute  to  the  fupport 
*'  and  maintenance  offociety,  gather  round 
*^  it,  and  you  will  difcover  the  enemy  that 
**  preys  on  your  vitals/' 

The  ilandard   being  eredled,  the  nation 
found  itfelf  fuddenly  divided  into  two  bodies 
of  unequal  magnitude  and  diffimilar  appear- 
ance :  the  one  innumerable  and  nearly  in- 
tegral, exhibited,  in  the  general  poverty  of 
their  drefs,    and  in  their  meagre  and  fun- 
bufnt  faces,  the  marks  of  toil  a^id  v/retched- 
nefs ;  the  other  a  pretty  groupe,  a  vaiuelefs 
fad-ion,    prefented,  in  thsir  rich  attire,  em- 
broidered with  gold  and  filver,   and  in  their 
fleek  and  ruddy  comiplexions,  the  fymptoms 
of  leifure  and  abundance.  Confidering  thefe 
men  more  attentively,   I  perceived  that  the 
large  body  was  conftituted  of  labour  .rs,  arti- 
fans,  tradefmen,  and  every  profefiion  ufeful 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        1 27 

to  fociety  ;  and  that  in  the  lefTer  groupe  there 
were  none  but  priefts,  courtiers,  public  ac- 
countants, commanders  of  troops,  in  Hiort, 
the  civil,  military,  or  religious  agents  of 

The  two  bodies  being  front  to  front  af- 
fembled,  and  having  looked  with  aflonifh- 
ment  at  each  other,  I  favv  the  feelings  of 
indignation  and  refentment  fpring  up  in  the 
one,  and  a  fort  of  panic  in  the  other ;  and 
the  large  faid  to  the  fmall  body : 

Why  iland  you  apart?  Are  you  not  of  oar 
number  ? 

No,  replied  the  groupe  ^  you  are  the  peo- 
ple ;  we  are  a  privileged  clafs  ^  we  have  laws, 
cuftoms,  and  rights  peculiar  to  ourfelves. 
People^  ^ 
And  what  labour  do  yon  perform  in  the 
ibcicty  ? 

Privileged  Clafs. 
None :  v^e  are  not  made  to  labour. 

How    then    have    you    acquired    your 
wealth  ? 

Privileged  Clafs, 
^Y  taking  the  pains  to  govern  you. 

2  -  People, 

I2S  A    SURVEY    OF    TH£ 


To  govern  us  !  and  is  this  what  you  call 
governing  ?  We  toil,  and  you  enjoy ;  we 
produce,  and  you  diffipate ;  wealth  flows 
•fron:i  us,  and  you  abforb  it. .  .  .Privileged 
men,  clafs  diftindl  from  the  people,  form 
a  nation  apart,  and  govern  yourfelves  ii). 

Then,  deliberating  on  their  new  fituation, 
fome  among  the  groupe  faid  :  Let  us  join 
the  people,  and  partake  their  burthens  ar^ 
cares ;  for  they  are  m.en  like  ourfelves.  Others 
replied:  To  mix  with  the  herd  would  be 
degrading  and  vile  -,  they  are  bom  to  ferve 
us,  who  are  men  of  a  fuperior  race.  The 
civil  govenors  faid :  the  people  are  mild  and 
naturally  fervile^  let  us  fpeak  to  them  in  the 
nam.e  of  the  king  and  the  law,  and  they  will 
return  to  their  duty.  .  .  .  People  1  the  king 
decrees,  the  fovcreign  ordains. 

The  king  cannot  decree  any  thing  which 
the  fafety  of  the  people  does  not  demand  ; 
the  fovereign  cannot  ordain  but  according  to 

Civil  Governors, 

The  lav/  calls  upon  you  for  fubmifTion. 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        129^ 

The  law  is  the  general  will;  and  we  will 
a  new  order* 

Civil  Governors, 
You  are  in  that  cafe  rebels, 

A  nation  cannot  be  a  rebel;  tyrants  only 
are  rebele. 

Civil  Governors, 
The  king  is  on  our  fide,  and  he  enjoins 
you  to  fubmit. 

Kings  cannot  be  feparated  from  the  nation 
in  which  they  reign.     Our  king  cannot  be 
on  your  fide ;  you  have  only  the  phantom  of 
his  countenance. 

.  Then  the  military  governors  advanced, 
and  they  faid :  The  people  arc  timorous ;  it 
is  proper  to  threaten  them ;  they  will  yield 
to  the  influence  of  force.. ..Soldiers,  chaflife 
this  infolent  multitude  ! 
Soldiers,  our  blood  flows  in  your  veins  ! 
will  you  ft-rike  your  brothers  ?  If  the  people 
be  deflroyed^  who  will  maintain  the  army  ? 
And  the  ioldiers>  grounding  their  arms, 
K  faid 

IJO  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

laid  to  their  chiefs  :  We  are  a  part  of  the 
people ;  we  \\  hoin  you  call  upon  to  fight 
againfl  them. 

Then  the  eccleliaftical  governors  faid: 
There  is  but  (^nc  refource  left.  The  people 
arc  luperilitious ;  it  is  proper  to  overawe 
them  with  the  names  of  God  and  religion. 

Our  dear  brethren,  our  children,,  God  has 
commiffioned  us  to  govern  you. 
Produce  the  patent  of  his  commiffion. 

You  muft  have  faith  -,  rcafon  leads  men 
into  guilt. 

And  would  you  govern  us  without  reafon  I 

God  is  the  God  of  peace ;  religion  en- 
joins you  to  obey. 

No;  juftice  goes  before  peace;  obedience 
implies  a  law,  and  renders  neceffary  the  cog- 
nizance of  it* 

This  world   was  intended  for  trial  and 
tuffcring.     • 


fvEVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         IJt 

Do  ydu  then  flievv  us  the  example  of  fuf- 

Would  you  live  without  Gods  or  kings  ? 

We  abjure  tyranny  of  every  kind; 

You  muft  have  mediators,  perfons  who 
hi  ay  ad  in  your  behalf. 
Mediators  with  God,  and  mediators  with 
the  king !  Courtiers  and  priefls,  your  fervices 
are  too  expenfive  3  henceforth  v/e  take  our 
affairs  into  our  own  hands. 

Then  the  fmaller  groupe  exclaimed  :  It  is 
over  with  us  3  the  multitude  are  enlightened. 
And  the  people  replied  :  You  fhall  not  be 
hurt  5  we  are  enlightened,  and  we  will  com- 
mit no  violence.  We  defire  nothing  but  our 
rights:  refentment  we  cannot  but  feel,  but 
we  confent  to  pafs  it  by :  we  were  ilaves. 
We  might  now  command ;  but  we  aik  only 
to  be  free,  and  free  we  are. 

K  2  CHAP, 

132  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

CHAP.      XVI. 


1  NOW  refiedled  with  myfelf  that  public 
power  was  at  a  ftanJ,  that  the  habitual 
government  of  this  people  was  annihilated, 
and  I  fliuddered  at  the  idea  of  their  falling 
into  the  dillblution  of  anarchy.  But  taking 
their  affairs  immediately  into  their  confide- 
ration,  they  quickly  difpelled  my  apprehen- 

"  It  is  not  enough,  faid  they,  that  we 

*'  have  freed  ourfelves   from  parafites   and 

**  tyrants,  we  mufl  prevent  for  ever  the  re- 

*'  vival   of  tlieir  power.     We   are   human 

"  being?,  and  we  know,  by  dear-bought  ex- 

"  perience,    that  every  human  being  incef- 

*'  fantly  grafps  at  authority,  and  wiflies  to 

*'  enjoy  it  at  the  expence  of  others.     It  h 

"  therefore  neceflary  to  guard  ourfelves  be- 

*'  forehand  againft  this  unfortunate  propen- 

"  fity,  the  prohfic  parent  of  difcord;  it  is 

"  neceffary  to  efLabhfli  rules  by  which  our 

.  "  rights 

REVOLUTIONS    OF     EMPIRES,        I33 

"  rights  are  to  be  determined  and  our  con- 
^*  dudl  governed.  But  in  this  inveftigation 
*^  abftrufe  and  difficult  queftions  are  in- 
*^  volved,  which  demand  all  the  attention 
**  and  faculties  of  the  wifeft  men*  Occupied 
**  in  our  refped:ive  calHngs,  we  have  neither 
**  leii^jre  for  thefe  ftudies,  nor  are  we  com- 
'^  petent  of  ourfelves  to  the  exercife  of  fuch 
*'  fundlions.  Let  us  feled:  from  our  body 
"  certain  individuals,  to  whom  the  employ- 
'*  ment  v/ill  be  proper.  To  them  let  our 
**  common  powers  be  delegated,  to  frame  for 
^'  us  a  fyflem  of  government  and  laws :  let  us 
**  conilitute  them  the  reprefentatives  of  our 
*'  intereils  and  our  wills  ;  and  that  this  re- 
"  prefentation  may  be  as  accurate  as  poflible, 
*'  and  have  comprehended  in  it  the  whole 
**  diveriity  of  our  wills  and  intereils,  let  the 
*'  individuals  that  comprize  it  be  numerous, 
^'  and  citizens  like  ourfelves.'' 

The  feledion  being  made,  the  people  thus 
addreffed  their  delegates :  **  We  have  hither- 
*'  to  lived  in  a  fociety^  formed  by  chance, 
<*  without  fixed  claufes,  without  free  con- 
^^  ventions,  without  flipulation  of  rights, 
^^  without  reciprocal  engagements  j  and  a 
K  3  "  multitudQ 

13^  A    SURVEY    OF     TPIt 

**  multitude  of  diforders  and  evils  have  been 

"  the  refult  of  this  confafed  fl:ate  of  things. 

"  We  would  now,  with  mature  deliberation^^ 

"  frame  a  regular  compadlj  and   Vv'e   have 

*'  made  choice  of  you  to  draw  up  the  articles 

*'  of  it.      Exam.ine    then   with  care   what 

"  ought  to  be  its  bafis  and  principles.     In- 

*'  veftigate  the  objecfl  and  tendency  of  every 

"  affociation  -,  obferve   v/hat  are  the  rights 

"  which  every  individual  brings  ii:to  it,  the 

'*  powers  he  cedes  for  the  public  good,  and 

**  the  powers  which   he  referv^es  entire  to 

''  himfelf.     Communicate  to   us  equitable 

**  laws  and  rules  of  conduct.     Prepare  fop 

'*  us  a  new  fyftem  of  government,  for  we 

*'  feel  that  the  principles,  which  to  this  day 

*'  have"  guided  us,  are  corrupt.     Our  fathers 

''  have  wandered  in  the  paths  of  ignoi-ance, 

*^  and  we  from  habit  have  trod  in  their  fteps, 

"  Every    thing.,  is   conduced   by   violence, 

'•'  fraud,  or  delufion  ;  and  the  lav/s  of  mo-. 

•'  rality  and  reafon  are  ftill  buried  in  obfcu- 

**  rity.     Do  you  unfold  the  ciiaos  ;  difcover 

"  the  time,  order,  and  connexion  of  things; 

*'  publiih  your  code  of  laws  and  rights ,  and 

f'  we  will  conform  to  it," 

6  A'~-^ 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.     .  I '^5 

And  this  people  raifed  an  immenfe  throne 
in  ^he  form  of  a  pyramid,  and  feating  upon 
it  the  men  they  had  chofen,  laid  to  them: 
"  We  raife  you  this  day  above  us,  that  you 
**  may  take  a  more  comprehenfive  view  of 
"  our  relations,  and  be  exalted  above  the  at- 
"  n^ofphere  of  our  palTions. 

**  But  remember  that  you  are  citizens  like 
"  ourfelvesj  that  the  power  which  we  con- 
"  fer  upon  you  belongs  to  us ;  that  we  give 
**  it  as  a  truft  for  which  you  are  refponlible, 
"  not  as  exclulive  property,  or  hereditary  i 
"  right;  that  the  laws  which  you  make, you 
"  will  be  the  firft  to  fubmit  to;  that  to- 
"  morrow  you  will  defcend  from  your  fta- 
"  tions,  and  rank  agaiji  with  us  -,  that  you 
"  will  have  acquired  no  diftinguifhing  right, 
.**  but  the  right  to  our  gratitude  and  efteem. 
"  And  oh !  v/ith  v/hat  glory  will  the  uni- 
*'  verfe,  that  reveres  fo  many  apoftles  of 
*'  error,  honour  the  firfl:  affembly  of  en- 
• '  lightened  and  reafonable  men,  who  fliall 
*'  have  declared  the  immutable  principles  of 
^*  juftice  to  mankind,  and  confecrated  in  the 
**  very  face  of  tyrants  the  rights  of  na- 
''  tions  !" 

K  4  CHAP. 

136  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

G  H  A  P.      XVII. 

ALL    LAW. 

Jl  HESE  men,  chofen  by  the  people  to  in- 
vefllgate  the  true  principles  of  morality  and 
reafon,  then  proceeded  to  the  object  of  their 
miffion:  and  after  a  long  examination, having 
difcovered  a  univerfal  and  fundamental  prin- 
ciple, they  faid  to  their  conflituents:  '*  We 
**  have  employed  our  faculties  in  the  invefli- 
*'  gation  you  demand  of  us,  and  we  conceive 
**  the  following  to  be  the  primordial  bafia 
*'  and  phyiical  origin  of  all  juflice  and  all 
''  right. 

*'  Whatever  be  the  ac^tive  power,  the  mov- 
*'  ing  caufe  that  diredts  the  univerfe,  this 
"  power  having  given  to  all  men  the  fame 
*'  organs,  the  fame  fenfations,  and  the  fame 
*^  wants,  has  thereby  fufficiently  declared 
"  that  it  has  alfo  given  them  the  fame  rights 
"  to  the  ufe  of  its  benefits;  and  that  in  the 
"  order  of  nature  ail  men  are  equal. 

<*  Secondly;^ 


"  Secondly,  inafmuch  as  this  power  has 
*'  given  to  every  man  the  ability  of  preferv- 
"  ing  and  maintaining  his  own  exiftence,  it 
"  clearly  follows,  that  all  men  are  conilitut- 
**  ed  independent  of  each  other,  that  they 
*^  are  created  free,  that  no  man  can  be  fub- 
*^  jed:  and  no  man  fovereign,  but  that  all 
*'  men  are  the  unlimited  proprietors  of  their 
*'  own  perfons. 

*^  Equality,  therefore,  and  liberty,  are  two 
*^  effential  attributes  of  man,  two  laws  of 
"  the  Divinity,  not  lefs  elfential  and  immu- 
^'  table,  than  the  phyfical  properties  of  ina- 
^'  nimate  nature. 

**  Again,  from  the  principle,  that  every 
**  man  is  the  unlimited  mafler  of  his  own 
**  perfon,  it  follows,  that  one  infeparable 
^*  condidon  in  every  contrail  and  engage- 
^'  ment  is  the  free  and  voluntary  ccnfent  of 
^*  all  the  perfons  therein  bound. 

**  Farther,  becaufe  every  individual  is 
"  equal  to  every  other  individual,  it  fol- 
"  lows,  that  the  balance  of  receipts  and 
*'  payments  in  political  fociety,  ought  to  be 
**  rigoroully  in  equilibrium  with  each  other; 
^*  fo  that  from  the  idea  of  equality  immedi- 

"  atejy 

138  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

*'  ately  iiows  that  other  icica  of  equity  and 


^*  Finally,  equality  and  liberty  conflltute 
"  the  phyfical  and  unalterable  bails  of  every 
^*  union  of  men  in  fociety,  and  of  confe- 
^*  qiience  the  neceflary  and  generating  prin- 
"  ciple  of  every  law  and  regular  fyfiem  of 
*'  government  (3), 

*'  It  is  becaufe  this  bafis  has  been  invaded, 
"  that  the  diforders  have  been  introduced 
*'  amongyou,as  in  every othernation,  which 
*'  have  at  length  excited  you  to  re fi fiance.  It 
**  is  by  returning  once  more  to  a  conformity 
"  with  this  rule,  that  you  can  reform  abufes 
**  and  reconilitute  a  happy  order  of  fociety. 

*'  We  are  bound  however  to  obferve  to 
**  you,  that  from  this  regeneration  there  will 
'*  refult  an  extreme  fr.ock  to  be  endured  in 
*'  your  habits,  in  your  fortunes,  and  in  )'our 
'^  prejudices.  Vicious  contrads  muft  be 
"  diffolved,  unjufl  prejudices  aboliOiied,  ima- 
^*  ginary  dillindions  furrendered,and  inlqui- 

*  Tiie  etymology  of  the  woyds  themfelves  trace  out  to 
us  this  connexion :  equiUbriu?)i^  cqualitaSy  equitiiSy^irc  all  ot 
one  family,  and  the  phyfical  idea  of  equality  in  the  fcalci 
of  a  balance  is  tlie  fource  and  type  of  all  the  reft. 

**  tous 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         1 39 

^^  tous  defer! ptions  of  property  abrogated : 
?^  in  fine,  you  mud  (et  out  once  more  from 
^*  the  ilate  of  nature.  Confider  whether  you 
f^  are  capable  of  thefe  mighty  facrifices/' 

They  concluded  :  and  while  I  refiecled 
upon  the  inherent  cupidity  of  the  human 
heart,  I  was  induced  to  believe  that  the  oeo- 
ple  would  reject  a  mxelioration  prefented  un- 
^ier  fuch  auilere  colours.  I  was  miRaken, 
Jnilantly  a  vail  crowd  of  men  thronp-ed  to- 
wards the  throne,  and  folemnly  abjured  all 
riches  and  all  diftindlions.  ^^  Unfold  to  us, 
^*  cried  they,  the  laws  of  equality  and  liberty: 
^*  we  difclaim  all  future  pofieffion  that  is  not 
?*  held  in  the  facred  name  of  j  uilice.  Eqitalltyy 
*'  liberty /juftice^  thefe  are  our  inviolable  code, 
i'  thefe  names  ihall  infcribe  our  ftancard." 

Immediately  the  people  raifed  a  mighty 
ftandard,  varied  v/itli  three  colours, and  upon 
which  thofe  three  v/ords  were  v/ritten.  They 
unfurled  it  over  the  throne  of  V:^  legiilators, 
and  now  for  the  fir  ft  time  the  fy  mbol  of 
univerfal  and  equal  juftice  appeared  upon 
the  earth.  In  front  of  the  throne  the  peo- 
ple built  an  altar,  on  which  they  placed  gol- 
den fcales,  a  fword,  and  a  book,   with  this 

legend : 

140  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

legend:  to  equal  law,  the  protec- 
tor, AND  THE  JUDGE.  They  then  drew 
round  the  throne  a  vafl  amphitheatre,  and 
the  nation  feated  itfelf  to  hear  the  publica- 
tion of  the  law.  MilHons  of  men,  in  ad  of 
folemn  appeal  to  heaven,  lifted  up  their 
hands  together,  and  fvvore,  *'that  they  would 
"  live  equal,  free,  and  juft;  th  \t  they  would 
"  refpe6l  the  rights  and  property  of  each 
*'  other  ;  thdt  they  would  yield  obedience  to 
**  the  law  and  its  minifters  reguhrly  ap- 
**  pointed." 

A  fight  like  this,  fo  full  of  fublimity  and 
energy,  fo  interefting  by  the  generous  emo- 
tions it  implied,  melted  me  into  tears ;  and 
addrelTmg  myfelf  to  the  Genius,  I  faid  : 
**  Now  may  I  live,  for  after  this  there  is 
**  nothing  which  I  am  not  daring  enough  %o^ 
«  hope." 



C  H  A  P.      XVIII. 


jVlE  AN  WHILE,  fcarcely  had  the  folemn 
cry  of  liberty  and  equality  refounded  through 
the  earth,  than  aftonifliment  and  apprehen- 
fion  were  excited  in  the  different  nations.  In 
one  place,  the  multitude,  moved  by  defire, 
but  wavering  between  hope  and  fear,  between 
a  fenfe  of  their  rights  and  the  habitual  yoke 
of  flavery,  betrayed  fymptoms  of  agitation : 
in  another  kings,  fuddenly  roufed  from  the 
fleep  of  indolence  and  defpotifm,  were  alarm- 
ed for  the  fafety  cf  their  thrones  :  every 
where  thofe  clafies  of  civil  and  religious  ty- 
rants, who  deceive  princes  and  cpprefs  the 
people,  were  feized  with  rage  and  conflerna- 
tion ;  and  concerting  plans  of  perfidy,  they 
faid  to  one  another:  ^'  Woe  be  to  us,  fliould 
"  this  fatal  cry  of  liberty  reach  the  ear  of  the 
"  multitude,   and  this  deftrudive  fpirit  of 

"  jiiilice 

l.|2  A    SURVKY    OK     tm 

"  jufiicc  be  dilTcmlnatsd." And  feeing  tM 

llandard  waving  in  the  air:  "  What  a  fvvarnl 
*'  of  evils,  cried  they,  are  included  in  thefe^ 
"  three  words  !  If  all  men  arc  equal,  where 
«'  is  our  exclufive  right  to  honours  and 
"  power?  If  all  men  are,  or  ought  to  be  free, 
*'  what  becomes  of  our  ilaves,  our  valTalSi 
*'  our  property  ?  If  all  are  equal  in  a  civil 
"  capacity,  w^here  are  our  privileges  of  birth 
**  and  fucceilicn,  and  v/hat  becomes  of  no- 
•*  bihty  ?  If  all  are  equal  before  God,  where 
<^  v.'iir  be  the  need  of  mediators,  and  what 
*'  is  to  become  of  the  priefthocd  ?  Ah  \  let  us 
'*'  acccm^pliih  without  a  mom.ent's  delay  the 
''  dcflrucrion  of  a  oerm  fo  prolific  and  con- 
'*  tagious  !  let  us  employ  the  whole  force 
*^  of  our  art  againfl:  this  calamity.  Let  us 
"  found  the  alarm  to  kings,  that  they  may 
"  join  in  cur  caufe.  Let  us  divide  the  peo« 
"  pie;  let  us  engage  them  in  war,  and  turn 
*^  afide  their  attention  by  conquefls  and  na- 
*'  tional  iealoufv.  Let  us  excite  their  ao-« 
*•'  prehenfions  refpedling  the  pow-er  of  this 
**  free  nation.  Let  us  form  a  grand  league 
"  again ll:  the  common  enemy.  Let  us  pull 
*'  down  this  ficrilegious  ftandard,  demolifh 

*'  this 


*'  this  throne  of  rebellion,  and  quench  this 
*'  fire  of  revolution  in  its  outfet.'* 

And  in  reality,  the  civil  and  religious  ty- 
rants of  the  people  entered  into  a  general  com  - 
bination,  and  having  gained,  either  by  con- 
ftraint  or  fedudlion,  multitudes  on  their  fide, 
they  advanced  in  an  hoftile  manner  againft 
the  free  nation.  Surrounding  the  altar  and 
the  throne  of  natural  law,  they  demanded, 
with  loud  cries:  "  V/hat  is  this  new  and  he- 
*'  reticai  dodrine  ?  What  this  impious  altar, 
**  this  facfilegious  worfliip  ? . . .  .True  belie v- 
**  ers  and  loyal  fubjeds !  Wouldyounotfup- 
"  pofe  that  to  day  truth  has  been  firil  difco- 
**  vered,  and  that  hitherto  you  have  hten  in- 
"  volved  in  error  ?  Would  you  not  fuppofe 
"  that  thefe  men,  more  fortunate  than  your- 
'*  felves,  have  alone  the  privilege  of  being 
*^  wife?  And  you,  rebel  and  guilty  nation,  do 
*'  you  not  feel  that  your  chiefs  miilead  you  ? 
"  That  they  adulterate  the  principles  of  your 
**  faiths  and  overturn  the  religion  of  your  fa- 
"  thers  ?  Tremble  loft  the  wrath  of  heaven 
*'  be  lighted  againft  you;  and  haflen  byfpeedy 
**  repentance  to  expiate  your  error/* 

But  inacceifible  to  fedudion  as  to  terror, 
the  free  nation  kept  filence  :  it  maintained 


144  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

an  exad;  difcipline  in  arms,  and  continued  td 
exhibit  an  impofing  attitude. 

And  the  legiilators  faid  to  the  chiefs  of 
nations  :  "  If  when  we  went  on  with  our 
"  eyes  hoed » winked,  our  fleps  did  not  fail 
"  to  be  enh'ghtened,  why,  now  that  the 
**  bandage  is  removed,  fhould  we  conceive 
"  that  we  are  involved  in  darknefs  ?  If  we, 
.**  who  prefcribe  to  mankind  to  exert  their 
^'  faculties,  deceive  and  miilead  them,  what 
."  can  be  expected  from  thofe  who  de^ 
*'  lire  only  to  maintain  them  in  blind- 
"  nefs  ?  Ye  chiefs  of  nations,  if  you  poiTefs 
"  truth  communicate  it :  v/e  Ihall  receive  it 
"  with  gratitude;  for  with  ardour  wc  pur- 
*'  fue  it,  and  with  intereft  fhall  engage  in 
"  the  difcovery.  We  are  men,  and  may  be 
*^  deceived  :  but  vou  alfo  are  men  and  as 
"  fallible  as  ourfelves.  Affiil  us  in  this  la- 
"  byrinth,  in  which  the  human  fpecies  has 
"  wandered  for  fo  many  ages :  aflift  us  to 
**  diffipate  the  iilufion  of  evil  habits  and 
**  prejudice.  Enter  the  lifts  with  us  in 
**  the  {hock  of  opinions  which  difpute  for 
*^  our  acceptance,  and  engage  with  us  in 
"  tracing  the  pure  and  proper  character  of 
"  truth.     Let  us  terminate  to  day  the  long 

'    «'  combat 

kEVOltririONS    OF    EMPIRES.         I45 

««  combat  of  error  :  let  us  eftablifh  between 
'*  it  and  truth  a  folemn  contefl :  let  us  call 
*'  in  men  of  every  nation  to  affift  us  in  the 
^^  judgment:  let  us  convoke  a  general  afTem- 
"  bly  of  the  world;  let  them  be  judges  in 
*^  their  own  caufe;  and  in  the  fucceffive  trial 
"  of  every  fyftem>  let  no  champion  and  no 
"  argument  be  wanting  to  the  fide  of  preju- 
"  dice  or  of  reafon.  In  fine,  let  a  fair  exami- 
*'  nation  of  the  refult  of  the  whole,  give  birth 
**  to  univerfal  harmony  of  minds  and  opi- 


146  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

CHAP.      XIX. 


Thus  fpoke  the  legiHators  of  this  free 
people  ;  and  the  multitude,  feized  with  the 
fpirit  of  admiration,  which  every  reafonable 
propofition  never  fails  to  infpire,  fiiouted 
their  applaufe,  and  the  tyrants  remained 
alone,  overwhelmed  with  confufion. 

A  fcene  of  a  new  and  aftonifhing  nature 
then  prefented  itfelf  to-  my  view.  All  the 
people  and  nations  of  the  globe,  every  race 
of  men  from  every  different  climate,  advan- 
cing on  all  fides,  feemed  to  afTemble  in  one 
inclofure,and  form  in  diflindt  groupes  anim- 
menfe  congrefs.  The  motley  appearance  of 
this  innumerable  crowd,  occafioned  by  their 
diverfity  of  drefs,  of  features  and  of  com- 
plexion, exhibited  a  moft  extraordinary  and 
mofl  attractive  fpedtacle. 

On  one  fide  I  could  diftinguifli  the  Euro- 
pean with  his  fliort  and  clofe  habit,  his 
triangular  hat,  fmooth  chin,  and  powdered 
X  hair ; 

feEVOLUTloK[S    OF    EMPIliES.         147 

bair;  and  on  the  oppofitefide  the  Afiatic  with 
a  flowing  robe^  a  long  beard,  a  fhaved  head 
and  circular  turban.  Here  I  obferved  the  in- 
habitants of  Africa,  their  fkin  of  the  colour 
of  ebony,  their  hair  woolly,  their  body  girt 
with  white  and  blue  fi{h-fkin,  and  adorned 
with  bracelets  and  collars  of  corals,  ihells 
and  glafs- beads ;  there  the  northern  tribes 
inveloped  in  bags  of  ikinj  the  Laplander 
with  his  piked  bonnet  and  his  fnow  fhoes  ; 
the  Samoiede  with  glowing  limbs  and  with 
a  ftrong  odour;  the  Tongoufe  with  his  bon^ 
net  fhaped  Hke  a  horn,  and  carrying  his  idols 
pendent  from  his  neck  ;  the  Yakoutc  with 
his  freckled  ikin ;  the  Calmuc  with  flattened 
nofe  and  with  little  eyes,  forced  as  it  were 
to  have  no  correfpondence  with  each  other. 
Farther  in  the  diilance  were  the  Chinefe, 
attired  in  iilk,  and  v/ith  their  hair  hanging  in 
treflTes ;  the  Japanefe  of  mingled  race ;  the 
Malayans  with  fprcading  ears>  with  a  ring  id. 
their  nofe,  and  with  a  vail  hat  of  the  leaved 
of  the  palm-tree  (4) ;  and  the  l^atoued  in- 
habitants of  the  iflands  of  the  ocean  and  of 
the  continent  of  the  Antipodes  *.  The 
*  The  country  of  the  Papons-}  or  New  Guinea. 

L  a  contemplation 

148  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

contemplation  of  one  fpecies  thus  infinitely 
varied,  of  one  underfhanding  thus  modified 
with  extravagance,  of  one  organization  af- 
fuming  (o  contrary  appearances,  gave  me  a 
a  very  complicated  fenfation,  and  excited  in 
meathoufand  thoughts  (5).  I  contemplated 
with  aftonifhment  this  gradation  of  colour, 
from  a  bright  carnation  to  a  brown  fcarcely 
lefs  bright,  a  dark  brown,  a  muddy  brown, 
bronze,  olive,  leaden,  copper,  as  far  as  to  the 
black  of  ebony  and  jet.  I  obferved  the 
Cafiimerean,  with  his  rofe- coloured  cheek, 
next  in  vicinity  to  the  fun-burnt  Hindoo; 
the  Georgian  ftanding  by  the  Tartar;  and  I 
refleded  upon  the  effedl  of  climate  hot  or 
cold,  of  foil  mountainous  or  deep,  marfliy 
or  dry,  wooded  or  open.  I  compared  the 
dwarf  of  the  pole  with  the  giant  of  the  tem- 
perate zone;  the  lank  Arab  with  the  pot- 
bellied Hollander ;  the  fquat  figure  of  the 
Samoiede  with  the  tall  and  flender  form  of 
the  Sclavonian  and  the  Greek ;  the  greafy 
and  woolly  head  of  the  Negro  with  the 
fliining  locks  of  the  Dane ;  the  flat-faced 
Calmuc,  with  his  eyes  angle-  wife  to  each 
other  and  his  nofe  cruflied,  to  the  oval  and 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         I49 

fwelling  vifige,  the  large  blue  eves,  and  the 
aquiline  nofe,  of  the  Circaffian  and  the 
Abaffin.  I  contraHied  the  painted  linens  of 
India  with  the  workmanlike  cloths  of  Eu- 
rope ;  the  rich  furs  of  Sileiia ;  the  various 
clothing  of  favage  nations,  fkins  of  fiflies, 
platting  of  reeds,  interweaving  of  leaves  and 
of  feathers,  together  with  the  blue-flained 
figures  of  ferpents,  ftars,  and  flowers,  with 
which  their  ikin  is  varied.  Sometimes  the 
general  appearance  of  this  multitude,  remind- 
ed me  of  the  enamelled  meadows  of  the  Nile 
and  the  Euphrates,  when,  after  rains  and  in- 
undations, millions  of  flowers  unfold  them- 
felves  on  all  fides;  and  fometimes  it  refem- 
bled,  in  murmuring  found  and  bufy  motion, 
the  innumerable  fwarms  of  grafshoppers 
which  ahght  in  the  fpring  like  a  cloud  upon 
the  plains  of  Hauran. 

At  fight  of  fo  many  living  and  percipient , 
animals,  I  recoUeded,  on  one  fide,  the  im- 
menfe  multitude  of  thoughts  and  fenfations 
which  were  crowded  into  this  fpace  -,  and  on 
the  other,  reflected  on  the  contefl  of  fo  many 
opinions  and  prejudices,  and  the  fi:ruggle  of 
fo  many  capricious  paflions;  and  I  was  fi;ruck 
L   3  with 

J^O  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

with  ajftonlilimcnt,  adniiration,  and  apprc'- 
henfion.  . .  ,  When  the  legiflators,  having 
enjoined  file  nee,  prefently  fixed  my  attention 
on  themfelves. 

^'  Inhabitants  of  the  earth,  faid  they,  a 
*'  free  and  powerful  nation  addrelTes  you  in 
**  the  name  of  juftice  and  of  peace,  and  offers 
^'  as  the  fure  pledge  of  its  fincenty,its  convic-, 
*'  tion  and  experience.  We  were  for  a  long 
*'  time  tormented  with  the  fame  evils  as  you; 
"  we  have  enquired  into  their  origin,  and  we 
"  have  found  them  to  be  derived  from  vio- 
♦^  lence  and  injuflice,  which  the  inexperience 
^'  of  pafi:  ages  eftablilhed  into  laws,  and  the 
^'  prejudices  of  the  prefent  generation  have 
''  fupported  and  cheriilied.  Then,  abolifli- 
**  ing  every  factitious  and  arbitrary  inftitu  tion, 
**  and  afccnding  to  the  fource  of  reafon  and 
*^  of  right,  we  perceived  that  there  exifted  in 
*^  the  order  of  the  univerfe,  and  in  the  phyli- 
^'  cal  conftitution  of  man,  eternal  andimmu- 
*'  table  laws,  which  waited  only  his  obfer- 
*'  vance  to  render  him  happy.  O  men  of  dif- 
"  ferent  climes,  look  to  the  heavens  that  give 
**  you  light,  to  the  earth  that  nouriflies  you ! 
*'  Since  they  prefent  to  you  all  the  fame  gifts  j 
;•    J.  *^  lince 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.       l^t 

^^  fince  the  Power  that  diredls  their  motions 
'*  has  beftowed  on  you  the  fame  life,  the 
"  fame  organs,  the  fame  wants,  has  it  not 
*'  alfo  given  you  the  fame  right  to  the  ufe  of 
^*  its  benefits !  Has  it  not  hereby  declared 
"  you  to  be  all  equal  and  free  ?  What  mortal 
*'  then  fhall  dare  refufe  to  his  fellow-crea- 
"  ture  that  which  is  granted  him  by  nature? 
**  O  nations !  let  us  banifh  all  tyranny  and 
**  difcord  -,  let  us  form  one  fociety,  one  vaft 
"  family  ;  and  fince  mankind  are  all  confti- 
*'  tuted  alike,  let  there  henceforth  exifl:  but 
"  one  law,  that  of  nature ;  one  code,  that  of 
"  reafon ;  one  throne,  that  of  juftice;  one 
**  altar,  that  of  union/* 

They  ceafed  :  and  the  multitude  rended 
the  Ikies  with  applaufe  and  acclamation;  and 
in  their  tranfports  made  the  earth  refound 
with  the  words  equa/ify,Ju/iice,  union.  But 
different  feelings  prefently  fucceeded  to  this 
firft  emotion.  The  dodlors  and  chiefs  of 
the  people  exciting  in  them  a  fpirit  of  difpu- 
tation,  there  arofe  a  kind  of  murmur,  which, 
fpreading  from  groupe  to  groupe,  was  con- 
verted into  uproar,  and  from  uproar  into 
-diforder  of  the  firft  magnitude.  Every  na- 
L  4  tion 

152  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

tion  affumed  exclurivepretenfions,  and  claim- 
ed the  preference  for  its  own  opinions  and 

''  You  are  in  error/'  faid  the  parties  point- 
ing at  each  other;  "  we  alone  are  inpoHeffion 
^'  of  reafon  and  truth :  ours  is  the  true  law, 
"  the  genuine  rule  of  juftice  and  right,  the 
*'  fole  means  of  happinefs  and  perfedtion;  all 
-'  other  men  are  either  blind  or  rebellious." 
And  the  agitation  became  extreme. 

But  the  legiflators  having  proclaimed  fi- 
lence:  '*  People,*'  faid  they,  "  by  what  im- 
**  pulfe  of  paffion  are  you  agitated?  Where 
''  will  this  quarrel  condud:  you  ?  What  ad- 
''  vantage  do  you  exped:from  this  diffenfion  ? 
^*  For  ages  has  the  earth  been  a  field  of  dif- 
'*  putation,  and  torrents  of  blood  have  been 
"  ilied  to  decide  the  controverfy:  what  profit 
**  have  you  reaped  from  fomr.ny  combats  and 
*'  tears  ?  When  the  ilrong  has  fubjea:ed  the 
"  weak  to  his  opinion,  has  he  thereby  fur- 
*'  thered  thp  caufe  of  evidence  and  truth?  O 
**  nations,  take  council  of  your  own  wifdom ! 
**  If  difputes  arife  between  families,  or  in- 
**  dividuals,  by  what  mode  do  you  reconcile 
^'  them  !    Do  you  not  appoint  arbitrators  ? 

j^  d  i^  res- 


"  TeSy*  exclaimed  the  multitude  unanimouf- 
ly.  "  Treat  then  the  authors  of  your  pre- 
**  ient  diiTenfions  in  a  ilimilar  manner.  Com- 
**  mand  thofe  who  call  themfelves  your  in- 
'^  ftrudors,  and  who  impofe  on  you  their 
"  creed,  to  difcufs  in  your  prefence  the  argu- 
^'  ments  on  which  it  is  founded.  Since  they 
"  appeal  to  your  interefts,  underftand  in  what 
*'  manner  your  interefts  are  treated  by  them* 
**  .  . .  And  you,  chiefs  and  doctors  of  the 
"  people,  before  you  involve  them  in  the 
"  difcordance  of  your  opinions,  let  the  rea- 
^'  fons  for  and  againft  thefe  opinions  be 
''  fairly  difcuffed.  Let  us  eflablifh  a  folemn 
"  controverfy,  a  public  inveftigation  of  truth, 
"  not  before  the  tribunal  of  a  frail  indivi- 
''  dual,  or  a  prejudiced  party,  but  in  prefence 
*'  of  the  united  information  and  interefts  of 
''^  mankind;  and  let  the  natural  fenfe  of  the 
^'  whole  fpecies  be  our  arbitrator  and  judge/* 


-1.54  A    SURVEY.  OF    THE 

CHAP.     XX. 


X  HE    people  having  by  fliouts  expreffed 
their  approbation,  the  iegiflatorsfaid:  "That 
^*  v;e  niay  proceed  in  this  grand  work  with 
*'  order  and  regularity,  let  a  fpacious  am- 
**  phitheatre  be  formed  in  the  fand  before 
^^  the   altar  of  union  and  peace  :  let  each 
**  fyitem  of  religion  and  each  particular  fed:, 
^^  ered  its  proper  and  dif^inguifliing  i^Andard 
^*  in  points  of  the  circunif^^rence ;   let  its 
*' chiefs  and   its  dodors   place   themfelves 
*'  round  it,  arid  let  their  followers  be  ranged 
*'  in  a  right  iiiie  terminated  by  the  ftandard.'' 
The  amphitheatre  being  traced  out,  and 
order  proclaimed,  a  prodigious  number  of 
ftandards   were  inilantly  raifed,  fimilar   to 
what  is  feen  in  a  commercial  port,  when,  on 
daysof  fefl:lvity,the  liags  of  a  hundred  nations 
ftream  from  a  foreft  of  mafts.     At  fight  of 
this  ailonifhing  diverfity,  I  addrefied  myfelf 
to  the  Genius :  I  fcarcely  fuppofed  the  earth, 



iaid  I,  to  be  divided  into  more  than  eight  or 
ten  different  fyftems  of  religion,  and  I  then 
defpaired  of  conciliation  :  how  can  I  now 
hope  for  concord  when  I  behold  thoufands 
of  different  parties  !—Thefe,  however,  re-» 
plied  the  Genius,  are  but  a  part  of  what  exift; 
and  yet  they  would  be  intolerant ! 

As  the  groupes  advanced  to  take  their  fta- 
tions,  the  Genius,  pointing  out  to  me  the 
fymbols  and  attributes  of  each,  thus  explain- 
ed to  me  their  meaning. 

That  firft  groupe,  faid  he,  with  a  green 
ftandard,  on  which  you  fee  difplayed  a  crofs, 
a  bandage,  and  a  fabre,  is  formed  of  the  fol- 
lowers of  the  Arabian  prophet.  To  believe 
in  a  God  (without  knowing  what  he  is)  ^  to 
have  faith  in  the  words  of  a  man  (without 
underftanding  the  language  in  which  he 
fpeaks) ;  to  travel  into  a  defert  in  order  to 
pray  to  the  Deity  (who  is  every  where) ;  to 
wafti  the  hands  with  water  (and  not  abflain 
from  blood)  ;  to  fail  all  day  (and  pradife 
intemperance  at  night) ;  to  give  alms  of  their 
own  property  (and  to  plunder  the  property 
pf  their  neighbour)  :  fuch  are  the  means  of 
perfection  inftituted  by  Mahomet,  fuch  the 


156  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

fjgnals  and  charaderlflics  of  his  true  fol- 
lowers ;  and  whoever  profefTes  not  thefe 
teiicts,  is  ccnfidered  as  a  reprobate,  has  the 
facred  anathema  denounced  againft  him^  and 
is  devoted  to  the  fword.  A  God  of  clemency, 
the  author  of  life,  has,  according  to  them, 
jnftituted  thefe  laws  of  oppreffion  and  mur- 
der ;  has  inftituted  them  for  the  whole  uni- 
verfe,  though  he  has  condefcended  to  reveal 
them  but  to  one  man  5  has  eftabliilied  them 
from  all  eternity,  though  they  were  made 
known  by  him  but  yellerday.  Thefe  laws 
ere  fufiicient  for  all  the  purpofes  of  life,  and 
yet  a  volume  is  added  to  them  ;  this  volume 
was.  to  diffufe  light,  to  exhibit  evidence,  to 
lead  to  perfection  and  happinefs,  and  yet,  in 
the  very  life-time  of  its  prophet,  its  pages, 
every  where  abounding  with  obfcure,  am- 
biguous, and  contradictory  paiiages,  needed 
explanation  and  commentaries ;  and  the  per- 
fons  who  undertook  to  interpret  them,  vary- 
ing in  opinion,  became  divided  into  fed:s  and 
parties  oppofite  and  inimjical  to  each  other. 
One  maintains  that  Ali  is  the  true  fuccelTor, 
and  another  takes  the  part  of  and 
Aboubekre.    This  denies  the  eternity  of  the 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         1 57 

Koran,  that  the  neceiTity  of  ablutions  and 
prayers.  The  Carmite  profcribes  pilgri- 
mage, and  allows  the  ufe  of  wine ,  the  Hake- 
mite  preaches  the  dodlrine  of  tranfmigration, 
and  thus  are  there  fecfts  to  the  number  of  fe- 
venty-two,  of  which  you  may  enumerate 
the  different  flandards  (6).  In  this  difcord- 
ance,  each  afcribing  the  evidence  exclufively 
to  itfelf,  and  ftigmatizing  the  reft  with  he- 
refy  and  rebellion,  has  turned  againfl  them 
its  fanguinary  zeal.  And  this  religion,  which 
celebrates  a  beneficent  and  merciful  God,  the 
common  parent  of  the  whole  human  race, 
converted  into  a  torch  of  difcord  and  an  in- 
centive to  war,  has  never  ceafed  for  twelve 
hundred  years  to  whelm  the  earth  in  blood, 
and  fpread  ravage  and  defolation  from  one 
extremity  of  the  ancient  hemifphere  to  the 
other  (7). 

The  men  you  fee  dlilinguifhed  by  their 
vafl;  white  turbans,  their  hanging  fleeves  and 
long  rofaries,  are  the  Imans,  the  Mollas,  and 
the  Muftis ;  and  not  far  from  them  are  the 
Dervifes  with  a  pointed  bonnet,  and  the 
Santons  v/ith  their  facred  tonfure.  They 
utter  with  vehemence  their  feveral  con%f- 


I5S  A    SURVEY    OF    ttlE 

lions  of  faith  ;  they  difpute  with  eagernef^ 
refpecling  the  more  or  lefs  important  fources 
of  impurity  ^  the  tnode  of  performing  ablu- 
tions ^  the  attributes  and  perfections  of  God; 
the  Chaitan  and  the  goad  and  evil  Genii ; 
death  ^  the  refurredion  -,  the  interrogatory 
which  fucceeds  the  tomb  3  the  paiTage  of  the 
perilous  bridge,  and  its  hair-breadth  efcapes; 
the  balance  of  good  and  bad  works  ;  the 
pains  of  hell,  and  the  joys  of  paradife. 

By  the  fide  of  thefe,  that  ftiil  more  nu- 
merous groupe,  with  ftandards  of  a  \Vhite 
ground  flrewed  with  croffes,  confiils  of  the 
worihippers  of  Jefus.  Aclcnowledging  the 
fame  God  as  the  MuiTulmans,  founding  their 
belief  on  the  fame  books,  admitting  like 
them  a  firfl  man,  who  loft  the  whole  human 
race  by  eating  an  apple,  they  yet  feel  to- 
wards them  a  holy  horror;  and  from  motives 
of  piety,  thefe  two  feds  reciprocally  treat 
each  other  as  impious  men  and  blafphemers. 
Their  chief  point  of  diiTcnfion  is,  that  the 
Chriftian,  after  admitting  the  unity  and  in- 
divifibility  of  God,  proceeds  to  divide  him. 
into  three  perfons,  makmg  of  each  an  entire 
and  complete  God,  and  yet  prelerving  an 

•■"  -  identical 


identical  whole  :  he  adds,  that  this  Being, 
who  fills  the  univerfe,  reduced  himfelf  to 
the  ftature  and  form  of  a  man,  and  aiTumed 
material,  periiliable,  and  limited  organs, 
without  ceafing  to  be  immaterial, eternal, and 
infinite.  The  Muffulman,  on  the  contrary, 
not  able  to  comprehend  thef^  myfteries, 
though  he  readily  conceives  of  the  eternity 
of  the  Koran,  and  the  mifiion  of  the  prophet, 
treats  them  as  abfurdities,  and  rejedls  them 
as  the  vifions  of  a  difordered  brain.  Hence 
refult  the  mofl  implacable  animofities. 

Divided  among  themfelve s,  the  Chriftian 
fe6ls  are  not  lefs  numerous  than  thofe  of  the 
Muffulman  religion ;  and  the  quarrels  that 
agitate  th^:m  are  by  fo  much  the  more  vio- 
lent^  fince  the  cbjedts  for  which  they  contend 
being  inacceffible  to  the  {^nks,  and  of  con- 
fequence  incapable  of  demonflration,  the 
opinions  of  ea^h  fedlary  can  have  no  other 
foundation  than  that  of  his  will  or  caprice* 
Thus  agreeing  that  God  is  an  incompre- 
iienfible  and  unknown  being,  they  neverthe- 
lefs  difpute  refpedting  his  eifence,  his  mode 
of  adting,  and  his  attributes.  Agreeing  that 
his  fuppofed  transformation  into  man,  is  an 


l6o  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

enigma  above  the  human  underftanding, 
they  flill  difpute  refpedting  the  confuiion  or 
the  diilindtion  of  two  w^ills  and  two  natures, 
the  change  of  fubftance,  the  real  or  fiditious 
prefence,  the  mode  of  incarnation,  6cc.  &c. 
Hence  innumerable  fedls,  of  which  two  or 
three  hundred  have  already  perifhed,  and 
three  or  four  hundred  others  flill  exift,  and 
are  reprefented  by  that  multitude  of  colours 
in  which  your  fight  is  bewildered.  The 
firfh  in  order,  furrounded  by  a  groupe  abfurd 
and  difcordant  in  their  attire,  red,  purple, 
black,  white,  andfpeckled,  with  heads  whol- 
ly or  partially  £haved,  or  with  their  hair  fhort, 
with  red  caps,  fquare  caps,  here  with  mitres, 
there  with  beards,  is  the  ftandard  of  the 
Roman  pontiff,  who,  applying  to  the  priefl- 
hood  the  pre-eminence  of  his  city  in  the 
civil  order,  has  erected  his  fupremacy  into 
a  point  of  religion,  and  made  of  his  pride  an 
article  of  faith. 

At  the  right,  you  fee  the  Greek  Pontiff, 
who,  proud  of  the  rivallhip  fet  up  by  his 
metropolis,  oppofes  equal  pretenfions,  and 
fupports  them  againfl  the  Weflern  church, 
by  the  fuperior  antiquity  of  that  of  the  Eaft. 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         l6l 

At  the  left,  are  the  ftandards  of  two  recent 
chiefs  *,  who,  throwing  off  a  yoke  that  was 
become  tyrannical,  have,  in  their  reform, 
erected  altars  againft  altars,  and  gained  half 
Europe  from  the  Pope.  Behind  them  are 
the  inferior  feds  into  which  thefe  grand 
parties  are  again  fubdivided,  the  Neflorians, 
the  Eutycheans,  the  Jacobites,  the  Icono- 
clafls,  the  Anabaptifts,  the  Prefbyterians,  the 
Wiclifites,  the  Oliandrins,  the  Manicheans, 
the  Pietifts,  the  Adamites,  the  Enthufiafts, 
the  Quakers,  the  Weepers,  together  with  a 
hundred  others  (8) ;  all  of  diftind  parties, 
of  a  perfecuting  fpirit  when  ftrong,  tolerant 
v/hen  weak,  hating  each  other  in  the  name 
of  a  God  of  peace,  forming  to  themfelves  an 
exclufive  paradife  in  a  religion  of  univerfal 
charity,  each  dooming  the  reft,  in  another 
world,  to  endlefs  torments,  and  realizing 
here  the  imaginary  hell  of  futurity. 

Next  to  this  groupe,  obferving  a  fingle 
ftandard  of  a  hyacinth  colour,  round  which 
were  gathered  wen  in  all  the  various  dreiies 
of  Europe  and  Afia :  Here,  faid  I  to  the 
Genius,  v/e  (hall  at  leaft  find  unanimity, — 
'^  Luther  and  Calvin. 

M  At 

162  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

At  iirft  fight,  replied  he,  and  from  an  in- 
cidental and  temporary  circumftance  this 
would  feem  to  be  the  cafe :  but  do  you  not 
know  what  fyflem  of  worfliip  it  is  ? — Then 
perceiving  in  Hebrew  letters  the  mono- 
gram of  God,  and  branches  of  the  palm- 
tree  in  the  hands  of  the  Rabbins  :  Are  not 
thefe,  faid  1,  the  children  of  Mofes,  difperfed 
over  the  earth,  and  who,  holding  every  na- 
tion in  abhorrence,  have  been  themfelves 
univerfally  defpifed  and  perfecuted  ? — Yes, 
replied  the  Genius,  and  it  is  for  this  very 
reafon  that,  having  neither  time  nor  liberty 
to  difpute,  they  have  preferved  the  appear- 
ance of  unanimity.  But  in  their  re-union, 
no  fooner  fhall  they  compare  their  princi- 
ples, and  reafon  upon  their  opinions,  than 
they  will  be  divided,  as  formerly,  at  leaft  into 
two  principal  fedts  *,  one  of  which,  taking 
advantage  of  the  filence  of  their  legiflator, 
and  confining  itfelf  to  the  literal  fenfe  of  his 
books,  will  deny  every  dogma  not  thereirk 
clearly  underftood,  and  of  confequence  will 
rcjed:  as  inventions,  the  immortality  of  the 
foul,  its  tranfmigration  into  an  abode  of  hap- 

*  The  Sadducees  and  the  Pharifces. 

V     -    -      '      .  ,  pinefs 

ilEVbLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        163 

|)inefs  or  feat  of  pain,  its  refurred:ion,  the 
iaft  judgment,  the  exiftence  of  angels,  the 
revolt  of  a  fallen  fpirit,  and  the  poetical  fyf- 
tem  of  a  world  to  come  :  arid  this  favoured 
people,  whofe  perfection  confifls  in  the  cut- 
ting off  a  morfel  of  their  flefli,  this  atom  of 
people  that  in  the  ocean  of  mankind  is  but 
as  a  fmall  wave,  arid  that  pretends  that  the 
whole  was  made  for  them  alon6,  will  far- 
ther reduce  by  one  half,  in  confequenee  of 
their  fchifm,  their  already  trivial  weight  ia 
the  balance  of  the  univerfci 

The  Genius  then  directed  my  attention 
to  another  groupe,  the  individuals  of  which 
were  clothed  in  white  lobes,  had  a  veil  co- 
vering the  mouth,  and  were  ranged  round 
a  ftandard  of  the  colour  of  the  clouds  gilded 
by  the  rifing  fun.     On  this  ftandard  was 
painted  a  globe,  one  hemifphere  of  which 
was  black  and  the  other  white.     The  fate 
of  thefe  difciples  of  Zoroafler  (9),  conti- 
nued he,  this  obfcure  remnant  of  a  people 
once  fo  powerful,  will  be  iimiiar  to  that  of 
the  Jews.     Difperfed  as  they  are  at  prefent 
among  other  nations,  and  perfecuted  by  all, 
they  receive  without  difcufnon  the  precepts 
M  2  that 

164  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

that  are  taught  them  :   hut  fo  foon  as  their 
Mobed   and  their   Deftours  (10)   fhali  be 
reftored  to  their  full  prerogatives,  the  con- 
troverfy  v^ill  be  revived  refpeding  the  good 
and  the  bad  principle,  the  combats  of  Or- 
muz,  God  of  light,  and  Ahrimanes,  God  of 
darknefs ;   the  literal  or  allegorical  fenfes  of 
thefe  combats ;    the  good  and  evil  Genii ; 
the  worOiip  of  fire  and  the  elements ;  pol- 
lution and  purification ;  the  refurredtion  of 
the  body,  or  the  foul,  or  both   (11);   the 
renovation  of  the  prefent  world,  or  the  pro- 
duction of  a  new  which  is  to  fucceed  it. 
The  Parfes  will  ever  divide  themfelves  into 
fedls,  by  fo  much  the  more  numerous  as 
their  fam>ilies  fliall  have  contradled  different 
manners  or  opinions  during  their  difperfion. 
Next  to  thefe  are  ilandards  which  exhibit 
upon  a  blue  ground  mionftrous  figures  of 
human  bodies,  double,  triple,  or  quadruple, 
with  the  heads  of  lions,  boars,  and  elephants, 
and  tails  of  fiilies,  tortoifes,  &c.    Thefe  are 
tlie  flandards  of  the  Indian  feds,  who  find 
their  Gods  amidfi:  the  animal  creation,  and 
the  fouls  of  their  kindred  in  reptiles  and 
infeds.     Thefe  men  anxioufly  fupport  hof- 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         165 

pitals  for  the  reception  of  hawks,  ferpents, 
and  rats,  and  look  with  horror  upon  their 
brethren  of  mankind  !  They  purify  them- 
felves  with  the  dung  and  urine  of  a  cow, 
and  confider  themfelves  as  polluted  by  the 
touch  of  a  heretic  ]  They  wear  a  net  over 
their  mouths,  leil:  by  accident  a  fly  Ihould 
get  down  their  throat,  and  they  Ihould  thus 
interrupt  the  progrsfs  of  a  purified  fpirlt  in 
its  purgatory ;  but  with  all  this  humanity  in 
unintelligible  cafes,  they  think  themfelves 
obliged  to  let  a  Paria  (12)  periih  with  hun- 
ger rather  than  relieve  him  !  They  worfhip 
the  fame  Gods,  but  inlifl  themfelves  under 
.hoftile  ilandards. 

This  firfl  ftandard,  feparated  from  the 
reil:,  and  on  which  you  fee  reprefented  a 
iigure  with  four  heads,  is  the  ftandard  of 
Brama,  who,  though  the  Creator  of  the 
univei-fe,  has  neither  followers  nor  temples, 
and  who,  reduced  to  ferve  as  a  pedeftal  to 
the  Lingam  (13),  receives  no  other  mark 
of  attention  than  a  little  water  fprinkled 
every  morning  over  his  fhoulder  by  the 
Bramin,  and  a  barren  fong  in  his  praife. 

The  fecond  ftandard  on  which  you  fee 
M  3  painted 

J  66  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

painted  a  kite,  his  body  fcariet  and  his  head 
white,  is  that  of  the  Vichenou,  who,  though 
preferver  of  the  unlverfe,  has  pafled  a  part 
of  his  hfe  in  malevolent  actions.  Some- 
times you  fee  him  under  the  hideous  forms 
of  a  boar  and  a  lion  tearing  the  entrails  of 
mankind;  fometinies  under  that  of  a  horfe 
(14),  foon  to  appear  upon  the  face  of  the 
earth,  with  a  fab  re  in  his  hand,  to  deftroy 
the  prefent  inhabitants  of  the  world,  to 
darken  the  ftars,  to  drive  the  planets  from 
their  fpheres,  to  fliake  the  Vvhole  earth, 
and  to  oblige  the  mighty  ferpent  to  vomit 
a  flame  which  fhall  confumic  the  globes. 

The  third  ftandard  is  that  of  Chiven,  the 
deftroyer  of  all  things,  the  God  of  defola- 
tion,  and  who  neverthelefs  has  for  his  em- 
blem the  inflrument  of  production  ;  he  is 
the  moft  deteftable  of  the  three,  and  he  has 
the  greatefh  num.ber  of  followers.  Proud 
of  his  attribute  and  charadler,  his  partizans 
in  their  devotions  (15)  exprefs  every  fort 
of  contempt  for  the  other  Gods,  his  equals 
and  his  brothers,  and  imitating  the  incon- 
fiftency  that  charadlerifes  him,  they  profefs 
mcdefty  and  chaftity,  and  at  the  fame  time 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        167 

publicly  crown  with  flowers,  and  bathe  with 
milk  and  honey,  the  obfcene  image  of  the 

Behind  them  came  the  lefs  m^agnificent 
ftandards  of  a  multitude  of  Gods,  male,  fe- 
male, and  hermaphrodite,  related  to  and 
connected  with  the  three  principal,  who  pafs 
their  lives  in  intefline  war,  and  are  in  this 
refpedt  imitated  by  their  worfhippers.  Thefe 
Gods  have  need  of  nothing,  and  receive  of- 
ferings with©ut  ceafing.  Their  attributes 
are  omnipotence  and  ubiquity,  and  a  Bramin 
with  fome  petty  charm  imprifons  them  in 
an  image,  or  in  a  pitcher,  and  retails  their 
favours  according  to  his  will  and  pleafure. 

At  a  ftill  greater  difrance  you  will  obferve 
a  multitude  of  other  ftandards,  which,  upon 
a  yellow  ground,  common  to  them  all,  have 
different  emblems  figured, and  are  the  fland- 
ards  of  one  God,  who,  under  various  names, 
is  acknowledged  by  the  nations  of  the  Eafl, 
The  Chinefe  woriliip  him  under  the  name 
of  Fot  (16) ;  the  Japanefe  denominate  him 
£//^  ;  the  inhabitants  of  Ceylon,  Beddhow^ 
the  people  of  Laos,  Chekia  ;  the  Peguan, 
Fbtci\  the  Siamefe,  Sommona-Kodom -,  the 
M  ij.  people 

l68  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

people  of  Thibet,  Budd  and  La ;  all  of  theQ;^ 
agree  as  to  moft  points  of  his  hiftory ;  they 
celebrate  his  penitence,  his  fufferings,   his 
fafts,  his  fundions  of  mediator  and  expiator, 
the  enmity  of  another  God  his  adverfary, 
the  combats  of  that  adverfary  and  his  de- 
feat: but  they  difagree  refped:ing  the  means 
of  recommending  themfelves  to  his  favour, 
refpeding  rites  and  ceremonies,  refpeding 
the  dogmas  of  their  interior  and  their  public 
dodrine.     Thus  the  Japanefe  Bonze,  in  a 
yellow  robe,  and  with  his  head  uncovered, 
preaches  the  eternity  of  fouls  and  their  fuc- 
celiive  tranfmigration  into  different  bodies ; 
while  his  rival,  the  Sintoift,  denies  that  the 
foul  can  exift  independentlv  of  the  fenfe^s 
(17),  and  maintains  that  it  is  the  m.ere  re- 
fult  of  the  organization  with  which  it  is 
connedled,  and  with  which  it  periilies,  as 
the  found  of  a  flute  is  annihilated  when  you 
break  it  in  pieces.     Near  him  the  Siam.efe, 
•  with  Hiaved  eye -brows,  and  with  the  Ta- 
jipat  fcreen  in  his  hand  (18),  recommends 
alms-giving,  purifications  and  offerings,  at 
the  very  time  that  he  believes  in  blind  ne- 
ceffity  and  immutable  fate.     The  Chinefe 
,.       ^    •  Plo-Chang 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         169 

Ho-Chang  facrifices  to  the  fouls  of  his  an- 
ceftors,  while  his  neighbour,  the  follower 
of  Confucius,  pretends  to  difcover  his  future 
deftiny  by  the  toffing  of  counters  and  the 
conjunction  of  the  ftars  (19).  Obferve  this 
infant  attended  by  a  numerous  crowd  ,of 
priefts  wuth  yellow  garments  and  bonnets : 
he  is  the  grand  Lama,  and  the  Qod  of  Thi- 
bet has  juft  become  incarnate  in  his  perfon 
(20).  He  however  has  a  rival  on  the  banks 
of  the  Baikal  -,  nor  is  the  Calmuc  Tartar  in 
this  refpedl  any  way  behind  the  Tartar  of 
La-fa.  They  are  agreed  in  this  important 
doctrine,  that  God  can  become  incarnate 
only  in  a  human  body,  and  fcorn  the  flupi- 
dity  of  the  Indian,  who  looks  down  with 
reverence  upon  cow- dung,  though  they 
themfelves  preferve  with  no  lefs  awe  the 
excrements  of  their  pontiff  (21), 

As  thefe  ilandards  paiTed,  an  innumerable 
crowd  of  others  prefented  themfelves  to  our 
eyes,  and  the  Genius  exclaimed :  I  fliould 
never  come  to  a  conclufion,  were  I  to  detail 
to  you  ail  the  different  fyflems  of  belief 
which  divide  thefe  nations.  Here  the  Tartar 
Hordes  adore,  under  the  figure  of  animals, 


IjO  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

infeds,  and  birds,  the  good  and  the  evil 
Genii,  who,  under  a  principal  but  indolent 
divinity,  govern  the  univerfe,  by  their  ido- 
latry giving  us  an  image  of  the  ancient  pa- 
ganifm  of  the  weilern  world.  You  fee  the 
ilrange  drefs  of  their  Chamans,  a  robe  of 
leather  fringed  with  little  bells  and  rattles, 
embroidered  with  idols  of  iron,  claws  of 
birds,  fKins  of  ferpents,  and  heads  of  owls : 
they  are  agitated  with  artificial  convulfions, 
and  with  magical  cries  evoke  the  dead  to 
deceive  the  living.  In  this  place  you  be- 
held the  footy  inhabitants  of  Africa,  who, 
while  they  worfhip  their  Fetiches ^  entertain 
the  fame  opinions.  The  inhabitant  of 
Juida  adores  God  under  the  figure  of  an 
enormous  ferpent,  which  for  their  misfortune 
the  fwine  regard  as  a  delicious  morfel  (22). 
The  Tekutean  drelfes  the  figure  of  bis 
God  in  a  variety  of  gaudy  colours,  like  a 
Ruiiian  foldier  ;  and  the  Kamchadale,  find- 
ing that  every  thing  gees  on  ill  in  this  world 
and  under  his  climtate,  reprefents  God  to 
himfelf  under  the  figure  of  an  ill-natured 
and  arbitrary  old  man  (23),  fmoking  his 
pipe  and  fitting  in  his  traineau  employed  in 



the  hunting  of  foxes  and  martins.  In  fine, 
there  are  a  hundred  other  favage  nations, 
who,  entertaining  none  of  thefe  ideas  of 
civilized  countries  refpedting  God,  the  foul, 
and  a  future  ftate,  exercife  no  fpecies  of 
worfliip,  and  yet  are  not  lefs  favoured  with 
the  gifts  of  nature,  in  the  irreligion  to 
which  nature  has  deilin^d  them. 



A    SURVEY    OF    THi; 

c  H  A  P.    xxr. 


1  H  E  diri'erent  groupes  having  taken  their 

jdations,  aiid  profound  filence  fucceeding  to 

the  confufed  uproar  of  the  niuhitude,  the 

legiilators  faid:  *'  Chiefs  and  doctors  of  the 

'  people  !    you   perceive   how  the  various 

^  nations  of  mankind,  hving  apart,  have  hi- 

''  therto  purfiied  dilferent  paths,  each  be- 

'  lieving  its  own  to  be  that  of  truth.     If 

^  truth,  however,  is  one,  and  your  opinions 

'  are  oppoilte,  it  is  manifsfl  that  icme  of 

*  you  mull:  be  in  error :  and  fince  fo  many 

*  men  deceive  themfelves,  what  individual 
'  iliall  dare  fay,  I  arn  not  mitfaken?  Begin, 
'  then,  by  being  indulgent  refpeding  your 
'  difputes  and  diffentions.  Let  us  all  feek 
'  truth,  as  \i  none  of  us  had  poffeiTion  of  it. 

*  The  opinions  which  to  this  day  have  go- 
'  verned  the   earth,   produced   by  chance, 

*  dilTeminated  in  obfcurity,  admitted  with- 
^  out  difcuifion,   credited  from  a  love  of 

■J  .      ■    "'  "  novelty 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        1^3 

^^  novelty  and  imitation,  have  in  a  manner 
*^  clandeilinely  ufurped  their  empire.  It  is 
"  time,  if  they  are  founded  in  reality,  to 
"  give  them  the  folemn  flamp  of  certainty, 
*'  and  to  legitimate  their  exiflence.  Let  us 
^*  this  day  cite  them  to  a  common  and  ge- 
"  neral  examination;  let  each  make  known 
"  his  creed  ^  let  the  united  affembly  be  the 
**  judge,  and  let  us  acknowledge  that  to  be 
"  the  only  true  one,  v/hich  is  proper  for  the 
^'  whole  face." 

Then,  in  order  of  pofition,  the  firft  ftand- 
ard  at  the  left  being  defired  to  fpeak  : 
*^  There  can  be  no  doubt,"  faid  they,  "  that 
**  ours  is  the  only  true  and  infallible  doc- 
"  trine.  In  the  firil  place,  it  is  revealed 
'^  by  God  himfelf." 

"  So  alfo  is  ours,"  exclaimed  all  the  other 
ftandards,  "  and  there  can  be  no  room  for 
''  doubt." 

"  But  it  is  at  leail  neceffary  to  explain  it," 
faid  the  legiflators,  "  for  it  is  irapoffible  for 
"  us  to  believe  any  thing  of  which  we  are 
**  ignorant." 

*'  Our  dodtrine,''  refumed  the  firft  ftand- 
ard,  *^  is  proved  by  numerous  fads,  by  a 
*'  crowd  of  miracles,  by  reiurre<ftions  from 

''  the 

174  ^    i^URVEY    OF    -tKE 

**  the  dead,  by  torrents  fuddenly  dried  up^ 
*'  mountains  removed  from  their  fituations^ 
*'  &c.  &c/' 

"  We  alfo,"  cried  the  reft,  '*  are  in  poflef- 
"  fion  of  miracles  without  number /'and  each 
began  to  recite  the  moft  incredible  things, 

"  Their  miracles,"  replied  the  firfl  fland- 
ard,  "  are  imaginary,  or  the  prefliges  of  the 
**  evil  fpirit  who  has  deluded  them." 

To  this  it  was  anfwered  by  the  others  : 
**  They  are  yours,  on  the  contrary,  that  are 
*'  imaginary ;"  and  each  fpeaking  of  himfelf 
added  :  **  Ours  are  the  only  true  ones,  all 
**  other  miracles  are  falfe." 

"  Have  you  living  witneiTes  of  their 
"  truth  ?"  the  legiflators  afked. 

"  No,"  they  univerfally  anfwered :  "  they 
•'  are  ancient  fad:s,  of  which  the  witneiTes 
*'  are  dead,  but  thefe  fadls  are  recorded." 

*'  Be  it  fo,"  replied  the  legiflators :  "  but 
*'  as  they  contradidl  each  other,  wlio  ihall 
''  reconcile  them  ?" 

"  Juft  arbiters  !"  cried  one  of  the  ftand- 
ards,  "  as  a  proof  that  our  witneffes  have 
"  feen  the  truth,  they  died  in  confirmation 
"  of  it;  and  our  creed  is  fealed  with  the 
*'  blood  of  martyrs." 

"  S9 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        ty§ 

**  So  alfo  is  ours,"  exclaimed  the  reft  t 
*'  we  have  thoufands  of  martyrs,  who  have 
"  died  in  the  moft  agonizing  tortures,  with- 
"  out  in  a  fingle  inftance  abjuring  the  truth." 
And  the  Chriflians  of  every  fed,  the  Muf- 
fulmans,  the  Indians,  the  Japanefe,  recount- 
ed endlefs  legends  of  confelTors,  martyrs, 
penitents,  Sec. 

One  of  thefe  parties  having  denied  the 
martyrology  of  the  others :  "  We  are  ready," 
cried  they,  "  to  die  ourfelves  to  prove  the 
"  infallibility  of  our  creed." 

Inftantly  a  crowd  of  men  of  every  fed: 
and  of  every  religion,  prefented  themfelves 
to  endure  whatever  torments  might  be  in- 
fiided  on  them ;  and  numbers  of  them  be- 
gan to  tear  their  arms,  and  to  beat  their 
head  and  their  breaft,  without  difcovering 
any  fymptom  of  pain. 

But  the  leglflators  putting  a  flop  to  this 
violence :  *^  O  men !"  faid  they  to  them, 
*'  hear  with  compofure  the  words  we  ad- 
*'  drefs  to  you.  If  you  die  to  prove  that  two 
**  and  two  make  four,  will  this  truth  gain 
**  additional  confirmation  by  your  death  ?" 

**  No,"  was  the  general  anfwer. 

I  «If 

ty6  A    SURVEY   OF    THE 

^*  If  you  die  to  prove  they  are  five.  Will 
**  this  make  them  five  ?'* 

**  No,"  they  again  replied. 

"  What,  then,  does  your  perfiiafion  prove, 
*'  fince  it  makes  no  alteration  in  the  exifl- 
"  ence  of  things.  Truth  is  one  -,  your  opi- 
"  nions  are  various  ^  many  of  you  muft 
*'  therefore  be  miltaken.  And  fince  man,  as 
*^  is  evident,  can  perfuade  himfelf  of  error, 
**  how  can  his  perfuanon  be  regarded  as  the 
'*  demonflration  of  evidence  ?  Since  error 
^*  has  its  martyrs,  what  is  the  fignet  of 
"  truth  ?  Since  the  evil  fpirit  v/orks  mira- 
"  cles,  what  is  the  diflinguiiliing  charader- 
"  iftic  of  the  Divinity  ?  Befide,  why  this 
"  uniform  refort  to  incomplete  and  infufii- 
*'  cient  miracles  ?  Why  not  rather,  inflead 
*'  of  thefe  violations  of  nature,  change  the 
*•  opinions  of  rational  beings  ?  Why  mur- 
"  der  and  terrify  men,  infiead  of  enlighten- 
"  ing  and  infi:rud;ing  them  ? 

"  O  credulous  mortals,  and  obftinate  in 
"  your  credulity  !  as  we  are  none  of  us  cer- 
"  tain  of  what  pafied  yeflerday,  of  what  is 
**  paffing  this  very  day  before  our  eyes,  how 
"  can  we  fwear  to  the  truth  of  what  hap- 

"  pened 


*<^  pened  two  thoufand  years  ago  ?  Weak,  and 
^  at  the  fame  time  proud  beings  !  the  laws 
"  of  nature  are  immutable  and  profound,  our 
*^  urderilandings  full  of  illufion  and  frivolity, 
"  and  yet  we  would  decide  upon  and  com- 
"  prehend  every  thing.  But  in  reality  it  is 
**  eaiier  for  the  whole  human  race  to  fall  into 
''  error,  than  an  atom  of  the  univerfe  to 
**  change  its  nature." 

"  Well  then,''  faid  one  of  the.dodlors, 
*^  let  us  leave  the  evidence  of  fa6ls,lince  fach 
**  evidence  is  equivocal,  and  let  us  attend  to 
*'  the  proofs  of  reafon,  and  the  intriniic  me- 
*'  rit  of  the  doctrine  itfelf." 

An  Iman  of  the  law  of  Mahomet,  with 
a  look  of  confidence,  then  advanced  in  the 
fand,  and  having  turned  himfelf  towards 
Mecca,  and  uttered  with  emphafis  his  con- 
feffion  of  faith  :  **  Let  God  be  praifed  !"  faid 
he,  in  a  grave  and  authoritative  voice  ;  "  the 
**  light  fhines  in  all  its  fplendour,  and  the 
*'  truth  has  no  need  of  examination."  Then 
exhibiting  the  Koran  :  "  Behold  the  light 
*'  and  the  truth  in  their  genuine  colours  !  In 
"this  book  every  doubt  is  removed;  it  will 
*'  condud  the  blind  man  fafely,  who  ihall 
N  *^  receive 

178  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

^'  receive  without  difcuffion  the  divine  word, 
*'  given  to  the  prophet  to  fave  the  fimplc  * 
*'  and  confound  the  wife.  God  hath  ap- 
"  pointed  Mahomet  to  be  his  miniiler  upon 
*'  earth ;  he  has  delivered  up  the  world  to 
**  him,  that  he  might  fubdue  by  his  fword 
"  fuch  as  refufe  to  beheve  in  his  law.  Infi- 
**  dels  difpute  his  authority,  and  refiil  the 
'^  truth  :  their  obduracy  proceeds  from  God, 
*'  who  has  hardened  their  hearts  that  he 
**  might  inflid;  upon  them  the  moft  dreadful 
"  chaftifements  */* 

Here  a  violent  murmur  from  all  fides  in- 
terrupted the  Iman.  *'  What  man  is  this/' 
cried  every  groupe,  "  who  thus  gratuitoufly 
*'  commits  outrage?  By  what  right  does  he 
"  pretend,  as  conqueror  and  tyrant,  to  im- 
*'  pofe  his  creed  on  mankind  ?  Has  not  God 
**  created  us  as  well  as  him  with  eyes,  under- 
"  landing,  and  reafon?  Have  we  not  an  equal 
*^  right  to  make  ufe  of  them  in  determining 

*  This  paflage  contains  the  fenfe  and  nearly  the  very 
words  of  the  firft  chapter  of -the  Koran;  and  the  reader 
will  obferve  in  general,  that,  in  the  pictures  that  follovv^. 
the  writer  has  endeavoured  to  give  as  accurately  aspofliblc 
the  letter  and  fpirit  of  the  opinions  of  each  party. 

"  what 


"  what  we  ought  to  rejecfl,  and  what  to  be- 
**  lieve  ?  If  he  have  the  right  to  attack,  have 
*\  not  we  the  right  to  defend  ourfelves?  If  he 
**  be  content  to  believe  without  examination, 
*^  are  we  therefore  not  to  employ  our  reafon 
**  in  the  choice  of  our  creed  ? 

**  And  v/hat  is  this^/^'W/^dodrine  which 
**  fears  the  light?  What  this  apoftle  of  a  God 
"  of  clemency  who  preaches  only  carnage 
"  and  murder?  What  this  God  of juftice who 
*'  puniflies  a  blindnefs  which  himfelf  has 
*'  caufed?  If  violence  and  perfecution  are  the 
**  arguments  of  truth,  mildnefs  and  charity 
^*  mufl  they  be  the  indices  of  falfehood?" 

A  man  advancing  from  .the  next  group© 
then  faid  to  the  Iman  :  '*  Admitting  that 
*'  Mahomet  is  the  apoftle  of  the  better  doc- 
"  trine,  the  prophet  of  the  true  religion, 
"  condefcend  to  tell  us^  in  prad:ifing  thi's 
"  dodrine  whom  we  are  to  follow,  his  fon- 
**  in-law  Ali,  or  his  vicars  Omar  and  Abou- 
"  bekre  (24)  ?" 

At  the  mention  of  thefe  names  a  terrible 

fchifm  arofe  among  the  MufTulmans.     The 

partifans  of  Omar  and  of  Ali,  treating  each 

other  as   heretics    and  blafphemers,    were 

N  2  ecjually 

iSo  A    SURVEY    OF    THE^ 

equally  lavilh  of  execrations.  The  dlfpule 
even  became  fo  violent,  that  it  was  necelTary 
for  the  neighbouring  groupes  to  interpofe  to 
prevent  their  coming  to  blows. 

Some  degree  of  tranquillity  being  at  length 
reftored,  the  legiflators  faid  to  the  Imans  : 
*'  You  fee  what  are  the  confequences  which 
*'  refult   from  your  principles  !  were   they 
\'  carried  into  pra-sTtice,  you  would  by  your 
"  enmity  deflrcy  each  other  till  not  an  in- 
**  dividual  would  remain  :  and  is  it  not  the 
"  firilhw  of  God,  that  man  fliould  live  ?" 
Then  "^dreffing   themfelves  to  the   other 
groupes :  "  This    fpirit  of  intolerance  and 
*'  exclufion,"  faid  they,  '^  is  doubtlefs  iliock- 
*'  ing  to  every  idea  of  jufliice,  and  deflroys 
"  the  whole  bafis  of  morals  and  fociety :  fliall 
*'  we  not,  however,  before  we  entirely  reject 
*^  this  code,  agree  to  hear  fome  of  its  dogmas 
*'  recited,    that   we   may   not  decide  from 
*^  forms  only,  without  having  inveftigated 
*^  the  religion  itfelf  ?" 

The  groupes  having  confented  to  the  pro- 
pofal,  the  Iman  began  to  explain  to  them 
how  God,  who  before  time  had  fpoken  to 
the  nations  funk  in  idolatry  by  twenty-four 

thou  fa  nd 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         l8l 

tkoufand  prophets,  had  at  length  fent  the 
lail,  the  extract  and  perfediion  of  all  the  reft, 
Mahomet,  in  whom  was  vefted  the  falvation 
of  peace:  he  informed  them  that  to  prevent 
the  word  of  truth  from  being  any  more  per- 
verted by  infidels,  the  divine  clemency  had 
written  with  its  own -fingers  the  chapters  of 
the  Koran  ;  and  that  the  Koran,  by  virtue  of 
its  character  of  the  word  of  God,  was,  like  its 
author, uncreated  and  eternal.  He  proceeded 
to  explain  to  them  the  dogmas  of  Iflamifm; 
that  this  book  had  been  tranfmitted  from 
heaven  leaf  by  leaf  in  twenty-four  .^oufand 
miraculous  viiions  of  the  angel  Gabriel;  that 
the  angel  announced  his  approach  by  a  fmall 
ftili  knocking,  which  threw  the  prophet  into 
a  cold  fweat;  that  Mahomet  had  in  one 
night  traverfed  ninety  heavens,  mounted  upon 
the  animal  called  Bbrak,one  half  woman  and 
one  half  horfe;  that  being  endowed  with  the 
gift  of  m*iracles,  he  walked  in  the  funftiine 
unattended  by  a  (hadgw,  caufed  with  a  fingle 
w^ord  trees  already  withered  to  refume  their 
verdure,  filled  the  wells  and  the  ciftejns  with 
water,  ar^d  cut  in  two  equal  parts  the  body  of 
the  moon  5  that,  authorized  by  a  commiffion 
N  3  from 

lS2  A    StJRVEY    OF    THfi 

from  heaven,  he  had  propagated,  fword  in 
hand,  a  rehgion  the  moft  worthy  of  God  for 
its  fublimity,the  moil:  faitable  to  man  for  the 
iim.plicity  of  its  injundlions,  confifting  indeed 
only  of  eight  or  ten  principal  dodrines,  fuch 
as  the  unity  of  God;  the  authority  of  Maho- 
met, the  only  prophet  of  God  -,  our  duty  to 
pray  five  times  in  a  day  ;  to  faft  one  month 
in  the  year;  to  repair  to  Mecca  once  at  lead 
in  our  lives  3  to  pay  the  tenth  of  all  that  v^e 
poffefs ;  to  drink  no  wine,  to  eat  no  pork, 
and  to  make  war  upon  the  infidels  (25)  5 
upon  which  conditions  every  Mufiulman,  be- 
ing himfelf  an  apcflle  and  a  martyr,  fiiould 
enjcy  in  this  life  a  thoufand  blefiings,  and  in 
the  world  to  come,  after  a  folemn  trial,  his 
foul  being  weighed  in  the  balance  of  good 
works,  his  abfolution  pronounced  by  the  two 
black  angels, and  hisprogrefs  performed  over 
the  bridge  that  crofTes  the  infernal  pit,  as  nar- 
row as  a  hair  and  as  keen  as  a  razor,  ihould 
be  received  in  the  feat  of  delights,  bathed  in 
rivers  of  milk  and  honey,  em.balmed  in  the 
perfumes  of  India  and  Arabia,  and  live  in 
uninterrupted  commerce  with  thofe  chafle 
females,  the  celefiial  Houiis,  who  prefent  a 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         iSj 

perpetually  renewed  virginity  to  the  eledt, 
who  preferve  a  perpetual  vigour. 

An  involuntary  fmile  was  viiible  in  the 
countenance  of  every  one  at  this  relation ; 
and  the  various  groupes,  reafoningupon  thefe 
articles  of  belief,  unanimoufly  faid :  **  Is  it 
*'  poffible  for  reafpnable  beings  to  have  faith 
**  in  fuch  reveries  ?  Might  one  not  fuppofe 
"  that  a  chapter  had  been  juft  read  to  us 
'*  from  the  Thoufand  and  One  NighisT^ 

A  Samoiede  advancing  in  the  fand  then 
faid  :  "  The  paradife  of  Mahomet  is  in  my 
*^  opinion  excellent :  but  one  of  the  means 
**  of  obtaining  it  puzzles  me  extremely.  If, 
"  as  this  prophet  ordains,  it  is  neceffary  to 
*Vabflain  from  meat  and  drink  between  the 
"  riling  and  fetting  of  the  fun,  how  in  our 
"  country  is  fuch  a  faft  prad:icable,  where 
*'  the  fun  continues  above  the  horizon  for  fix 
"  months  together  ?" 

To  vindicate  the  honour  of  their  prophet, 
the  MufTulman  doctors  denied  the  poffibility 
of  this;  but  a  hundred  people  bearing  tefti- 
mony  to  the  fad:,  the  infallibility  of  Maho« 
met  fuftained  a  violent  fhock. 
"  Itisfingular,"faidaEuropean,  "thatGod 
N  4,  "  fhould 


184  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

"  fhould  continually  have  revealed  what  was 
going  on  in  heaven,  without  ever  having 
informed  us  of  what  paffes  upon  earth.'* 

Their  pilgrimage,"  faid  an  American, 
is  to  me  an  iniuperable  difficulty.     For  let 
^'  us  fuppofe  a  generation  to  be  twenty-five 
**  years,  and  the  number  of  males  exifting  on 
**  the  globe  to  be   a  hundred  milHons :    in 
*•  this  cafe,  each  being  obliged  to  travel  to 
"  Mecca  once  during  his  life,  there  would  be 
''  annually  engaged  in  the  pilgrimage  four 
*^  millions  of  men ;  and  as  it  would  be  im- 
*^  pradicable  for  them  to  return  in  the  fame 
*'  year,  the  number  would  be  doubled,  or  in 
**  other  words  would  amount  to  eight  mil- 
''  lions.  Where  are  provifions,  accommoda- 
*'  tion,  water,  and  vefTels  to  be  found  for  this 
'^  univerfal  proceffion?  Whajtj^fUmerous  mi- 
**  racks  would  it  not  be  necefiaijy  to  work  !'* 
"  The  proof,"  faida  Catholic  Divine,*'  that 
"  the  religion  of  Mahomet  is  not  a  revealed 
"  religion,  is,  that  the  majority  of  ideas  upon 
"■  which  it  is  founded  exifted  for  a  long  tim.e 
*'  before  it,  and  that  it  is  nothing  more  than  a 
*'  confufed  mixture  form.ed  out  of  the  truths 
**  of  our  holy  religion  and  that  of  the  Jews, 

^*  which 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         I  85 

*'  which  an  ambitious  man  has  made  ferve 
**  his  projects  of  dominion,  and  his  worldly 
**  views.     Turn  over  the  pages  of  his  book : 
**  you  will  fee  little  elfe  than  the  hiftories  of 
**  the    Old  and  New  Teftament  traveflied 
''  into  the  mofl  abfurd  tales,  and  the  reft  u 
^^  tiffue  of  vague  and  contradid:ory  declama- 
^^  tion,  and  ridiculous  or  dangerous  precepts. 
**  Analyze  the  fpirit  of  thefe  precepts,  and 
"  the  conduct  of  their  apoftle :  you  will  find 
^'  a  fubtle  and  daring  character,  which,  to  ar- 
*'  rive  at  its  end,  works,  it  is  true,  with  ad-* 
*^  mirable  fkill  upon  the  paffions  of  thofe 
**  whom  it  wiHies  to  govern.     It  addreffes 
"  itfelf  to  fimple  and  credulous  men,  and  it 
*^  tells  them  of  prodigies :  they  are  ignorant 
"  and  jealous,  and  it  flatters  their  vanity  by 
*'  defpifing  fcience;  they  are  poor  and  rapa- 
''  cious,  and  it  excites  their  avidity  by  the  hope 
'*  of  plunder  -,  having  nothing  at  firft  to  give 
''  them  on  earth,  it  creates  treafures  in  hea- 
''  ven  ',  it  makes  them  long  for  death,  as  the 
''  fupreme  bleiTmg  ^   the  daflardly  it  threa- 
•*  tens  with  hell ;  to  the  brave  it  promifes 
*'  paradife  j   the  weak  it  flrengthens  by  the 
*^  principle  of  fatality :  in  fhort,  it  produces 

''  the 

l86  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

*'  the  attachment  it  requires,  by  every  al- 
**  lurement  of  the  fenfes,  and  the  fafcination 
"  of  all  the  paffions. 

''  How  different  is  the  charader  of  the 
**  Chriftian  dodlrine !  and  how  much  does  its 
"  empire,  eflablifhed  on  the  wreck  of  every 
•*  natural  inclination  and  the  extindtion  of 
*'  all  the  paffions,  prove  its  celeftial  origin ! 
**  How  forcibly  does  its  mild  and  compaf- 
**  fionate  morality  atteft  its  emanation  from 
"  the  Divinity  !  Many  of  its  dogmas,  it  is 
*'  true,  are  beyond  the  reach  of  human  un- 
*'  derftanding,  and  impofe  on  reafon  a  re- 
*^  fpedtful  filence ;  but  this  very  circum- 
*^  fiance  the  more  fully  confirms  its  revela- 
*'  tion,  fince  the  faculties  of  men  could  never 
*'  have  invented  fuch  fublime  myfteries."— ~ 
Then,  with  the  Bible  in  one  hand,  and  the 
Four  Evangelifts  in  the  other,  the  dodor 
began  to  relate  that  in  the  beginning,  God 
(after  having  pafTed  an  eternity  without  do- 
ing any  thing)  conceived  at  length  the  de- 
fign  (without  apparent  motive)  of  forming 
the  world  out  of  nothing:  that  having  in  fix 
days  created  the  whole  univerfe,  he  found 
himfelf  tired  on  the  feventh  :  that  having 
5  placed 

KEVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         187 

placed  the  firft  pair  of  human  beings  in  a  de- 
lightful garden  to  make  them  completely 
happy,  he  neverthelefs  forbad  them  to  tafte 
of  the  fruit  of  one  tree  which  he  planted 
within  their  reach  :  that  thefe  iirft  parents 
having  yielded  to  temptation,  all  their  race 
(as  yet  unborn)  were  condemned  to  fuffer 
the  penalty  of  a  fault  which  they  had  no 
fhare  in  committing :  that  after  permitting 
the  human  fpecies  to  damn  themfelves  far 
four  or  five  thoufand  years,  this  God  of  com- 
paffion  ordered  his  well-beloved  fon,  engen- 
dered without  a  mother  and  of  the  fame  age- 
as  himfelf,  to  defcend  upon  the  earth  in  or- 
der to  be  put  to  death,  and  this  for  the  fal- 
vation  of  mankind,  the  majority  of  whom 
have  neverthelefs  continued  in  the  road  to 
fin  and  damnation  :  that  to  remedy  this  in^ 
convenience,  this  God,  the  fon  of  a  woman, 
who  was  at  once  a  mother  and  a  virgin,  af- 
ter having  died  and  rifen  again,  commences 
a  new  exiftence  every  day,  and  under  the 
form  of  a  morfel  of  dough  is  multiplied  a 
thoufand  fold  at  the  pleafure  of  the  bafeft  of 
mankind.  Having  expl^iined  thefe  dogmas, 
he  was  going  on  to  treat  of  the  dodrine  of 


l88  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

the  Sacraments,  of  abfolution  and  anathema, 
of  the  means  of  purifying  men  from  crimes 
of  every  fort  with  a  drop  of  water  and  the 
muttering  half  a  dozen  words ;  but  he  had 
BO  fooner  pronounced  the  names  of  indul- 
gence, papal  prerogative,  fuflicient  grace, 
and.  effecliial  grace,  than  he  was  interrupted 
by-  a  thoufand  voices  at  once.  It  is  a  horrid 
corruption,  cried  the  Lutherans,  to  pretend 
to  fell  for  money  the  pardon  of  fm ;  it  is  con- 
trary to  the  fenfc  of  the  gofpel,  faid  the  Cal- 
vinifls,  to  talk  of  the  real  prefence  in  the 
Sacrament.  The  Pope,  exclaimed  the  Jan- 
fenifls^  has  no  power  to  decide  upon  any 
thing  without  a  council.  Thirty  feds  at 
once  mutually  accufed  each  other  of  herefy 
and  blafphemy,  and  their  voices  wxre  fo  con- 
fufed  that  it  was  no  longer  poffible  to  dif- 
tinguiih  a  word  they  uttered. 
.  After  fome  time,  filence  being  at  length 
reftored,  the  MuiTulmans  faid  to  the  legifla- 
tors:  *'  Since  you  have  rejeded  our  do<5lrine 
**  as  containing  things  incredible,  can  you  j 
"  poffibly  admit  that  of  the  Chriflians,  which 
*'  is  fliil  more  contrary  to  juflice  and  com- 
"  mon  fcnfe  ?   An  immaterial  and  infmite 

«  God 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPtREs'.         189 

"  God  to  transform  himfelf  into  a  man  ! 
"  To  have  a  fon  as  old  as  himfelf!  This 
**  God-man  to  become  bread,  which  is  eaten 
*'  and  undergoes  digeftion  !  What  abfurdi- 
*'  ties  have  we  equal  to  thefe  ?  Is  it  to  thefe 
"  men  belong  the  exclufive  right  of  exad:- 
*'  ing  a  blind  obedience  ?  And  will  you  ac- 
"  cord  to  them  privileges  of  faith,  to  our 
"  detriment  ?" 

Some  favage  tribes  then  advanced :  ^*What/* 
faid  they,  "  becaufe  a  man  and  a  woman  eat 
*'  an  apple  iix  thoufand  years  ago,  is  the 
^'  whole  human  race  to  be  involved  in  dam- 
"  nation  ?  And  do  you  call  God  jufl?  What 
"  tyrant  ever  made  the  children  refponfible 
''  for  the  fms  of  their  fathers?  How  can  one 
"  man  anfwer  for  the  a(flions  of  another  ? 
"  Would  not  this  be  overthrowing  every 
"  principle  of  equity  and  reafon  ?'* 

*'  Where,"  exclaimed  others,  "  are  the 
**  witneffes  and  proofs  of  all  thefe  pretended 
"  fadts  ?  It  is  impoffible  to  receive  them 
"  without  evidence.  The  moil  trivial  ac- 
"  tion  in  a  court  of  judicature  requires  two 
"  witneffes,  and  are  we  to  believe  all  this 
"  upon  mere  tradition  and  hearfay  ?" 

A  Jewifh 

190  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

A  Jewifh  Rabbin  then,  addreffing  the  af* 
fembly,  faid:  "  For  the  general  facfts  we  are 
*'  indeed  fureties;  but  as  to  the  form  and  ap- 
"  plication  of  thofe  fads,  the  cafe  is  different, 
**  and  the  Chriftians  are  here  condemned  out 
"  of  their  own  mouth.  They  cannot  deny 
**  that  we  are  the  ilock  from  which  they  are 
"^  defcended,  the  trunk  upon  which  they 
'^  have  been  grafted  :  from  whence  it  fol- 
*'  lows  by  an  inevitable  dilemma,  that  either 
*^  our  lav/  is  from  God,  and  then  theirs  is  a 
•^  herefy,  fmce  it  differs  from  ours ;  or  our  law 
^^  is  not  from  God,  and  then  whatever  proves 
"  its  falfehoodis  deftrudive  of  theirs." 

"  But  tliere  is  a  proper  line  of  diflindion,'* 
faid  the  Chrillian,  "  to  which  it  is  neceffary 
*'  to  attend.  Your  law  is  of  God  as  typical 
*'  and  preparative,  not  as  final  and  abfolute  j 
**  you  are  but  the  image,  of  which  we  are 
"the  reality." 

"  We  are  not  ignorant,"  replied  the  Rab- 
bin, "  that  fuch  are  your  pretenfions ;  but 
"  they  are  perfedly  fuppofitious  and  falfe. 
•'  Your  fyftem  rclls  entirely  on  myftical  (26), 
**  vilionary,  and  allegorical  interpretations. 
"  You  pervert  the  letter  of  our  books,  fub- 

"  flitute 

;   «c 



"  ftitute  continually  for  the  true  fenfe  of  a 
"  pafTage  the  moft  chimerical  ideas,  and  find 
*'  in  them  whatever  is  agreeable   to  your 
**  fancy,  juft  as  a  roving  imagination  difco- 
*^  vers  figures  in  the  clouds.   You  have  thus 
**  imagined  a  fpiritual  Mefliah,  v^here  our 
**  prophets  fpeak  only  of  a  political  king. 
**  You  have  interpreted  into  a  redemption  of 
*'  the  human  race,  what  refers  folely  to  the 
*'  re-eftabiifhment  of  our  nation.  Your  pre- 
"  tended  conception  of  the  virgin  is  derived 
**  from  a  phrafe  which  you  have  wrefted 
**  from  its  true  meaning.      You  conflrue 
*^  every  thing  as  you  pleafe.     You  even  find 
"  in  our  bocks  your  doclrine  of  the  Trinity, 
"  though  they  contain  not  the  moft  indiredl 
*'  allufion  to  it,  and  though  the  idea  was  an 
*'  invention  of  profane  nations,  and  admitted 
"  into  your  code,  together  v/ith  a  multitude 
"  of  other  opinions  of  every  worfhip  and  fedt 
"  of  which  it  is  compofed,  during  the  chaos 
and  anarchy  of  the  three  firft  ages." 
At  thefe  words,  tranfported  with  indigna- 
tion, and  crying  out  facrilege,  blafphemy  ! 
the  Chriftian  dodors  were  difpofed  to  lay 
violent  hands  upon  the  Jew :  and  a  motley 


tp±  A    StJRVEV    OF    THS 

groupe  of  monks,  fome  in  black,  feme  iH 
white,  advancing  with  a  ftandard  on  which 
pincerSf  a  gridiroji,  and  a  funeral  pile ,  and  the 
woxdisjz^jiice,  charity,  and  mercy,  were  paint- 
ed *,  exclaimed:  "  It  is  proper  to  make  art 
*^  example  of  this  impious  heretic,  and  to 
*'  burn  him  alive  for  the  glory  of  God." 
And  already  they  had  pictured  to  their  ima-* 
ginations  the  fcene  of  torture,  when  the 
MulTulm-ans  in  a  tone  of  irony  faid  to  them  : 
"  Such  is  the  religion  of  peace,  whofe  hum- 
*'  ble  and  humane  fpirit  you  have  fo  loudly 
*'  vaunted  !  Such  that  evangelical  charity 
*^  which  combats  incredulity  with  no  other 
"  weapon  than  mildnefs,  and  oppofes  only 
*'  patience  to  injuries !  Hypocrites,  it  is  thus 
**  you  deceive  nations  !  It  is  in  this  manner 
*'  you  have  propagated  your  deftrudive  er- 
^'  rors  !  When  weak,  you  have  preached  li- 
"  berty,  toleration,  and  peace  ;  when  power 
'^  has  been  in  your  hands,  you  have  prac- 
**  tifed  violence  and  perfecution  !"....  And 
they  were  beginning  to  recite  the  wars  and 
murders   of  Ch  riftianity,  when  the  legif-^ 

*  This  dcfcriptlon  anfv/ers  exa6lly  to  the  colours  of 
the  Inquilition  of  Spanifh  Jacobins. 



la  tors,   demanding   filence,   aiTuaged   for  a 
while  the  difcord. 

*'  It  is  not,"  rephed  the  monks  in  a  tone 
of  affected  mildneis  and  humility,  **ourlelves 
"  that  we  would  avenge,  we  are  dellrous 
"  only  of  defending  the  caufe  and  glory  of 
*'  God." 

''  And  what  right  have  you,'*  faid  the 
Imans,  *'  to  conflitute  yourfeives  his  repre- 
*'  fentatives  m.ore  than  VvC?  Have  you  pri- 
^'  vilec;es  that  we  are  not  favoured  with  ? 
''  Are  3/0U  beings  of  a  different  nature  from 
**  us  r 

'^  To  take  upon  ourfelves  to  defend  God, 
''  is  to  infiilt  his  wifdom  and  power,"  faid 
another  groiipe.  "  Does  he  not  know  bet- 
'-  ter  than  mortals  what  is  becoming  bis 
*^  dignity  !" 

"  Certainly,"  rejoined  the  monks  j  "  but 
'^'  his  ways  are  fecret." 

**  You,  however,"  faid  the  Rabbins,  "will 
'•  always  find  the  difficulty  infuperable  of 
''  proving  that  you  enjoy  the  exclufive  pri- 
"  vilege  of  comprehending  them."  And  the 
Jews,  proud  of  hnding  their  caufe  fupported, 
fondly  pleafed  themfelves  with  the  idea  that 
O  their 

194  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

•their  books  would  be  triumphant^  when 
the  Mobed  ^  of  the  Parfes  begged  leave  to 

'*  We  ha\'e  heard,"  faid  he  to  the  legifla- 
*'  tors,  the  account  of  the  Jews  and  Chriilians 
"  refpe<fting  the  origin  of  the  world,   and 
"  though  they  have  introduced  various  cur- 
*'  ruptions,  they  have  related  a  number  of  j 
"  fads  which  our  reli2:ion  admits ;  but  we 
"  deny  that  they  are  to  be  attributed  to  the 
^'  Hebrew  legifiator.     It  was  not  he  who 
"  made  known  to  mankind  thefe  fubjime 
^*  dogmas,  thefe  cckilial  events :  it  was  not 
"  to  him  that  God  revealed  them,  but  to  our 
"  holy  prophet  Zoroafter ;   and   proofs  of 
*'  this  are  to  be  found  in  the  very  books  in 
*'  queilion.     If  you  examine  with  attention 
**  the  detail  of  laws,  of  rights,  and  of  pre- 
•*  cepts  ellabliflied   by  Mofes,  you  will  no 
**  where  find   the   moft  tacit  indication  of 
^'  what  conftitutes  at  prefent  the  bafis  of  the 
•*  Jewifh  and  Chriilian  theology.     You  wilLl 
'^  perceive  no  trace  either  of  the  immortality 
*'  of  the  foul 3  or  a  life  to  come,  or  hell,  or 

•     ..  .     -  *  Higbpriell. 

^'  paradifc 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    lEMPlRES.        I95 

^*  paradife,  or  the  revolt  of  the  principal  an- 
"  gel,  author  of  all  the  evils  which  have  af- 
*'  Hided  the  human  race^  &c.  Thefe  ideas 
^*  were  unknovv^i  to  Mofes,  and  this  appears 
*'  from  in difpu table  evidence,  iince  it  was  not 
*'  till  four  hundred  years  after  him  that  they 
*'  were  fir  A;  promulgated  by  Zoroafter  in 
''  Alia  (27)." 

The  Mobed  added,  addrefling  himfelf  to 
the  Rabbins :  *'  It  was  not  till  this  epocha, 
*^  till  after  the  age  of  your  firft  kings,  that 
*'  thefe  ideas  appeared  in  your  writings;  and 
"  then   their  appearance  was    furtive  and 
**  gradual,  according  as  there  grew  up  a  po- 
^'  iitical  relation  betv^^een  your  anceflors  and 
•'^  ours.      It  was   particularly  at  the  period 
"  when,    conquered   and  diiperfed   by  the 
"  kings  of  Nineveh  and  Babylon,  your  pro- 
^'  genitors  reforted  to  the  banks  of  the  Ti« 
"  s^ris  and  the  Eunhrates,  and  refided  in  our 
*'  country  for  three  fucceffive  generations, 
*'  that  they  imbibed  our  manners  and  opi- 
**  nions,  which  before   they  had  regarded 
'     *'  with  averiion^  as  contrary  to  their   law. 
**  When  our  king,  Cyrus,  had  delivered  them 
O  2  "  from 

196  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

**  from  flavery  they  felt  attached  to  us  from 
"  fentimsnts  of  gratitude;  they  became  cur 
**  difciples  and  imitators,  and  introduced 
*'  our  peculiar  doctrines  Into  the  corrected 
"  pubhcaticn  of  their  facred  bocks  (28); 
"  for  your  G^jnefjs  in  particular  was  never 
"  the  work  of  Mofes,  but  a  compilation  di- 
"  geifed  after  the  return  from  the  Babylo- 
*'  nim  Cciptivity,  and  containing  in  it  the 
*'  Chaldean  opinions  refoedlin^;  the  cris:!^ 
'*  of  the  world. 

"  At  hrft  the  pure  followers  of  the  law, 
'-*  oppohno;  to  the  emigrants  the  letter  of  the 
'*  text  and  the  abibliite  filence  of  the  pro- 
-'  rhet,  endeavoured  to  overpower  thefe  in- 
*'  novation. s  ;  but  they  ultimately  prevailed, 
*'  and  mir  doLtrincs,  iiiOdified  according  to 
**  yoi-r  ideas,  gave  rile  to  a  new  feet.  You 
-'  expected  a  king,  the  reuorer  of  your  poli- 
''  tical  independence  ;  we  announced  a  God, 
'•  the  regenerator  of  the  world,  and  the  fa- 
""  vlour  of  mankind.  Thefe  ideas  blended 
''  together,  confii[uted  the  tenets  of  the  Ef- 
*'  Iciiians,  and  throuo-h  them  became  the 
*'  bafis  of  Chriicianity.  Jews,  Chriflians, 
"  Maiiometanp,  however  lofty  may  be  your 

^*  pretcnfions. 


"  preteniion?,  you  are,  in  your  fpiritual  and 
''  immaterial  fyitem,  only  the  blundei-ing 
'^followers  of  Zoroafter  !" 

Having  thus  commenced  his  difcourfe,  the 
Mobed  went  en  to  the  detail  of  his  religion  ; 
and  fupporting  his  fentiments  by  quotations 
from  the  Zadder  and  the  Zendavefla,  he  re- 
counted in  the  fame  order  as  they  are  found 
in  the  book  of  Geneiis,  the  creation  of  the 
world  in  fix  gahans  (29) ;  the  formation  of  a 
firfl  man  and  a  firft  woman  in  a  peculiar  and 
celeflial  habitation,  under  the  reign  of  perfect 
good;,  the  introduifcion  of  evil  into  the  world 
by  the  great  lizard,  the  emblem  of  Ahrimanes  i 
the  revolt  and  combat  of  this  ma'^nificent 
genius  of  darknefs,  again/l  Ormuz  the  be- 
nevolent God  of  light ;  the  dillribution  of 
angels  into  white  and  black,   good  and  ill  i 
their  hierarchy  coniifling  of  cherubim,  fera- 
phim,  thrones,  dominions,  5cc. ;   the  end  of 
the  world  at  the  clofe  of  fix  thoufand  years  ; 
the  coming  of  the  Lamb,  the  regenerator  of 
nature;  the  new  world;  the  life  to  come  in 
an  abode  of  felicity  or  anguiili ;  the  paffage 
of  fouls  over  the  bridge  of  the  abyfs ;   the 
celebration  of  the  myileries  of  Mithra  \  the 
O  3  un|eayene4 

198  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

unleavened  bread  that  is  fet  apart  for  the  ini-  ^ 
dated  :  the  baptifm  of  nev/-born  children  ^ 
extreme  undtion  and  auricular  confeiiion 
(30'  ',  in  a  word,  he  repealed  fo  many  arti- 
cles  analogous  to  thofe  of  the  three  oreced- 
ing  religions,  that  his  difcourfe  feemed  to 
be  a  commentary  or  a  continuation  of  the 
Koran  or  the  Apocalypfe. 

But  the  Jewiih,  Chriftian,  and  Mahome« 
tan  doclcrs  excepted  to  this  detail,  and  treat- 
ing the  Parfcs  as  idolatrous  worfhippers  of 
fire,  charged  them  with  falfehocd,  invention, 
and  alteration  of  fadxs.  A  violent  diipute 
then  arofe  refpedling  the  dates  of  events,  their 
order  and  fjcceflion,  refpe«flinp-  the  origin  of 
opinions,  their  tranfmiflion  from  one  people 
to  another,  the  authenticity  of  the  books 
which  eilabliih  them,  the  epccha  when  thefe 
books  v/ere  compofed,  the  character  of  their 
compilers,  the  value  of  their  tefLimony  ;  and 
the  various  parties  proving,  each  agamfc  the 
reft,  contraaidions,  improbabilities,  and  the 
counterfeit  nature  of  their  books, accufcd  one 
another  of  having  founded  their  creed  upon 
popular  rumours,  upon  vague  traditions,  up- 
on abfurd  fables,  invented  by  folly,  and  ad- 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIP.ES.         I99 

mitted  without  examination  by  unknown, 
ignorant,  or  partial  writers,  at  doubtful  pe^ 
riords,  and  different  from  thofe  to^  which 
their  partifans  referred  them. 

A  loud  rumour  was  now  exxited  under  the 

ftandards  of  the  various  Indian  fedls,  and  the 

Bramins,   entering  their  protefl  againft  the 

claims  of  the  Jews  and  the  Parfes,   faid : 

"  What   are  thefe  upftart  and  almoil  un- 

*'  known  people,  who  thus  arrogantly  ccn- 

*^  iider  themfelves  as  the  founders  of  nations, 

^'  and  the  depofitories  of  the  facred  archives  ? 

*^  To  hear  their  calculations  of  five  or  fix 

"  thoufand  years,  one  v/ould  fuppofe  that 

*'  the  world  was  but  of  yefi:erday,  whereas 

"  our  monuments  prove  a  duration  of  many 

"  thoufands  of  centuries.     And  in  w^hat  re~ 

"  fpedl  are  their  books  preferable  to  ours  ? 

^'  Are   then   the  V^edes,   the   Chailires,   the 

*'  Pourans,  inferior  to  the  Bible,  the  Zenda- 

"  vefta,  the  Sadder  (31 )  ?    Is  not  the  tefti- 

^^  mony  of  our  progenitors  and  our  Gods,  of 

*'  equal  value  with   that  of  the  Gods  and 

''  progenitors  of  the  weilern  world  ?  Oh  ! 

**  were  we  permitted  to   reveal  to  profane 

'*  men  the  myfl:eries  of  our  religion  !    Did 

.  O  4  •''  not 

200  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

*'  not  a  facred  veil  jufl-ly  hide  our  doctrine 
**  from  every  eye  !".... 

The  Bramins  fiiddenly  obferving  a  pro- 
found filence:  "  Flow/'  laid  the  legiilators, 
"  can  we  admit  your  dodrine^  if  you  refufe 
"  to  make  it  known?  How  could  its  iirfl 
"  authors  propagate  it,  wb.en,  having  fole 
**  poffeffion  of  it,  they  regarded  even  their 
"  own  people  as  profane  ?  lias  heaven  re-* 
*'  vealed  it  t:iat  it  might  be  kept  a  fecretr  ' 

The  Eramins  however  perhfled  in  their 
filence  j  and  a  European  at  this  moment  of- 
fering to  fpeak,  remarked,  that  their  fecrecy 
was  at  prefent  an  empty  form,  that  their  fa- 
cred books  were  divulged  and  their  dodrine 
explained:  he  accordingly  undertook  to  re- 
capitulate its  feveral  articles. 

Besiinriino;  with  an  abftracl  of  the  four 
Vedes,the  twenty-eight  Pourans^and  the  five 
or  fix  Chad  res,  he  recounted  how  an  imma- 
terial, infinite,  eternal,  and  r^^W/W  Being,  after 
having  palled  an  unlimited  portion  ot  time 
in  felf-contemplatioDj  delirous  at  length  of 
manif^fling  himfeif,  feparated  the  faculties 
of  male  and  fema'e  which  were  m  him,  and 
operated  an  ad  of  •^eneratlcn  of  which  the 
,     -  ,       Lingani 

KEVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        201 

Lingam  remains  the  emblem:  how  from  this 
firfl  zCi  were  born  three  divine  powers,  of 
the  names  of  Brama,  Bichen,  or  Vichenou, 
and  ChiborChiven  (32),  the  nrft  deputed  to 
create,  the  fecond  to  preferve,  the  third  to 
deftroy  or  chcinge  the  form  of  the  univerfe. 
He  then  detailed  the  hiftory  of  their  exploits 
and  adventures,  and  related  how  Brama, 
proud  of  having  created  the  world  and  the 
eight  Bobouns  (or  fpheres)  of  probation,  and 
of  being  preferred  to  his  equal  Chib,  this 
pride  occafioned  betvv^een  them  a  combat,  in 
which  the  globe* or  celeflial  orbits  were  bro- 
ken to  pieces,  as  if  they  had  been  a  baiket  of 
eggs:  howBrama  overcome  in  thiscontefl, 
was  reduced  to  ferve  as  a  pedeftal  to  Chib, 
metamorphofed  into  the  Lingam:  how  Vi« 
chenou,  the  preferver  of  the  univerfe,  had, 
in  the  difcharge  of  his  fun6rion,airumed  nine 
animal  and  mortal  forms;  how  under  the 
firfl:,  that  of  a  iifh,  he  faved  from  the  univer- 
fal  deluge  a  family  by  whom  the  earth  was 
re- peopled;  afterwards,  in  the  fliape  of  a  tor- 
toife  (33),  drew  from  the  fea  of  milk  the 
mountain ilf^/^^rd'^^i'/r/  (the  Pole);  then,  un- 
der that  of  a  bear,  tore  the  entrails  of  the 


202  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

giant  EreJZJuacheJJhi,  by  whom  the  earth  had 
been  funk  in  the  abyfs  of  DJo/e,  from  which 
he  delivered  it ;  hovv^  he  became  incarnate 
under  the  form  of  the  Black  Shepherd,  and 
bearing  the  name  of  Chrif-tm  refcued  the 
world  from  the  venomous  ferpent  Calengam, 
whofe  head  h^  cruflied,  after  having  himfelf 
received  a  wound  in  his  heel. 

Palling  to  the  hiil:ory  of  the  fecondary 
Genii,  unfolded  to  the  ailcmbly  how  the 
Eternal,  for  the  difplay  of  his  glory,  had 
created  divers  orders  of  angels,  whofe  ofiice 
it  vv'as  to  iing  his  praifes  and  direct  the  uni- 
verfe :  that  a  part  of  thefe  angels  had  revolted 
under  the  condud:  of  an  ambitious  chief,  who 
wiflied  to  ufurp  the  power  of  God,  and  take 
the  reigns  of  government  into  hisown  hands: 
that  God  precipitated  them  into  a  world  of 
darknefs  as  a  punifhment  for  their  mifdeeds: 
that  at  lafb,  touched  with  compaffion,  he 
confented  to  withdraw  them  from  thence, 
and  to  receive  them  again  into  £;vour,  after 
previoufly  fubjecling  them  to  along  fiate  of 
probation  :  that  for  this  purpofe,  having 
created  fifteen  orbits  or  regions  of  planets, 
and  bodies  to  inhabit  them,  he  obliged  thefe 


REVOLUTIONS    QF     EMPIRES.        2O3 

rebellious  angels  to  undergo  eighty -f even 
tranfmigrations :  that  the  fouls,  thus  purified, 
returned  to  their  primitive  fource,  to  the 
ocean  of  life  from  which  they  had  emanated : 
that  as  all  living  beings  contained  a  portion 
of  this  univerfal  foul,  it  was  an  a6l  of  great 
criminality  to  deprive  them  of  it.  He  was 
proceeding  to  develope  the  rites  and  cere- 
monies of  this  religion,  when,  fpeaking  of 
Oiierings  and  libations  of  milk  and  butter  to 
Gods  of  v/ood  and  of  brafs,  he  was  interrupt- 
ed by  a  univerfal  murmur  mixed  with  loud 
burfls  of  laughter. 

Each  of  the  difFerentgroupesreafonedin  its 
own  particular  manner  refpedlingthis  fyftem. 
*'  They  are  idolaters/'  faid  the  Muffulmans, 
^:  it  IS  our  duty  to  exterminate  thtm  ". . .. 
"  They  are  mad/'  faid  the  followers  of  Con- 
fucius, *'  it  is  our  duty  to  cure  them  ".  .  .  . 
''  What  abfurd  Gods,"  cried  the  reft,  "  a  fet 
"  of  fat  monkeys  begrimmed  with  fmoke, 
*^  whom  they  wafh  like  children  in  clouts, 
^'  and  from  whom  they  drive  away  the  flies, 
**  lured  by  the  tafte  of  honey,  who  would 
''  otherwife  defile  them  with  their  excre- 
''  ments !" 

At  thefe  words  a  Bramin,  burfting  with 
§  indignation^ 

204  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

indignation,  exclaimed :  ''  Thefe  are  in- 
''  fcrutable  myileries,  the  profound  em- 
**  blems  of  truth,  which  you  are  not  wor- 
^'  thy  to  know/* 

*'  And  how  comes  it/'  replied  a  Lania  of 
Thibet,  **  thatyou  are  more  worthythan  we  ? 
*'  Is  it  becaufe  you  .pretend  to  be  fprung 
**  from  the  head  of  Brama,  v/hile  the  reft  of 
**  mankind  derive  their  origin  from  the  lefs 
'^  noble  parts  of  his  body  ?  If  you  would 
**  fupport  the  flibie  of  your  origin,  and  the 
**  vain  diftinctions  of  your  cafls,  prove  that 
**  370U  are  of  a  nature  different  from  us ;  prove 
''  at  leaO:  by  hiilorical  teilim.ony  the  ailego- 
*'  ries  you  maintain;  nay,  prove  that  3/ou  are 
V'  really  the  authors  of  thisfyftcm;  for  on  our 
*'  part  we  are  able  to  prove,  if  that  were 
"  neceffary,  that  you  have  only  flolen  and 
*^  disfigured  it;  that  you  have  borrowed  the 
"  ancient  paganifm  of  the  wefhefn  world, 
*'  and  blended  it  by  an  abfurd  conceit  with 
*'  the  purely  fpiritual  nature  of  our  Gods 
**  (34)3  a  nature  which  floops  not  to  addrefs 
''  itfelf  to  the  fenfes,  and  was  wli oily  unknown 
•'  to  the  world  till  the  mlffion  of  Beddou/' 

Inftantly  innumerable  voices  demanded  to 

be  informed  of  this  nature,  and  to  hear  of 

•-'  that 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         205 

tint  God  with  whofe  very  name  the  majority 
of  them  were  unacquainted.  In  purfuance 
of  this  demandv'the  Lama  refumed. 

*^  In  the  beginning,"  faid  he,  '*  there  v/a:> 
*'  one  God,  felf-exiilent,  who  palled  through 
"  a  whole  eternity,  abforbed  in  the  contem- 
"  plation  of  his  own  refledllons,  ere  he  de- 
'*  termined  to  manifeft  tbofe  perfections  to 
**  created  beings,  when  he  produced  the 
"  matter  of  the  world.  The  four  elements, 
"  at  their  produ6lion,lay  in  a  flate  of  mingled 
"  confufion,  till  he  breathed  upon  the  face  of 
"  the  waters,  and  they  immediately  became 
"  an  immenfe  bubble,  fliaped  like  an  egg, 
"  W'hich  when  complete  became  the  vault  or 
"  globe  of  the  heavens  in  which  the  world  is 
''  inclofed  (39).  No  fconer  was  the  earth 
"  and  the  bodies  of  animals  produced,  than 
*'  God,  the  fource  of  motion,  beilow'ed  upon 
*'  them  as  a  living  foul  a  portion  of  his  fub- 
^^  ftance.  Thus  the  foul  of  every  living 
*^  thing,  being  only  a  fradtion  or  feparate 
**  part  of  the  univerfal  foul,  no  percipient 
*'  being  is  liable  to  perilh,  but  merclv  changes 
^'  its  form  and  mould  as  it  palTes  fuccciTivcly 
^*  into  different  bodies.    But  ot  all  the  fub- 

'^  ftantial 

206  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

*'  funtial  forms  that  of  man  is  men:  pleafing 
"  to  the  Divine  Being,  as  nioll:  refembling 
"  his  uncreated  perfed:iors;  and  man,  when, 
"  by  withdrawing  himfelf  from  the  com- 
'^  merce  of  the  fenfes,  he  becomes  abforbed 
^^  in  the  contempktion  of  his  own  nature, 
'^  difcovers  the  Divinity  that  refides  in  it,  and 
**  himfelfbecomes  worthy  of  Divinity.  Thu? 
**■  is  God  inceffantly  rendering  himfelf  incar- 
''  nate;  but  his  greatefi:  and  moil  folemn  in- 
*'  carnation  was  three  thoufand  years  ago^ 
*'  in  the  province  of  Cafiimere,  under  the 
"■  name  of  Fot  or  Beddou,  for  the  purpofe  of 
*'  teachinf^^  the  dodlrineof  felf-denial  and  feif- 
"  annihilation."  The  Lama  proceeded  to  de- 
tail the  hiriory  of  Fot,  obferving,  that  he  had 
fprung  from  the  right  intercollal  of  a  virgin  of 
the  royal  blcod,  who,  when  (lie  became  a  mo- 
ther, did  not  the  lefs  continue  to  be  a  virgin : 
that  the  king  of  the  countiy,  uneafy  at  his 
birth,  w^as  defirous  to  put  him  to  death,  and 
caufed  all  the  males  v/no  wxre  born  at  the 
fame  period  to  be  maflacred:  that  being faved 
by  fhepherds,  Beddou  lived  in  the  defert  to 
the  age  of  thirty  years,  at  w^hich  time  he 
opened  his  commiflion,  preaching  the  doc- 


trine  of  truth  and  cafting  out  devils  :  that  he 
performed  a  multitude  of  the  moft  aftonifh- 
ing  miracles,  fpent  his  life  in  faffing  and  the 
fevereft  mortifications,  and  at  his  death  be- 
queathed to  hisdifciples  the  volume  in  which 
the  principles  of  his  religion  are  contained. 
The  Lam.a  then  began  to  read — 

"  He  that  forfaketh  his  father  and  his 
"  mother,"  fays  Fot,  *^  to  follow  me,  ihall 
"  become  a  perfed:  Samanean  (a  heavenly 
"  being). 

"  He  that  keepeth  n\j  precepts  to  the 
"  fourth  degree  of  perfed:ion,  ihall  acquire 
"  the  power  of  flying  in  the  air,  of  mioving 
"  earth  and  heaven,  of  protracting  or  ihort- 
**  ening  his  life,  and  of  riiing  again. 

"  The  Samanean  looks  vvith  contempt  on 
**  riches,  and  makes  ufe  only  of  fuch  things 
*'  as  are  ilridly  neceflary.  He  mortifies  the 
**'  flefh,  fubdues  his  paffions,  fixes  his  defires 
"  and  affedions  on  nothing  terreftrial,  medi- 
*^  tates  without  ceafing  upon  my  dodlrine, 
"  endures  injuries  with  patience,  and  bears 
*'  no  enmity  againil  his  neighbour. 

"  Heaven  and  e^rth,''  fays  Fot, ''  ihall  pafs 
"  away;  defpife  therefore  your  bodies  which 

**  art? 

2o8  A    SltRVEY    OF    THE 

*'  are  compofed  of  the  four  periiliable  ele- 
'^  ments^andthinkon]}  ofyourimmortalfoul. 

*'  Hearken  not  to  the  faggefcions  of  the 
"  fiefli :  fear  and  fcrrov/  are  the  produce  of 
"  the  paffions  :  flifle  the  pafiions,  and  fear 
*^'  and  forrow  will  thus  be  dcftrcycd. 

*'  Whofocver  dies,'*  fays  Fot,  **  without 
**  having  received  my  dodrine,  becomes 
**'  again  and  again  an  inhabitant  of  the  earth, 
''  till  he  fliali  have  embraced  it." 

The  Lama  was  going  on  with  Iiis  ex- 
tradis  when  the  Chriflians  interrupted  him^ 
obferving,  that  this  religion  was  an  altera- 
tion of  theirs  ;  that  Fot  was  Jefus  himfelf 
disfigured,  and  that  the  Lamas  were  nothing 
more  than  a  degenerate  fed:  of  the  Neflo- 
rians  and  Manicheans. 

But  the  Lama  (36),  fuppcrted  by  all 
the  Chamans,  Bonzes,  Gonnis,  Tala- 
poins  of  Siam,  of  Ceylon,  of  Japan,  and 
of  China,  demonltratcd  to  the  Chrif- 
tians  from  their  cwn  Theologians,  that 
the  dodrine  of  the  Samaneans  was  known 
throuo-h  the  Eafl  unwards  of  a  thou- 
fand  years  before  Chriftianity  exifted ;  that 
their  name  was  cited  previous  to  the  reign 



of  Alexander,  and  that  that  of  Boutta  or 
Beddou  could  be  traced  to  a  more  remote 
antiquity  than  that  of  Jefus — "  And  now, 
faid  they,  retorting  upon  the  Chriftians, 
**  do  you  prove  to  us  that  you  are  not  your- 
*'  felves  degenerated  Samaneans ;  that  the 
**  man  whom  you  confider  as  the  author  of 
*^  your  feet  is  not  Fot  himfelf  in  a  different 
*'  form.  -  Demonftrate  his  exiftence  by  hif- 
*'  torical  monuments  of  fo  remote  a  period 
"  as  thofe  which  we  have  adduced  (37) ; 
*'  for  as  it  appears  to  be  founded  on  no  au- 
*'  thentic  teftimony,  we  abfolutely  deny  its 
*'  truth  ;  and  we  maintain  that  your  gofpels 
^'  are  taken  from  the  books  of  the  Mythriacs 
"  of  Periia,  and  the  Effenians  of  Syria,  who 
"  were  themfelves  only  reformed  Sama- 
*^  neans  (38)." 

Thefe  words  excited  a  general  outcry  on 
the  part  of  the  Chriitians,  and  a  nevv^  dif- 
pute  m.ore  violent  than  any  preceding  one 
was  on  the  point  of  taking  place,  when  a 
groupe  of  Chinefe  Chamans,,and  Talapoins 
of  Siam  came  forward,  pretending  that  they 
could  eafily  adjufl:  every  difference,  and  pro- 
duce in  the-affembly  a  uniformity  of  opi~ 

F  nion. 

210  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

ilion,  and  one  of  them  fpeaking  for  the  reft^, 
feid  :  "  It  is  time  that  we  fl:iould  put  an 
"  end  to  all  thefe  frivolous  difputes,  by 
**  drawing  aiide  the  veil  and  expofing  to 
*'  your  view  the  interior  and  fecret  dodtrine 
*'  w^hich  Fot  himfelf,  on  his  death-bed,  re- 
*'  vealed  to  his  difciples  (39).  Thefe  va- 
*^  rious  theological  opinions  are  mere  chi- 
*'  m.eras  -,  thefe  accounts  of  the  attributes^ 
**  anions  and  life  of  the  Gods  are  nothing, 
*'  m.ore  than  allegories  and  myfterious  fym- 
^^  bols,  under  which  moral  ideas,  and  the 
'^  knowledge  of  the  operations  of  nature  in 
*'  the  action  of  the  elements  and  the  revo- 
*'  lutions  of  the  planets,  are  ingeniouily  de- 
*'  nidled. 

''  The  truth  it,  that  there  is  no  reality  in 
"  any  things  that  all  is  illufion,appearancey 
**  a  dream ;  that  the  moral  metemfychofis  is 
"  nothing  more  than  a  figurative  fenfe  cf 
''  the  phyfical  metemfychofis,  of  that  fuc- 
*^  cefiive  m.otion  by  which  the  elements  o? 
**'  which  a  body  is  compofed,  and  which 
*'  never  perifii,  pafs,  when  the  body  itfelf 
'-'  is  difiblved,  into  a  thoufand  others,  and 
*'  form  new  combinations.      The    foul  is^ 

"  merely 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        211 

^  merely  the  vital  principle  refulting  from 

*'  the  properties  of  matter,  and  the  action  of 

**  the  elements   in  bodies,   in  which  they 

*'  create  a  fpontaneous  movement.  To  fup- 

*'  pofe  that  this  refult  of  organization,which 

**  is  born  with  it,  developed  with  it,  fleeps 

*'  with  it,  continues  to  exifl  when  organ iza- 

"  tion  is  no  more.  Is  a  romance  that  may  be 

"  pleafing  enough,  but  that  is  certainly  chi- 

"  merical.     God  himfelf  is  nothing  more 

*'  than  the  principal  mover,  the  occult  power 

"  diffufed  through  every  thing  that  has  bc- 

^'  ing,  the  fum  of  its  laws  and  its  properties, 

^'  the  animating  principle,  in  a  word,  the 

"^  foul  of  the  univerfe ;  which,  by  reafon  of 

*'  the  infinite  diverfity  of  its  connedions  and 

*^  operations,  confidered  fometimes  as  fimple 

^^  and  fometimes  as  multiple,  fometimes  as 

*^  ad:ive  and  fometimes  as  paffive,  has  ever 

**  prefented  to  the  human  mind  an  infolv- 

/^  able  enigma.    What  we  can  comprehend 

**  with  greateft  perfpicuity  is,  that  matter 

**  docs  not  periHi ;  that  it  pofiefTes  effential 

'*  properties,  by   which   the   world  is   go- 

^^  verned  in  a  mode  iimilar  to  that  of  a  liv- 

*'  ing  and  organifed  being  j  that,  with  re- 

P  a  "  foed 

%i'Z  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

*•'  fped:  to  man,  the  knowledge  of  its  laws  k' 
''  what  conllitates  his  wifdom;  that  in  their 
*'  cbfervance  confifl:  virtue  and  merit ;  and 
"  evil,  fin,  vice,  in  the  ignorance  and  viola- 
*'  tion  of  them  -,  that  happinefs  and  misfor- 
*^  tune  are  the  refpedive  refult  of  this  ob- 
*"*  fervance  or  negled:,  by  the  fame  neceflity 
**  that  occafions  light  fubftances  to  afcend, 
*'  heavy  ones  to  fall,  and  by  a  fatality  of 
"  caufes  and  effedts,  the  chain  of  which  ex- 
"  tends  from  the  fmalleft  atom  to  the  flars  of 
"  greateft  magnitude  and  elevation  (40)/* 

A  crowd  of  Theologians  of  every  fed:  in- 
flantiy  exclaimed,  that  this  dodrine  was  rank 
materialifm,  and  thofe  who  profeffed  it  im- 
pious Atheifls,  enemies  both  of  God  and 
man,  who  ought  to  be  extirpated  from  the 
earth. — "  Sirange  reafoning,"  replied  the 
Chamans.  '*  Suppofing  us  to  be  miftaken, 
"  which  is  by  no  means  impoilible,  iince  it 
'^  is  one  of  the  attributes  of  the  human  mind 
^^  to  be  fubjed  to  iilufion,  what  right  have 
*''  you  to  deprive  beings  like  yourfelves  of 
**  the  life  which  God  has  given  them  ?  If 
"  heaven  confiders  us  as  culpable,  and  look* 
*^  upon  US;  \vith  horror,  why  does  it  difpenfe 

**  to 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        213 

*^  to  US  tHe  fame  blefflngs  as  to  you  1  If  it 
*^  treats  us  with  endurance,  what  right  have 
*'  you  to  be  lefs  indulgent  ?  Pious  men, 
**  who  fpeak  of  God  with  fo  much  certainty 
*'  and  confidence,  condefcend  to  tell  us  what 
"  he  is  I  explain,  fo  that  we  may  compre- 
*^  hend  them,  thofe  abftract  and  metaphy- 
"  ileal  beings  which  yo.u  call  God  and  the 
*'  foul;  fuhiliances  without  matter,  exifl:- 
*'  ence  without  body,  life  without  or  titans  or 
"  fenfations.  If  you  difcover  thefe  beings 
**  by  means  of  your  fenfes,  render  them  in 
*^  like  manner  perceptible  to  us.  If  you 
"  fpeak  of  them  only  upon  tePcimony  and 
"  tradition,  fliovy  us  a  uniform  recital,  and 
^'  give  an  identical  and  determinate  balls  to 
**  your  creed.'* 

There  novy  arofe  a  warm  controverfy  be- 
tween the  Theologians  refpedling  the  nature 
of  God  and  his  mode  of  a6ling  and  mani- 
felling  himfelf ;  refpeding  the  foul  and  its 
union  with  the  body,  v^hether  if  has  exig- 
ence previous  to  the  organs,  or  from  the 
time  of  their  formation  only;  refpeding  the 
life  to  come  and  another  world ;  and  every 
fed,  every  fchool,  every  individual,  differing 
P  3  from 

214  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

from  the  reft  as  to  all  thefe  points,  and  af- 
figning  for  its  diffent  plaufible  reafons  and 
refpe6lable  but  oppofite  authorities,  they 
were  all  involved  in  an  inextricable  laby-» 
rinth  of  contradi(flions. 

At  length,  the  legiflators  having  reftored 
filence,  recalled  the  difpute  to  its  true  objed:, 
and  faid  :  "  Leaders  and  inftrudiors  of  the 
"  people^  you  came  hither  for  the,  purpofe 
"  of  inveftigating  truth  ;  and  at  firft  every 
*^  one  of  you,  confident  in  his  own  infalli- 
*' bility,  demanded  an  impHcit  faith :  pre- 
"  fently,  however,  you  felt  the  contrariety 
**  of  your  opinions,  and  confented  to  fubmit 
"  them  to  a  fair  comparifon  and  a  common 
"  rule  of  evidence.     You  proceeded  to  ex- 
**  pofe  your   proofs :    you  began  with  the 
<*  allegation  of  fads;   but  it  prefently  ap- 
*'  peared  that  every  religion  and  every  fed 
*'  had  its  miracles  and  its  martyrs,  and  had 
*'  an  equal  cloud  of  witneffes  to  boaft,  who 
"  were  ready  to  prove  the  reditude  of  their 
*^  fentiments  by  the  facrifice  of  their  lives, 
^'  Upon  this  firft  point  therefore  the  balance 
**  remained  equal. 

♦*  You  next  paiTed  to  proofs  of  reafoning : 

''  the 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        21^ 

"  the  fame  arguments  were  alternatdy  ap- 
*'  plied  to  the  fupport  of  oppofite  propofi  - 
**  tions  ;  the  fame  alTertions,  equally  gratui- 
"  tous  were  fucceffively  advanced  and  re- 
"  pelled ;  every  one  was  found  to  have  an 
*'  equal  reafon  for  denying  his  affent  to  the 
''  fyflem  of  the  others,  A  farther  confe- 
"  quence  that  arofe  from  thus  confronting 
"  your  fyftems  was,  that,  notwithftanding 
**  their  diflimilitude  in  fome  points,  their 
^^  refemblance  in  others  was  not  lefs  ftrik- 
"  ing.  Each  of  you  claimed  the  firft  de- 
^'  poiit  and  the  original  difcovery ;  each  of 
^^  you  taxed  his  neighbour  with  adulteration 
**  and  plagiarifm;  and  a  previous  queftion 
**  to  the  embracing  of  any  of  your  dodrines 
*'  appeared  to  refult  from  the  hiftory  of  opi- 
"  nions. 

**  A  ftill  greater  embarrafTment  arofe 
*^  when  you  entered  into  the  explication  of 
^*  your  dodtrines  :  the  more  affiduous  were 
*^  your  endeavours,  the  more  confufed  did 
"  they  appear ;  they  refted  upon  a  bafis  in- 
*'  acceffible  to  human  underflanding,  of 
^•'  confequence  you  had  no  means  to  judge 
^-^  of  their  validity,  and  you  readily  admitted 
P  4^  ^'  that, 

2l6  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

*'  that.  In  afferting  them,  you  were  the  echos 
**  of  your  fathers.  Hence  it  became  impor-. 
*•  tant  to  know  how  they  had  come  into  the 
*'  hands  of  that  former  generation,  who  had 
*'  no  means  of  learning  them  dijBferent  from 
"  yourfelves.  Thus  the  tranfmiffion  of  theo- 
*'  logical  ideas  from  country  to  country,  and 
"  their  firfl  rife  in' the  human  underflanding, 
*'  were  equally  myfiierious,  and  the  queflion 
"  became  every  moment  more  complicated 
*'  withmetaphyfical  fubtlety  and  antiquarian 
"'^  refearch. 

**  But  as  thefe  opinions,  however  extra- 
**  ordinary,  have  fome  origin ;  as  all  ideas, 
'^  even  the  moft  abflradled  and  fantaftical, 
*'  have  in  nature  fome  phyfical  model,  we 
*^  mufl  afcend  to  that  origin  in  order  to  dif- 
**  cover  what  this  model  is,  and  how  the 
"  underftanding  came  by  thofe  ideas  of 
'*  Deity,  the  foul  and  immaterial  beings, 
"  that  are  fo  obfcure,  and  which  form  the 
*^  foundation  of  fo  many  religious  fyftems  j 
"  we  muil:  trace  their  lineal  defcent  and  the 
*'  alterations  they  have  undergone  in  their 
"  various  fucceilions  and  ramifications.  If 
"  therefore  there  are  in  this  affembly  men 

**  who 


^«  who  have  mads  thefe  objeds  their  pecu- 
*'  liar  fludy,  let  them  come  forward  and  en- 
"  deavour  to  difpel,  in  the  prefence  of  the 
"  nations  of  the  earth,  the  obfcurity  of  opi- 
«  riions  in  which  for  fo  long  a  period  they 
^^  have  all  wandered/* 


510  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

CHAP.      XXII. 

''""'    '  IDEAS. 

A  T  thefe  words  a  new  groupc,  formed  in 
an  inftant  of  individuals  from  every  ilandard, 
but  undiiLinguiilied  by  any,  advanced  in  the 
fand,  and  one  of  the  members,  fpeaking  in 
the  name  of  the  general  body,  faid  : 

^*  Legiflators,  friends  of  evidence  and  of 
truth ! 

"  That  the  fubjetfl  of  which  we  treat 
fhould  be  involved  in  fo  many  clouds,  is  by 
no  means  aftonifhing,  fince,  befide  the  diffi- 
culties that  are  peculiar  to  it,  thought  itfelf 
has,  till  this  moment,  ever  had  {hackles  im- 
pofed  upon  it^,  and  free  enquiry,  by  the  in- 
tolerance of  every  religious  fyflem,  been 
interdided.  But  now  that  thought  is  un-. 
reflrained,  and  may  develope  all  its  powers, 
we  will  expofe  in  the  face  of  day,  and  fub- 
mit  to  the  common  judgment  of  affembled 
nations,  fuch  rational  truths  as  unprejudiced 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         219 

minds  have  by  long  and  lab  }nous  iludy  dif- 
covered  ;  and  this,  not  Vvdth  the  defign  of 
impoiing  them  as  a  creed,  but  fi'om  a  de(ire 
of  provoking  new  lights,  and  obtaining  bet-, 
ter  information. 

**  Chiefs  and  inflruclors  of  the  people, 
you  are  not  ignorant  of  the  profound  obfcu- 
rity  in  which  the  nature,  origin,  and  hiftory 
of  the  dogmas  you  teach  are  inveloped. 
Impofed  by  force  and  authority,  inculcated 
by  education,  maintained  by  the  influence 
of  example,  they  were  perpetuated  from  age 
to  age,  and  habit  and  inattention  ftrength- 
ened  their  empire.  But  if,  enlight- 
ened by  experience  and  reflection,  fummon 
to  the  bar  of  mature  examination  the  preju- 
dices of  his  infancy,  he  prefently  difcovers  a 
multitude  of  incongruities  and  contradid;ion.s 
which  awaken  his  fagacity,  and  call  forth 
the  exertion  of  his  reafoning  powers. 

"  At  firft,  remarking  the  various  and  op-* 
pofite  creeds  into  which  nations  are  divided, 
we  are  led  boldly  to  reject  the  infallibility 
claimed  by  each ;  and  arming  ourfelves  aK 
ternately  with  their  reciprocal  pretenfions,  to 
conceive  that  the  fenfes  and  the  underftand- 

220  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

ing  emanating  direftly  from  God,  are  a  law 
not  lefs  facred,  and  a  guide  not  lefs  fure  than 
the  indired  and  contradidory  codes  of  the 

*^  If  we  proceed  to  examine  the  texture 
of  the  codes  themfelves,  we  Ihall  obferve 
that  their  pretended  divine  laws,  that  is  to 
fay,  laws  immutable  and  eternal^  have  rifeu 
from  the  complexion  of  times,  of  places, 
and  of  perfons  ^;  that  thefe  codes  iffue  one 
from  another  in  a  kind  of  a  genealogical 
order,  mutually  borrowing  a  common  and 
fimilar  fund  of  ideas,  which  every  inllitutor 
modifies  agreeably  to  his  fancy. 

'^  If  v/e  afcend  to  the  fource  of  thofe  ideas, 
we  fliall  find  that  it  is  loll  in  the  night  of 
time,  in  the  infancy  of  nations,  in  the  veiy 
origin  of  the  world,  to  Vvdiich  they  claim  al- 
liance 3  and  there,  immerfed  in  the  obfcurity 
of  chaos,  and  the  fabulous  empire  of  tradi^. 
tion,  they  are  attended  with  fo  many  pro- 
digies  as  to  be  feemingly  inaccefiible  to  the 
human  underfiianding.  But  this  prodigious 
flate  of  things  gives  birth  itfelf  to  a  ray  of 
reafoning,  that  refolves  the  difficulty;  for  if 
the  mdracles  held  out  in  fyflems  of  religion 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIiIeS.         22f 

have  actually  exifled;  if,  for  inflance,  meta- 
morphofes,  apparitions,  and  the  converfations 
of  one  or  more  Gods,  recorded  in  the  facred 
books  of  the  Hindoos,  the  Hebrews,  and  the 
Parfes,  are  indeed  events  in  real  hiilory,  it 
follows  that  nature  in  thofe  times  was  per- 
fe6lly  unlike  the  nature  that  we  are  acquaint- 
ed with  now ;  that  men  of  the  prefent  age 
are  totally  different  from  the  men  that  for- 
merly exifled  ;  and,  confequently,  that  we 
ou.^ht  not  to  trouble  our  heads  about  them. 

*'  On  the  contrary,  if  thofe  miraculous 
fa6ls-have  had  no  real  exiilence  in  the  phy- 
fical  order  of  things,  they  muil:  be  regarded 
folely  as  produdions  of  the  human  intelledl: 
and  the  nature  of  man,  at  this  day,  capable 
of  making  the  moil  fantaftic  combinations, 
explains  the  phenomicnon  of  thofe  xnonfcers 
in  hiftory.  The  only  difficulty  is  to  afcer- 
tain  how  and  for  what  purpofe  the  imagina- 
tion invented  them.  If  we  examine  with 
attention  the  fabje(5i-s  that  are  exhibited  by 
them,  if  we  analize  the  ideas  v/hich  they 
combine  and  affbciate,  and  weigh  with  accu- 
racy all  their  concomitant  circumftances, 
we  fhall  find  a  folution  perfediv  conform- 

^22  A    SITRVEY    OF    THE 

able  to  the  laws  of  nature.  Thofe  fabulous 
flories  have  a  figurative  fenfe  different  from 
their  apparent  one,  they  are  founded  on  fim- 
ple  and  phyncal  facts  t  but  thefe  fafe,  being 
ill  conceived  and  erroneoully  reprefented, 
have  been  disfigured  and  changed  from  their 
original  nature  by  accidental  caufes  depen- 
dent on  the  human  mind,  by  the  confufion 
of  figns  made  ufe  of  'm  the  reprefentatlon  of 
objsdts,  by  the  equivocation  of  words,  the 
defeat  of  language,  and  the  imperfedion  of 
%vricing.  Thefe  Gods,  for  example,  who 
adl  fuch  fmgalar  parts  in  every  fyftem,  are 
no  other  than  the  phyfical  powers  of  nature, 
the  elements,  the  winds,  the  meteors,  the 
ftars,  all  which  have  been  perfonified  by  the 
neceffary  mechanifm  of  language,  and  the 
manner  in  which  objecfts  are  conceived  by 
the  under/landing.  Their  life,  their  man- 
ners, their  adlions,  are  only  the  operation  of 
the  fame  powers,  and  the  v/hole  of  their 
pretended  hiflory  no  more  than  a  defcription 
of  their  various  phenomena,  traced  by  the 
firfl:  naturaiifl  that  obferved  them,  but  taken 
in  a  contrary  fenfe  by  the  vulgar  who  did 
net  underfland  it,  or  by  fucceeding  genera- 
8  tions 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         22^ 

tions  who  forgot  it.  In  a  word,  all  the 
theological  dogmas  refpedting  the  origin  of 
the  w^orld,  the  natufe  of  God,  the  revela- 
tion of  his  laws,  the  manifeftation  of  his 
perfon,  are  but  recitals  of  aflronomical  fa(fl:s, 
figurative  and  emblematical  narratives  of 
the  motion  and  influence  of  the  heavenly- 
bodies.  The  very  idea  itfelf  of  the  Divi- 
nity, which  is  at  prefent  fo  obfcure,  ab^ 
ftrad:ed,  and  metaphyseal,  was  in  its  origin 
merely  a  compofit  of  the  powers  of  the  ma-» 
terial  univerfe,  confidered  fometimes  analy- 
tically, as  they  appear  in  their  agents  and 
their  phenomena,  and  fometimes  fyntheti- 
cally,  as  forming  one  whole,  and  exhibiting 
an  harmonious  relation  in  all  its  parts.  Thus 
the  name  God  has  been  bePiowed  fometimes 
upon  the  wind,  upon  fire,  water,  and  the 
elements ;  fometimes  upon  the  fun,  the 
flars,  the  planets,  and  their  influences  p 
fometimes  upon  the  univerfe  at  large,  and 
the  matter  of  which  the  world  is  compofed ; 
fometimes  upon  abftrad:  and  metaphyfical 
properties,  fuch  as  fpace,  duration,  motion^ 
and  intelligence  ;  but  in  every  inilance,  the 
Idea  of  a  deity  has  not  flowed  from  the  mi- 
raculous  revelation  of  an  invifible   world, 


224  ^    SURVEY    OF     THE 

but  has  been  the  natural  refult  of  humarl 
refle6ion,  has  followed  the  progrefs  and  tin- 
dergone  the  changes  of  the  fucceffive  im- 
provement of  intelledl,  and  has  had  for  its  • 
fubjed:  the  vifible  univerfe  and  its  different 

**  It  is  then  in  vain  that  nations  refer  the 
origin  of  their  religion  to  heavenly  infpira- 
tion  ',  it  is  in  vain  that  they  pretend  to  de- 
fcribe  a  fupernatural  ftate  of  things  as  firft 
in  the  order  of  events  :  the  original  barba- 
roLis  flate  of  mankind,  attefted  by  their  ov/n 
monuments  (41),  belies  all  their  afiertions. 
Thefe  ailertions  are  ftili  more  vidtorioufly 
refuted  by  confidering  this  great  principle, 
that  mail  receives  nx)  ideas  but  through  the  ine- 
diu7n  of  his  ftfifes  (42)  :  for  from  hence  it 
aopears,  that  every  fyftem  which  afcribes 
human  wifdom  to  any  other  fource  than 
experience  and  fenfatioUj  includes  in  it  a 
vgspov  TT^ojs^ov,  and  reprefents  the  lafl  refults 
of  underftanding  as  earliefl  in  the  order  of 
time.  If  we  examine  the  different  religious 
fydems  which  have  been  formed  refpeding 
the  adion  of  the  Gods,  and  the  origin  of  the 
world,  w^e  fliall  difcover  at  every  turn  an 
anticipation  in  the  order  of  narrating  things, 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        225 

which  could  only  be  fuggefted  by  fubfe- 
quent  refledlion.  Reafon,  then,  embolden- 
ed by  thele  contradi(5lions,  hefitates  not  to 
rejedt  whatever  does  not  accord  with  the  na- 
ture of  things,  and  accepts  nothing  for  hifto- 
rical  truth  that  is  not  capable  of  being  efta- 
blifhed  by  argument  and  ratiocination.  Its 
ideas  and  fuggeftions  are  as  follow  : 

*'Before  any  nation  received  from  a  neigh- 
bour nation  dogmas  already  invented;  before 
one  generation  inherited  the  ideas  of  another, 
none  of  thefe  complicated  fyftems  had  exift- 
ence.  The  firft  men,  the  children  of  nature, 
whofe  confcioufnefs  was  anterior  to  expe- 
rience, and  who  brought  no  preconceived 
knov/ledge  into  the  world  with  them,  were 
born  without  any  idea  of  thofe  articles  of 
faith  which  are  the  refult  of  learned  con- 
tention ;  of  thofe  religious  rites  which  had 
relation  to  arts  and  practices  not  yet  in  exift- 
ence;  of  thofe  precepts  which  fuppofe  the 
paffions  already  developed ;  of  thofe  laws 
which  have  reference  to  a  language  and  a 
fecial  order  hereafter  to  be  produced  -,  of 
that  God,  whofe  attributes  are  abftradions 
of  the  knowledge  of  nature,  and  the  idea  of 

Q^  whofe 

226  A    SURVfeY    OF    THE 

whcfe  condud:  is  fuggefted  by  the  experience 
of  a  defpotic  govefnnient;  in  line,  of  that 
ibul  and  thofe  fpirltuai  exlRences  which  are 
faid  not  to  be  the  objedl  of  the  ferifes,  but 
which,  however,  we  mufc  for  ever  have  re- 
mained unacquainted  with,  if  our  fenfes 
had  not  introduced  them  to  us.  Previouilv 
to  arriving  at  thefe  notions,  an  imrnenfe  ca- 
talogue of  exiting  fadls  mufl  have  been  ob- 
ferved.  Man,  originally  favage,  mufl  have 
learned  from  repeated  trials  the  ufe  of  his 
organs.  Succeilive  generations  muft  have 
invented  and  refined  upon  the  means  of  fub- 
fillence;  and  the  underftanding,  at  liberty  to 
difengage  itfelf*  frem  the  wants  of  nature, 
niuil  have  rifen  to  the  complicated  art  of 
com.paring  ideas,  digesting  reafonings,  and 
ieizing  upon    abilirad:  limilitudes. 

Sect.  I.  Origin  of  the  idea  of  God:  Worjloip 
of  the  elements^  and  the  phyfical  powers  of 

''It  was  not  till  after  having  furmounted 
thofe  obftacles,  and  run  a  long  career  in  the 
night  of  hiitory,  riiat  man,  refledling  on  his 
ftate,  began  to  perceive  his  fjbjedion  to 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         227 

forces  fijperior  to  his  own  and  independent 
of  his  will.  The  fan  gave  him  Hght  and 
warmth  ;  fire  burned,  thunder  terrified,  the 
winds  bulTetted,  water  overwhehiied  him  ; 
all  the  various  natural  exigences  adled  upon 
him  in  a  manner  not  to  be  refifled.  For  a 
long  time,  an  automaton,  he  remained  paf- 
five,  without  enquiring  into  the  caufe  of 
this  adion  ;  but  the  very  moment  he  was 
deiirous  of  accounting  to  h'unfQl^  for  it,  aflo- 
riifhment  feized  his  mind;  and  pafiing  from 
the  furprifc  of  a  firll  thought  to  the  reverie 
of  curiofity,  he  formed  a  chain  of  reafon- 

*'  At  firfl,  confidering  only  the  adlion  of 
the  elements  upon  him,  he  inferred,  relative- 
ly to  himfelf,  an  idea  of  v/eaknefs,  of  fub- 
jedion,  and  relatively  to  them,  an  idea  of 
power,  of  domination  ;  and  this  idea  was  the 
primitive  and  fundamental  type  of  all  his 
conceptions  of  the  Divinity. 

**  The  adion  of  the  natural  exiftences,  in 
the  fecond  place,  excited  in  him  fenfations  of 
pleafare  or  pain,  of  good  or  evil ;  by  virtue 
of  his  organization,  he  conceived  love  or 
averfion  for  them, he  defired  or  dreaded  their 

0^2  prefence ; 

228  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

prefence;  and  fear  or  hope  was  the  principle 
of  every  idea  of  religion. 

*^  i\fter wards,  judging  every  thing  by 
comparifcn.  and  remarking  in  thofe  beings 
a  motion  fpontaneous  like  his  Own,  he  fup- 
pofed  there  to  be  a  v/ill,  an  intelligence  in- 
herent in  that  motion,  of  a  nature  fimilar  to 
what  exiiled  in  himfelf ;  and  hence,  by  way 
of  inference,  he  ftarted  a  frefh  argument. — - 
Havingexperienced  that  certain  modes  of  be- 
haviour towards  his  fellow-creatures  wrought 
a  change  in  their  aifedtions  and  governed 
their  condud,  he  applied  thofe  practices  to 
the  powerful  beings  of  the  univerfe.  ''  When 
*'  my  fellow- creature  of  fuperior  flrength," 
faid  he  to  hin^felf,  **  is  difpofed  to  injure  me, 
**  I  humble  myfelf  before  him, and  my  prayer 
*^  has  the  art  of  appealing  him.  I  will  pray 
**  to  the  powerful  beings  that  fcrike  me.  I 
'*  will  ftipplicate  the  faculties  of  the  winds, 
'*  the  planets,  the  waters,  and  they  will  hear 
^^  me.  T  will  conjure  thern  to  avert  the  ca-^ 
*'  lamities,  and  to  grant  me  the  blefTings 
**  which  are  at  their  difpofal.  My  t'^'ars  v/ill 
"  move^  my  offerings  propitiate  thtm:  and  I 
"  fliall  enjoy  complete  felicity.'* 

§  ''And, 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        229 

*^  And,  {imple  in  the  infancy  of  his  reafon, 
man  fpoke  to  the  fun  and  the  moon,  he  ani- 
mated with  his  underftandingandhispaffions 
the  great  agentsof  nature;  he  thought  hy  vain 
founds  and  ufelefs  pradtices  to  change  their 
inflexible  laws.  Fatal  error  !  He  defired  that 
the  water  fhould  afcend,  the  mountains  be 
removed,  the  llone  mount  in  theair;  andfub*. 
fl:ituting  a  fantaftic  to  a  real  world,  he  confti- 
tutedforhimfelf  beings  of  opinion,  to  the  ter- 
ror of  his  mind  and  the  torment  of  his  race, 

**  Thus  the  ideas  of  God  and  religion 
fprung,  like  all  others,  from  phyfical  objeds, 
and  were  in  the  underilanding  of  man  the 
produce  of  his  fenfations,  his  wants,  the  cir-^ 
cumllances  of  his  life,  and  the  progreifi^^e 
ftate  of  his  knowledge » 

"  As  thefe  ideas  had  natural  beings  for 
their  firft  models,  it  refulted  from  hence  that 
the  Divinity  was  originally  as  various  and 
manifold  as  the  fojms  under  which  he  feem- 
ed  to  acft :  each  being  was  a  Power,  a  Ge- 
nius, and  the  firft  men  found  the  univerfe 
crow^ded  with  innumerable  Gods. 

"  In  like  manner  the  ideas  of  the  Divi- 
nity having  had  for  motors  the  affedlions  of 

0.3  ^he 

230  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

the  human  heart,  they  underwent  an  order 
of  divifion  calculated  from  the  fenfations  of 
pain  and  pleafure,  of  love  and  hatred :  the 
powers  of  nature,  the  Gods,  the  Genii,  wxre 
clafTed  into  benign  and  maleficent,  into  good 
and  evil  ones:  and  this  conrtitutes  the  uni- 
verfality  of  thefe  two  ideas  in  every  fyileni 
of  religion. 

"  Thefe  ideas,  analogous  to  the  condition 
of  their  inventors,  were  for  a  long  time 
confufed  and  grofs.  Wandering  in  Vv^oods, 
befct  with  vi^ants,  defcitute  of  reibiirces,  men 
in  their  favao-c  ftate  had  no  leilure  to  make 


comparifons  and  drav/  concliuions.  Suffer- 
ing m.cre  ills  than  they  tafted  enjoymients, 
their  moft  h.ibitcjal  fentim^ent  was  fear,  their 
theology  terror,  their  worihip  confined  to 
certain  modes  of  falutation,  of  offerings 
which  they  prefcntcd  to  beings  whom  they 
fuppofed  to  be  ferocious  and  greedy  like 
thcmfelves.  In  their  frate  of  equality  and 
independence,  no  one  took  upon  him  the  of- 
fice of  mediator  v.-ith  Gods  as  infubordinate 
and  poor  as  hinucif.  No  one  having  any  fu- 
perfiuity  to  difpofe  of,  there  exifled  no  pa- 
rafite  under  the  name  of  prieft,  nor  tribute 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        271 

under  the  name  of  vivflim,  nor  empire  un- 
der the  name  of  altar ;  their  dogma  and  mo- 
rality, jumbled  together,  were  only  felf-^pre- 
fervation  ^  and  their  religion,  an  arbitrary 
idea  without  influence  on  the  mutual  re- 
iatipns  exifting  between  men,  v/as  but  a 
vain  homage  paid  to  the  vifible  powers  of 

*'  Such  v/as  the  firft  and  neceffary  origin 
of  every  idea  of  the  Divinity." 

The  orator  then  addreffing  the  favage  na- 
tions, faid:  "  We  appeal  to  you,  who  have 
received  no  foreign  fictitious  ideas,  whether 
your  conceptions  have  not  been  formed  pre- 
cifely  in  this  manner  ?  We  ailc  you  alfo, 
learned  theologians,  if  fuch  be  not  the 
unanimous  record  of  all  the  monuments  of 
antiquity  (43)  ? 

Sect.  II.    Second  Jyjiem  :    Worfljtp  of  the 
Stars,  or  Saheij?n, 

"  But  thofe  fame  monuments  offer  us  a 
more  methodical  and  more  complicated  fyf- 
tem,  that  of  the  worfliip  of  all  the  flars, 
adored  at  one  time  under  their  proper  form, 
at  another  under  emblems  and  figurative 
0^4  fymbols. 

232  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

fymbols.  This  worfhip  was  alfo  the  tffeCz 
of  the  knowledge  of  man  in  phyfics,  and  de- 
rived immediately  from  the  firfl  caufes  cf 
the  focial  flate  -,  that  is  to  fay,  from  wants 
and  arts  of  the  firfl  degree,  the  elements  as 
it  were  in  the  formation  of  focietv. 

'*  When  men  began  to.unite  in  fociety,  they 
found  it  neceffary  to  enlarge  the  means  of 
their  fubfiftence,  and  confequently  to  apply 
them,f:ilves  to  agriculture;  and  the  pradtice 
of  agriculture  required  the  obfervation  and 
knowledge  of  the  heavens  (44).  It  was 
necefTary  to  knov^  the  periodical  return  of 
the  fame  operations  of  nature,  the  fame 
phenomena  of  the  fkies ;  it  v/as  neceffary  to 
regulate  the  dui-ation  and  fucceffion  of  the 
feafons,  months  and  year.  In  order  to  this 
it  was  requihte  to  become  acquainted  with 
the  march  of  the  fun,  which  in  its  zodiacal 
revolution  fhowed  itfelf  the  iiril:  and  fapreme 
agent  of  all  creation  ;  then  of  the  moon, 
which  by  its  changes  and  returns  regulated 
and  d^ftributed  time;  finally  of  the  fiars,  and 
even  of  the  planets,  which,  by  their  appear- 
ance and  difappearance  on  the  horizon  and 
the nodurnalhemifphere,  formed  the  minut- 
'  •  '  ^  eft 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EIS^PIRES.        233 

€ft  divifions.  In  a  word  it  was  necelTary  to 
eflablifh  an  entire  fyflem  of  aftronomy,  to 
form  an  almanac;  and  from  this  labour  there 
quickly  and  fpontaneoufly  refulted  a  new 
manner  of  coniidering  the  dominant  and  go- 
verning powers.  Having  obferved  that  the 
produdions  of  the  earth  bore  a  regular  znd 
conllant  connection  with  the  phenomena  of 
the  heavens;  that  the  birth,  growth,  and 
decay  of  each  plant,  were  allied  to  the  ap- 
pearance, exaltation  and  decline  of  the  fame 
planet,  the  fame  groupe  of  ftars ;  in  jfhort, 
that  the  langour  or  activity  of  vegetation 
feemed  to  depend  on  celeftial  influences,  men 
began  to  infer  from  this  an  idea  of  adlion,  of 
power,  in  thofe  bodies,  fuperior  to  terreftrial 
beings ;  and  the  flars  difpenfing  fcarcity  or 
abundance,  became  powers.  Genii  (45), 
Gods,  authors  of  good  and  evil. 

*'  As  the  itate  of  fociety  had  already  intro- 
duced a  methodical  hierarchy  of  ranks,  em- 
ployments and  conditions,  men,  continuing 
to  reafon  from  comparifon,  transferred  their 
new  acquired  notions  to  their  theology,  and 
the  refult  was  a  complicated  fyftem  of  gra- 
dual Divinities,  in  which  the  fun,  as  the  iirft 


234  ^    SURVEY    OF     THE 

God,  was  a  military  chief,  a  poiitlcal  king; 
the  moon,  a  queen,  his  confort;  the  planets, 
iervants,  bearers  of  commands,  mefTcngers ": 
and  the  multitude  of  iiars,  a  nation^,  an  army 
of  heroes,  of  Genii,  appointed  to  govern  the 
world  under  the  comm.and  of  their  officers ; 
every  individual  had  a  name,  fundiions,  attri- 
butes, drav/n  from  its  connedions  and  influ- 
ences, and  even  a  fex  derived  from  the  gen- 
der of  its  appellation  (46). 

"  As  the  i\MQ  of  fociety  had  introduced 
certain  ufages  and  complex  practices,  vvor- 
Ihip,  icading  the  van,  adopted  fimilar  ones. 
Ceremonies,  limple  and  private  at  firfl,  be- 
came public  and  folemn ;  offerings  were  more 
rich  and  more  num_erous;  rites  more  metho- 
dical; places  of  alTembly,  chapels  and  temples 
were  ereded ;  officers,  pontiffs,  created  to 
adminiiler;  forms  and  epochas  were  fettled  ; 
and  religion  became  a  civil  ad:,  a  political  tie. 
But  in  this  developement  it  altered  not  its 
firit  principles,  and  the  idea  of  God  was  ftill 
that  of  phyfical  beings,  operating  good  or 
ill,  that  is  to  fay,  impreffmg  fenfatlons  of 
pain  or  pleafare  :  the  dogma  was  the  know- 
ledge of  their  laws  or  m.odes  of  ading;  virtue 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.       235 

and  fill  the  obfervance  or  infringement  of 
thofe  laws;  and  morality,  in  its  native  iim- 
plicity,  a  judicious  pra6lice  of  all  that  is 
conducive  to  the  prefervation  of  exifcencep 
to  the  welL  being  of  the  individual  and  of  his 
fellow- creatures  (47). 

"  Should  it  be  afkcd  at  what  epoch  this 
fyfcem  took  birth,  we  fhall  anfvver,  fupported 
by  the  authority  of  the  monuments  of  agro- 
nomy itfelf,  that  its  principles  can  be  traced 
b.ick  with  certainty  to  a  period  of  nearly 
feventeen  thoufand  years  (48).  Should  w^e 
farther  be  afi^ed  to  what  people  or  nation  it 
ought  to  be  attributed,  we  ihall  reply,  that 
thofe  felf-farhe  monuments,  feconded  by 
unanimous  tradition,  attribute  it  to  the  iirft 
tribes  of  Egypt.  And  when  reafon  finds  in 
that  region  a  concurrence  of  all  the  phyfical 
circumftances  calculated  to  give  rife  to  its 
when  it  finds  at  once  a  zone  of  heaven,  in 
vicinity  of  the  tropic,  equally  free  from  the 
rains  of  the  equator,  and  the  fogs  of  the 
north  (49)  ;  when  it  finds  there  the  central 
point  of  the  antique  fphere ;  a  falubrious 
climate  -,  an  immenfe  yet  m^anageable  river ^ 
a  land  fertile  without  art,  without  fatigue  ; 


236  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

inundated,  without  peililential  exhalationG  ^ 
iituate  between  two  feas  which  lave  the 
ihores  of  the  richeil  countries- — it  becomes 
manifeft  that  the  inhabitant  of  the  dilTrids 
of  the  Nile,  inclined  to  agriculture  from  the 
nature  of  his  foil  5  to  commerce,  from  the 
facility  of  communication;  to  geometry,  from 
the  annual  neceiiity  of  meafuring  his  poffef- 
lions  i  to  aflronomy,  from  the  Hate  of  his 
heaven,  ever  open  to  obfervation,  muil  firil 
have  pafTed  from  the  favage  to  the  focial 
ilate,  and  confequently  attained  that  phyfical 
and  moral  knowledge  proper  to  civilized 

*'  It  was  thus,  upon  the  diftant  ihores  of 
the  Nile,  and  among  a  nation  of  fable  com- 
plexion, that  the  complex  fy item  of  the  wor~. 
Ihip  of  the  liars,  as  conne(fted  with  the  pro^' 
duceof  thefcil  and  the  labours  of  agriculture, 
was  conftrucled.  The  Vv-oriliip  of  the  ftars 
under  their  proper  forms,  or  their  natural  at- 
tributes, was  a  iimple  procefs  of  the  human 
underftanding  3  but  in  a  ihort  time  the  mul- 
tiplicity of  objects,  their  relations,  their 
•adiion  and  re-acftion,  having  confounded  the 
ideas  and  the  figns  that  reprefented  them,  a 


RE\^OLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES,        ayj 

tonfequeiice  refultedas  abfurd  in  its  nature  as 
peraicious  in  its  tendency, 

Se  c  T .  1 1 L  "Third  SyJJem :  IForJhip  offymhots. 
or  idolatry, 

"  From  the  inftant  this  agricolar  race 
had  turned  an  eye  ofobfervation  on  the  ftarSj 
they  found  it  neceffary  to  diftinguifli  in- 
dividuals or  groupes,  and  to  allign  to  each  a 
proper  name.  A  confiderabk  difficulty  here 
prefented  itfelf  5  for  on  the  one  hand^  the 
celeftial  bodies,  fimilar  in  form>  offered  no 
pecuhar  chara^^ter  by  which  to  denominate 
them;  and  on  the  other  hand,  language^ 
poor  and  in  a  ftate  of  infancy,  had  no  expref-» 
fions  for  fo  many  new  and  metaphyfical  ideas. 
The  ufual  ilimulus  of  genius,  neceffity,  con- 
quered all  obilacles.  Having  remarked  that 
in  the  annual  revolution,  the  renewal  and 
periodical  appearance  of  the  produdions  of 
the  earth  were  conftantly  connected  with  the 
rifmg  and  fetting  of  certain  ftars,  and  with 
their  polition  relatively  to  the  fun,  the  mind, 
by  a  natural  mechanifm,  afibciated  in  its 
thought  terreflrial  and  celeftial  objeds,  which 
had  in  fad  a  certain  alliance ;  and  applying 


238  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

to  them  the  fame  lign,  it  gave  to  the  liars 
ctndthe  groupes  it  formed  of  them,  the  very 
names  of  the  terreftrial  objeds  to  which  they 
bore  atjinity  (50). 

*'  Thus  the  Ethiori-ian  of  Thebes  called 
fl: n rs of  m uindation ,  or  QiAquariuSy  thofe  under 
^?vhAC^i  the  river  began  to  overflovi^  *  ,  flars 
of  the  ox  or  bull,  thofe  under  v/hich  it  v^as 
convenient  to  plough  ihe  earth  -,  ftars  of  the 
lion,  thofe  under  which  that  animal,  driven 
by  thirfc  from  the  deferts,  made  his  appear- 
ance on  the  banks  of  the  Nile  ;  ftars  of  t}i..z 
fheaf,  or  of  the  harvefl:  maid,  thofe  under 
which  the  harvefls  were  got  in  ;  flars  of  the 
Limbs,  iiars  of  the  goat,  thofe  under  which 
thofe  valuable  animals  brought  forth  their 
young;  and  thus  was  a  firft  part  of  the  diMi- 
culty  refolved, 

"  On  the  other  hand,  m^an,  having  remark- 
ed in  the  beings  that  furrounded  him  certain 
cualitics  peculiar  to  each  fpecies>  and  having 
invented  a  name  by  which  to  deiig-n  them, 
fpeedily  difcovcred  an  ingenious  mode  of  ge- 
neralizins;  his  ideas,  and  transferrin  2:  the  nam.e 

*  This  mud  have  been  June.     See  Note  (46). 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        239- 

already  invented  to  every  thing  bearing  a  li- 
milar  or  analogous  property  or  agency,  en- 
riched his  language  with  a  multiplicity  of 
metaphors  and  tropes. 

*'  Thus  the  fame  Ethiopian,  having  ob~ 
ferved  that  the  return  of  the  inundation  an- 
fwered  conftantly  to  the  appearance  of  a  very 
beautiful  ftar  towards  the  fource  of  the  Nile, 
which  feemed  to  warn  the  hufbandman 
againfl  being  furprifcd  by  the  waters,  he 
compared  this  aclion  with  that  of  the  animal 
who  by  barking  gives  notice  of  danger,  and 
called  this  ilar  the  dog,  the  barker  fSyrhtsJ. 
In  the  fame  manner  he  called  ftars  of  the 
crab,  thofe  which  ihowed  themfelves  when 
the  finyhavinp-  reached  the  bounds  of  the 
tropic,  returned  backwards  and  fide  ways  like 
the  crab  or  Ca?2ceri  ftars  of  the  wild  goat, 
thofe  which,  the  fun  being  arrived  at  its  great- 
eft  altitude,  at  the  top  of  the  horary  gnomon, 
imitated  the  aclion  of  that  animal  who  delights 
in  climbing  the  higheft  rocks;  ftars  of  the  ba- 
lance, thoie  which,  the  days  and  nights  being 
of  the  fame  length,  feemed  to  obferve  an  equi- 
librium like  that  inflrum.ent ,  ftars  of  the  fcor- 
pion,  thofe  which  were  perceptible  when  cer- 
tain regular  winds  brought  a  burning  vapour 


240  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

like  the  poifon  of  the  fcorpion.  In  the  fame 
manner  he  called  by  the  name  of  rings  and 
ferpents  the  figured  traces  of  the  orbits  of  the 
flars  and  planets  (51);  and  this  was  the  ge- 
neral means  of  appellation  of  all  the  hea- 
venly bodies,  taken  in  groupes  or  indivi- 
dually, according  to  their  connedtion  with 
rural  and  terreftrial  operations,  and  the  ana- 
logies which  every  nation  foUnd  them  to 
bear  to  the  labours  of  the  field  and  the  ob-= 
jedls  of  their  climate  and  foil. 

*'  From  this  proceeding  it  refulted,  that 
abjedl  and  terrellrial  beings  entered  into  afib- 
elation  with  the  fuperior  and  powerful  beings 
of  the  heavens ;  and  this  aiTociation  became 
more  rivetted  every  day  by  the  very  confti- 
tution  of  laneuaofe  and  the  mechanifm  of  tile 

w        o 

mind.  Men  woul«i  fay,  by  a  natural  meta- 
phor: *^  The  bull  fpreads  lipon  the  earth  the 
"  germins  of  fecundity  (in  fpring) ;  and 
"  brings  back  abundailce  by  the  revival  of 
*'  vegetation.  The  lamb  (or  ram)  delivers 
''  the  heavens  from  the  malevolent  Genii  of 
'-'  winter;  and  faves  the  world  from  the  fer- 
"  pent  (emblem  of  the  wet  feafon).  The 
'"'  fcorpion  pours  out  his  venom  upon  the 
"  earth,  and  fpreads  diieafes  and  death,  &c." 
•.  -  This 


**  This  language,  underftood  by  every- 
body, v/as  at  iirft  attended  with  no  incon- 
venience J  but,  in  procels  of  time,  when  the 
almanac  had  been  regulated,  the  people, 
who  could  do  without  further  obfervation  of 
the  ikies,  loft  light  of  the  motive  which  led 
to  the  adoption  of  thefe  expreffions ;  and 
the  allegory  ilill  remaining  in  the  practices 
of  life,  became  a  fatal  fbumbling-block  to 
the  underftanding  and  reafon.  Habituated 
to  join  to  fymbols  the  ideas  of  their  models, 
the  mind  finally  confounded  them ;  then 
thofe  fame  animals  which  the  imagination 
had  raifed  to  heaven,  defcended  again  oji 
the  earth  ;  but  in  this  return,  decked  in  the 
livery  and  in  veiled  v/ith  the  attributes  of  the 
ilars,  they  impofed  upon  their  own  authors. 
The  people,  imagining  that  they  faw  their 
Gods  before  them,  found' it  a  more  eafy  taik 
to  offer  up  their  prayers.  They  demanded 
of  the  ram  of  their  flock,  the  influence 
which  they  expeded  from  the  celeitial  ram; 
they  prayed  the  fcorpion  not  to  pour  out  his 
venom  upon  Nature ;  they  revered  the  iiih 
of  the  river,  the  crab  of  the  fea,  and  the 
fcarabeus  of  the  ilime ;  and  by  a  feries  of 
R  corrupt^ 

242  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

corrupt,  but  infeparable  analogies,  they  loft 
themfelves  in  a  labyrinth  of  confequent  ab- 

"  Such  was  the  origin  of  this  ancient  and 
Angular  worfliip  of  animals ;  fuch  the  train 
of  ideas  by  which  the  charader  of  the  Di- 
vinity became  common  to  the  meaneft  of 
the  brute  creation  j  and  thus  was  formed 
the  vaft,  complicated,  and  learned  theolo- 
gical fyftem  which,  from  the  banks  of  the 
Nik,  conveyed  from  country  to  country  by 
commerce,,  war,  and  con qu  eft,  invaded  all 
the  old  world  ;  and  which,  modified  by 
times,  by  circumftances,  and  by  prejudices^ 
is  ftill  to  be  found  among  a  hundred  nations, 
and  fubfills  to  this  day  as  the  fecret  and  in- 
feparable bafis  of  the  theology  of  thofe  even 
who  defpife  and  rejed  it." 

At  thefe  words,  murmurs  being  heard  in 
various  groupes  :  *'  I  repeat  it,'*  continued 
the  orator.  "  People  of  Africa  !  hence,, 
for  example,  has  arifen  among  you  the  ado- 
ration of  your  Fetechesy  plants,  animals, 
pebbles,  bits  of  wood,  before  which  your 
anceflors  would  never  have  been  fo  abfurd 
as  to  proftrate  themfelves,  if  they  had  not 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        243 

feen  in  them  talifmans,  partaking  of  the 
nature  of  the  ftars  (52).     Nations  of  Tar- 
tary  !    this  is    equally   the   origin  of  your 
Marmouzets,  and  of  the  whole  train  of  ani- 
mals with  which  your  Chamans  ornament 
their  magic  robes.     This  is  the  origin  of 
thofe  figures  of  birds  and  ferpents,  which 
all  the  favage  nations,  with  myftic  and  fa- 
cred  ceremonies,  imprint  on  their  fkin.   In- 
dians !    it  is   in  vain  you  cover  yourfelves 
with  the  veil  of  myllery  :  the  hawk  of  your 
God  Vichenou  is  but  one  of  the  thoufand 
emblems  of  the  fun  in  Egypt,  and  his  incar- 
nations in  a  fifh,  boar,  lion,  turtle,  together 
with  all  his  monftrous  adventures,  are  no- 
thing more  than  the  metamorphofes  of  the 
fame  ftar,  which,  paffing  fucceilively  through 
the  figns  of  the  twelve  animals  *,  was  fup- 
pofed  to  affume  their  forms,  and  to  adl:  their 
aftronoraical   parts  (53).      Japanefe  !  your 
bull  which  breaks  the  of  the  world,  is 
merely  that  of  the  heavens,  which,  in  times 
of  yore,  opened  the  age  of  the  creation,  the 
equinox  of  Spring.     Rabbins,  Jews  !  that 
fame  bull  is  the  Apis  worihipped  in  Egypt, 

*  The  Zodiac. 

R  2  and 

244  ^    SURVEY    OF    THE 

and  which  your  anceftors  adored  in  the  idol 
of  the  golden  calf.  It  is  alfo  your  bull, 
children  of  Zoroafter  !  that,  facrificed  in 
the  fymbolic  myfteries  of  Mithra,  flied  a 
blood  fertilizing  to  the  world •  Laftly,  your 
bull  of  the  Apocalypfe,  Chriilians !  with  his 
wings,  the  fymbol  of  the  air,  has  no  other 
origin:  your  lamb  of  God,  immolated,  like 
the  bull  of  Mithra,  for  the  falvation  of  the 
world,  is  the  felf-fame  fun  in  the  fign  of  the 
eeleflial  ram,  which,  in  a  fubfequent  age^ 
opening  the  equinox  in  his  turn,  was  deem- 
ed to  have  rid  the  world  of  the  reign  of  eviU 
that  is  to  fay,  of  the  ferpent,  of  the  large 
fnake,  the  mother  of  winter  and  emblem  of 
the  Ahrimanes  or  Satan  of  the  Perfians, 
your  inftitutors.  Yes,  vainly  does  your  im- 
prudent zeal  confign  idolaters  to  the  tor- 
ments of  the  Tartarus  which  they  have  in- 
vented :  the  whole  bafis  of  your  fyftem  is 
nothing  more  than  the  worfhip  of  the  flar 
of  day,  whofe  attributes  you  have  heaped 
upon  your  chief  perfonage.  It  is  the  fun 
which,  under  the  name  of  Orus,  was  born^ 
like  your  God,  in  the  arms  of  the  celeftial 
virgin,  and  paffed  through  an  obfcure,  in- 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        245 

digent,  and  deftitute  childhood,  anfwering 
to  the  feafon  of  cold  and  frofl.     It  is  the 
fun,  which,  under  the  name  of  Ofiris,  per- 
fecuted  by  Typhon  and  the  tyrants  of  the 
air,  was  put  to  death,  laid  in  a  dark  tornb, 
the  emblem  of  tlie  hemifphere  of  winter, 
and  which,  riiing  afterwards  from  the  infe- 
rior zone  to  the  highelt  point  of  the  hea- 
vens, awoke  triumphant  over  giants  and  the 
deftroying  angels.    Ye  priefts !  from  whom 
the  murmurs  proceed,  you  wear  yourfelves 
its  figns  all  over  your  bodies..   Your  tonfure 
is  the  diik  of  the  fun  ;  your  Hole  its  Zodiac 
(54);  your  rofaries  the  fymbols  of  the  flars 
and  planets.     Pontiffs  and  prelates  !   your 
mitre,  your  croiier,  your   mantle,  are  the 
emblems    of  Ofiris  ^    and  that  crucifix  of 
which  you  boafl:  the  myfl:ery,  without  com- 
prehending it,  is  the  crofs  of  Serapis,  traced 
by  the  hands  of  Egyptian  priefts  on  the 
plan  of  the  figurative  world,  which,  pafling 
through  the  equinoxes  and  the  tropics,  be- 
came the  emblem  of  future  life  and  refur- 
redion,  becaufe  it  touched  the  gates  of  ivory 
and  horn  through  which  the  foul  was  to 
pafs  in  its  way  to  heaven.'* 

R  3  Here 

246  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

Here  the  dodors  of  the  different  groupes 
looked  with  ajftoniihment  at  one  another, 
but  none  of  them  breaking  filence,  the 
orator  continued. 

**  Three  principal  caufes  concurred  to 
produce  this  confufion  of  ideas.  Firfl:,  the 
neceffity,  on  account  of  the  infant  ftate  of 
language,  of  making  ufe  of  figurative  ex- 
preffions  to  depidt  the  relations  of  things  ; 
expreffions  that,  palling  afterwards  from  a 
proper  to  a  general,  from  a  phyfical  to  a 
moral  fenfe,  occafioned,  by  their  equivocal 
and  fynonymous  terms,  a  multiplicity  of 

"  Thus  having  at  firft  faid,  that  the  fua 
furmounted  and  palTed  in  its  ccurfe  through 
the  twelve  animals,  they  afterwards  fuppofed 
that  it  combated,  conquered,  and  killed  them, 
and  from  this  was  compofed  the  hiftorical 
life  of  Hercules. 

"  Having  faid  that  it  regulated  the  period 
of  rural  operations,  of  feed  time  and  of  har- 
veil;  that  it  dillributed  the  feafons,  ran 
through  the  climates,  fwayed  the  earth,  &c, 
it  was  taken  for  a  legiflative  king,  a  con- 
quering warrior,  and  hence  they  formed  the 
5  ilories 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        247 

ftories  of  Ofiris,  of  Bacchus,  and  other  fimi- 

lar  Gods. 

**  Having  faid  that  a  planet  entered  into 
a  fign,  the  conjundion  was  denominated  a 
marriage,  adultery,  inceft  {^5):  having  far- 
ther faid,  that  it  was  buried,  becaufe  it  funk 
below  the  horizon,  returned  to  light  and 
gained  its  ftate  of  eminence,  they  gave  it  the 
epithet  of  dead,  rifen  again,  carried  into 
heaven.  Sec, 

*'  The  fecond  caufe  of  confufion  was 
the  material  figures  themfelves,  by  which 
thoughts  v/ere  originally  painted,  and  which, 
under  the  name  of  hieroglyphics,  or  facred 
characters,  were  the  firft  invention  of  the 
mind.  Thus  to  denote  an  inundation,  and 
the  neceffity  of  preferving  one's-felf  from 
it,  they  painted  a  boat,  the  veflel  Argo ;  to 
exprefs  the  wind,  they  painted  a  bird's  wing; 
to  fpecify  the  feafon,  the  month,  they  deli- 
neated the  bird  of  paiTage,  infed:,  or  animal, 
which  made  its  appearance  at  that  epoch ; 
to  exprefs  winter  they  drew  a  hog,  or  a 
ferpent,  which  are  fond  of  moift  and  miry 
places.  The  combination  of  thefe  figures 
had  alfo  a  meaning,  and  was  fubftituted  for 
R  4  words 

24S  A    SURVEV    OF    THE 

words  and  phrafes  *  (56).   But  as  there  was 
nothing  fixed  or  precife  in  this  fort  of  lan- 
guage, as  the  number  of  thofe  figures  and 
their    combinationG   became    exceffive   and 
burdenfome  to  the  memory,  confufions  and 
falfe  interpretations  were  the  firfl:  and  ob- 
vious refult.     Genius  having  afterwards  in- 
vented the  more  fimple  art  of  applying  figns 
to  founds,  of  which  the  number  is  limited, 
and  of  painting   the   word   inftead   of  the 
thought,    hieroglyphic    pictures    were,    by 
^means  of  alphabetical  writing,  brought  into, 
difufe ;  and  from  day  to  day  their  forgotten 
fignifications  made  way  for  a  variety  of  il- 
lufions,  equivoques,  and  errors. 

"  Laftly,  the  civil  organization  of  thefirft 
flates  was  a  third  caufe  of  confufion.  In- 
deed, when  the  people  began  to  apply  them- 
felves  to  agriculture,  the  formation  of  the 
rural  calendar  requiring  continual  aftrono- 
mical  obfervations,  it  was  neceifary  to  chufe 
individuals  whofe  province  it  fhouid  be  to 
watch  the  appearance  and  fe>tting  of  certain 
ftars,  to  give  notice  of  the  return  of  the  in- 
undation, of  particular  winds  and  rains,  and 
*  See  the  examples  cited  in  note  (45}. 

.-  .:  .  the 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        249 

the  proper  time  for  fov/ing  every  fpecies  of 
grain.     Thefe  men,  on  account  of  their  of- 
fice, were  exempted  from  the  common  oc- 
cupations, and  the  fociety  provided  for  their 
fubfiflence.     In  this  fituation,  folely  occu- 
pied in  making  obfervations,  they  foon  pene- 
trated the  great  phenomena  of  nature,  and 
dived  into  the  fecret  of  various  of  her  ope- 
rations.    They  became  acquainted  with  the 
courfe  of  the  ftars  and  planets ;  the  connec- 
tion which  their  abfence  and  return  had  with 
the  produdlions  of  the  earth  and  the  adivity 
of  vegetation  :    the  medicinal  or  nutritive 
properties  of  fruits  and  plants  ;  the  atflion 
of  the  elements,and  their  reciprocal  affinities. 
But,  as  there  were  no  means  of  communi- 
cating this  knowledge  otherwife  than  by  the 
painful  and  laborious  one  of  oral  inflrudlion, 
they  imparted  it  only  to  their  friends  and 
kindred;  and  hence  refulted  a  concentration 
of  fcience  in  certain  families,  who,  on  this 
account  affumed  to  themfelves  exclufive  pri- 
vileges, and  a  fpirit  of  corporation  and  fepa- 
rate  diilindlion  fatal  to  the  public  weal.    By 
this  continued  fucceffion  of  the  fame  labours 
and  enquiries,  the  progrefs  of  knowledge  it 
is  true  was  haftened,  but,  by  the  myilery 


■A-O  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

that  accompanied  it,  the  people,  plunged 
daily  in  the  thickeil  darkne fs,  became  more 
fuperftitious  and  more  flavifh.  Seeing  human 
beings  produce  certain  phenomena,announce, 
as  it  were  at  will,  eclipfes  and  comets,  cure 
difeafes,  handle  noxious  ferpents,  they  fup- 
pofed  them  to  have  intercoui-fe  with  celeftial 
powers  j  and,  to  obtain  the  good  or  have  the 
ills  averted  which  they  expedled  from  thofe 
powers,  they  adopted  thefe  extraordinary 
human  beings  as  mediators  and  interpreters. 
And  thus  were  eftabliflied  in  the  very  bofom 
of  ftates  facrilegious  corporations  of  hypo- 
critical and  deceitful  men,  who  arrogated  to 
themfelves  every  kind  of  power;  and  priefls, 
being  at  once  aflronomers,  divines,  natura- 
lifts,  phyficians,  necromancers,  interpreters 
of  the  Gods,  oracles  of  the  people,  rivals  of 
kings  or  their  accomplices,  inflituted  under 
the  name  of  religion  an  empire  of  myflery, 
■which  to  this  very  hour  has  proved  ruinous 
to  the  nations  of  mankind," 

At  thefe  words  the  priefls  of  all  the 
groupes  interrupted  the  orator  -,  with  loud 
cries,  they  accufed  him  of  impiety,  irreligion, 
blafphemy,  and  were  unwilling  he  fhould 
proceed :  but  the  legiflators  having  obferved, 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         25I 

that  what  he  related  was  merely  a  narrative 
of  hiftorical  fads  j  that  if  thofe  fadls  were 
falfe  or  forged,  it  would  be  an  eafy  matter 
to  refute  them  ;  and  that  if  every  one  were 
not  allowed  the  perfed:  hberty  to  declare  his 
opinion,  it  would  be  impoflible  to  arrive  at 
truth — he  thus  went  on  with  his  difcourfe. 
"  From  all  thefe  caufes,  and  the  perpetual 
affociation  of  diffimilar  ideas,  there  followed 
a  flrange  mafs  of  diforders  in  theology,  mo- 
rality, and  tradition.    And  firft,  becaufe  the 
ftars  were  reprefented  by  animals,  the  quali- 
ties of  the  animals,  their  likings,  their  fym- 
pathies,  their  averlions,  were  transferred  to 
the  Gods  and  fuppofed  to  be  their  a(5tions. 
Thus  the  God  Ichneumon  made  war  againfl 
the  God  crocodile ;    the  God  wolf  wanted 
to  eat  the  God  fheep ;  the  God  ftork  de- 
voured the  God  ferpent  j  and  the  Deity  be- 
came a  flrange,  whimfical,  ferocious  being, 
whofe  idea  mifled  the  judgment  of  man,  and 
corrupted  both  his  morals  and  his  reafon. 

"  Again,  as  every  family,  every  nation,  in 
the  fpirit  of  its  worfliip  adopted  a  particular 
ftar  or  conftellation  for  its  patron,  the  affec- 
tions and  antipathies  of  the  emblematk:al    • 


ftC2  A    SU'RVEY    OF    THE 

brute  were  transferred  to  the  fedaries  of  this 
worfliip ;  and  the  partifans  of  the  God  dog 
were  enemies  to  thofe  of  the  God  wolf;  the 
worfliippers  of  the  God  bull,  abhorred  thofe 
who  fed  upon  beef,  and  religion  became  the 
author  of  combats  and  animofities,  the  fenfe- 
lefs  caufe  of  frenzy  and  fuperftition  (57). 

"  Farther,  the  names  of  the  animal  fbars 
having,  on  account  of  this  fame  patronage, 
been  conferred  on  nations,  countries,  moun- 
tains, and  rivers,  thofe  objeds  were  alfo 
taken  for  Gods ;  and  hence  there  arofe  a 
medley  of  geographical,  hiftorical,  and  my- 
thological beings,  by  which  all  tradition  was 
involved  in  confufion. 

**  In  fine,  from  the  analogy  of  their  fup- 
pofed  adions  the  planetary  gods  having  been 
taken  for  men,  heroes, and  kings;  kings  and 
heroes  took  in  their  turn  the  adions  of  the 
Gods  for  models,  and  became,  from  imita- 
tion, warlike,  conquering,  fanguinary,  proud, 
lafcivious,  indolent ;  and  religion  confecrat- 
ed  the  crimes  of  defpots,  and  perverted  the 
principles  of  governments. 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        253 

Sect.  IV.    Fourth  fyjlem  :  Worjhip  of  two 
principles,  or  Dualijm, 

"  Meanwhile  the  aftronomical  priefts, 
enjoying  in  their  teniples  peace  and  abun- 
dance, made  every  day  frefh  progrefs  in  the 
fciences ;  and  the  fyilem  of  the  world  gra- 
dually difplaying  itfelf  before  their  eyes,  they 
flarted  fucceffively  various  hypothefes  as  to 
its  agents  and  effedis,  which  became  fo  many 
iyUcms  of  theology. 

"  The  navigators  of  the  maritime  nations, 
and  the  caravans  of  the  Afiatic  and  African 
Nomades,  having  given  them  a  knowledge 
of  the  earth  from  the  Fortunate  Iflands  to 
Serica,  and  from  the  Baltic  to  the  fources  of 
the  Nile,  they  difcovered,  by  a  comparifon 
of  the  different  Zones,  the  rotundity  of  the 
globe,  which  gave  rife  to  a  new  theory. 
Obferving  that  all  the  operations  of  Nature, 
during  the  annual  period,  were  fummed  up, 
in  two  principal  ones,  that  of  producing  and 
that  of  deftroying;  that  upon  the  major  part 
of  the  globe,  each  of  thefe  operations  was 
equally  accomplilLed  from  one  to  the  other 
equinox  i  that  is  to  fay,  that  during  the  fix 


2^^  A    SURVEV   OF    TH£ 

months  of  fummer  all  was  In  a  ftate  of  pro-* 
creation  and  increafe,  and  during  the  fix 
months  of  winter  all  in  a  ftate  of  languor 
and  nearly  dead,  they  fuppofed  nature  to  con- 
tain two  contrary  powers  always  ftruggling 
with  and  refilling  each  other;  and  confider- 
ing  in  the  fame  light  the  celeilial  fphere, 
they  divided  the  pidiures,  by  which  they  re- 
prefented  it  into  two  halves  or  hemifpheres, 
fo  that  thofe  conftellations  which  appeared 
in  the  fummer  heaven  formed  a  dired:  and 
fuperior  empire,  and  thofe  in  the  winter 
heaven  an  oppoiite  and  inferior  one.  Now 
as  the  fum.mer  conftellations  were  accompa-* 
nied  with  the  feafon  of  long,  warm,  and  un- 
clouded days,  together  with  that  of  fruits 
and  harveils,  they  were  deemed  to  be  the 
powers  of  light,  fecundity,  and  creation  i 
and  by  tranfition  from  a  phyiical  to  a  moral 
lenfe,  to  be  Genii,  angels  of  fcience,  bene- 
ficence, purity,  virtue  :  in  like  mjanner  the 
winter  conftellations,  being  attended  with 
long  nights  and  the  polar  fogs,  were  regard- 
ed as  genii  of  darknefs,  deftru6tion,  death, 
and,  by  fimilar  tranfition,  as  angels  of  wick- 
ednefs,  ignorance,  fm,  vice.  By  this  difpo- 
.  fal, 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        255 

fal,  heaven  w^as  divided  into  two  domains, 
two  fadtions  ;  and  the  analogy  of  human 
ideas  opened  already  a  vaft  career  to  the 
flights  of  imagination ;  but  a  particular 
circumflance  determined,  if  it  did  not  oc- 
cafion  the  miftake  and  illufion.  (Confult 
Plate  II.  at  the  end  of  the  volume.) 

"  In  the  projection  of  the  celeftial  fphere 
drawn  by  agronomical  priefts  (58),  the  Zo- 
diac and  the  confiellations  difpofed  in  a  cir- 
cular order,  prefented  their  halves  in  dia- 
metrical oppofition;  the  winter  hemifphere 
was  adverfe,  contrary,  oppoiite  to,  being  the 
Antipodes  of,  that  of  fummer.  By  the  con- 
tinued m^etaphor  thefe  words  were  converted 
into  a  moral  fenfc,  and  the  adverfe  angels 
and  Genii  became  rebels  and  enemies  {59). 
From  that  period  the  whole  aftronomical 
hiflory  of  the  confiellations  was  turned  into 
a  political  hiftory;  the  heavens  became  a 
human  ftate,  where  every  thing  happened 
as  it  does  on  earth.  Now  as  the  exifting 
flates,  for  the  moffc  part  defpotic,  had  their 
monarchs,  and  as  the  fun  was  the  apparent 
fovereign  of  the  Ikies,  the  fummer  hemi- 
fphere (empire  of  light),  and  its  condella- 
tions  (a  nation  of  white  angels),   hid  for 


t^6  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

ting  an  enlightened,  intelligent,  creative^ 
benign  God;  and  as  every  rebellious  faction 
xnufl  have  its  chief,  the  hemifphere  of  v/in- 
ter  (the  fubterraneous  empire  of  darknefs 

-  and  woe),  together  v/ith  its  ftars  (a  nation  of 
black  angels,  giants,  or  demons),  had  for 
leader  a  malignant  Genius,  whofe  part  was 
affigned,  by  the  different  people  of  the  earth, 
to  that  flar  which  appeared  to  them  the 

,.  mofh  remarkable.  In  Egypt  it  was  origi- 
ginally  the  Scorpion,  the  firft  fign  of  the 
Zodiac  after  the  Balance,  and  the  hoary  chief 
of  the  wintry  ligns:  then  it  was  the  bear  or 
the  polar  afs,  called  Typhon,  that  is  to  fay, 
deluge  (60),  on  account  of  the  rains  which 
poured  down  upon  the  earth  during  the  do- 
minion of  that  flar.  In  Perfia,  at  a  fubfe- 
quent  period  (6  i ),  it  was  the  ferpent,  which, 

^  under  the  name  of  Ahrlmanes,  formed  the 
bafis  of  the  fyflem  of  Zoroaller ;  and  it  is 
the  fame,  Chrifiians  and  Jews,  that  is  become 
your  ferpent  of  Eve  (the  celeflial  origin), 
and  that  of  the  crofs ;  in  both  cafes  the  em- 
blem of  Satan,  the  great  adverfary  of  the 

,  Ancient  of  Days,  fung  by  Daniel.  In  Syria 
it  was  the  hog  or  wild  boar,  enemy  of  i\do- 
nis,  becaufe  in  that  country  the  office  of  the 


kEVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        257 

Northern  bear  was  made  to  devolve  upon  the 
animal  whofe  fondnefs  for  mire  and  dirt  is 
emblematical  of  winter.  And  it  is  for  this 
reafon  that  you,  children  of  Mofes  and  of 
Mahomet,  hold  this  animal  in  abhorrence,  in 
imitation  of  the  priefts  of  Memphis  and  Bal- 
hec,  who  detefted  him  as  the  murderer  of 
their  God  the  fun.  This  is  likewife,  O  In- 
dians! the  type  of  your  Chib-en,  which  was 
once  the  Pluto  of  your  brethren  the  Greeks 
and  Romans  ;  your  Brama  alfo  (God  the  cre- 
ator), is  only  the  Perfian  Ormuzd,  and  the 
Ofiris  of  Egypt,  whofe  very  name  expreffes 
a  creative  power,  producer  of  forms.  And 
thefe  Gods  were  wor (hipped  in  a  manner 
analogous  to  their  real  or  fiditious  attributes ^ 
and  this  worfhip,  on  account  of  the  difference 
of  its  objeds,  was  divided  into  two  diftind: 
branches.  In  One,  the  benign  God  received 
a  worfliip  of  joy  and  love;  v/hence  are  de- 
rived all  religious  a(fl;s  of  a  gay  nature  (62), 
feftivals,  dances,  banquets,  offerings  of 
flowers,  milk,  honey,  perfumes ;  in  a  word, 
of  every  thing  that  delights  the  fenfes  and 
tht  foul.  Jn  the  other,  the  malign  God,  on 
the  contrary,  received  a  worfhip  of  fear  and 

S  pain; 

2^8  A    SURVEY    0?    TH^ 

pain  ',  whence  originated  all  religious  z€ts  oi 
the  fombre  kind  (63),  tears,  grief,  moiirn- 
ing,  felf-denial,  blood- offerings,  and  crilel 

''  From  the  fame  fource  flowed  the  divi- 
fion  of  terreftrial  beings  into  pure  and  im- 
pure, facred  or  abominable,  aceordmg  as 
their  fpecies  was  found  among  the  refpedive 
conflellations  of  the  two  Gods,-  and  made  a 
.part  of  their  domain?^  This  produeed^on  one 
hand,  the  fuperflitions  of  pollution  and  puri- 
fication; and  on  the^ other,  the  pretended  effi- 
cacious virtues  of  amulets  and  talifmafis. 

**  You  now  underfland/'  continued  the  ora- 
tor, addrcfiing  himfelf  to  the  Indians^  Perfi- 
ans,  Jews,  Chrifti^ns  and  MulTulmans,  '^yon 
now  underiland  the  origin  of  thofe  ideas  of 
combats  and  rebellion^  which  equally  per- 
vade your  refpecffcive  mythology.  You  per- 
ceive what  is  meant  by  white  and  black  an- 
gels; by  the  cherubs  and  feraphs  with  heads 
of  an  eagle,  a  lion  or  a  bull;  the  Deus>  de- 
vils or  demons  v/ith  horns  of  goats  and  tails 
of  fnakes;  the  thrones  and  dominions,  ranged 
in  {even  orders  or  gradations,  like  the  feven 
fpheres  of  the  planets ;  all  of  them  beings 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES*         2^9 

afiing  the  fame  parts,  partaking  of  the  fame 
attributes  in  the  Vedas,  the  Bibles,  or  the 
Zendavefta;  whether  their  chief  be  Ormuzd 
or  Erama,  Typhon  or  Chib-en,  Michael  or 
Satan;  whether  their  form  be  that  of  giants 
with  a  hundred  arms  and  fe-et  of  ferpents, 
or  that  of  Gods  metamorphofed  into  lions, 
ftorks,  bulls  and  cats,  as  they  appear  in  the 
facred  tales  of  the  Greeks  and  Egyptians : 
you  perceive  the  fucceffive  genealogy  of 
thefe  ideas,  and  how  in  proportion  to  their 
remotenefs  from  their  fources,  and  as  the 
mind  of  man  became  reiined,  their  grofs 
forms  were  purified,  and  reduced  to  a  ftate 
lefs  fhocking  and  repulfive* 

*'  But,  juft  as  the  fyftem  of  two  oppoftte 
principles  or  deities  originated  in  that  of 
fymbols  5  in  the  fame  manner  you  will  find 
a  nfew  fyftem  fpring  out  of  this,  to  which 
it  ferved  in  its  turn  as  a  foundation  and 

5ect.  V.    Myjiical  or  7noral  worjhlpy  or  the 
fyjiem  of  a  future  Jiate. 

"  In  reality,  when  the  vulgar  heard  talk 
«f  a  new  heaven  and  another  world,  they  foou 

S  2      ^  gave 

26o  A    SURVEY  of    THE 

gave  a  body  to  thefe  fidlions;  they  eredled  en 
it  a  folid  ftage  and  real  fcenes  -,  and  their 
notions  of  geography  and  aftronomy  ferved 
to  flrengthen,  if  they  did  not  give  rife  to 
the  allufion. 

"  On  the  one  hand^  the  Phenlcian  naviga- 
tors, thofe  who  palled  the  pillars  of  Hercules 
to  fetch  the  pewter  of  Thule  and  the  amber 
of  the  Baltic,  related  that  at  the  extremity 
of  the  world,  the  boundaries  of  the  ocean 
(the  Mediterranean),  where  the  fun  fets  to 
the  countries  of  Afia,  there  wxre  fortunate 
Iflands,  the  abode  of  an  everlafting  fpring  ; 
and  at  a  farther  diflaneq,  hyperborean  re- 
gions, placed  under  the  earth  (relatively  to  the 
tropics),  where  reigned  an  eternal  night  ^. 
From  thefe  ftories,  badly  underilood,  and  no 
doubt  confufedly  related,  the  imagination  of 
the  people  compofed  theElyfian  Fields  (64), 
delightfal  fports  in  a  world  below,  having 
their  heaven,  their  fun  and  their  ilars ;  and 
Tartarus,  a  place  of  darknefs,  humidity,;  mire, 
and  chilling  froil.  Now,  inafmuch  as  man- 
kind, incj^uilitive  about  all  that  of  which  they 

-*  Nights  of  fiX  mo.'iths  duration. 


REVOL^UTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.       261 

tare  ignorant,  and  defirous  of  a  protra6led  ex- 
iftence,  had  already  exerted  their  faculties 
refpedling  what  was  to  become  of  them  after 
death ;  inafmuch  as  they  had  early  reafoned 
upon  that  principle  of  life  which  animates  the 
body,  and  which  quits  it  without  changing 
the  form  of  the  body,  and  had  conceived  to 
themfelves  airy  fubflances,  phantoms  and 
fliades,  they  loved  to  believe  that  they  fhould 
refume  in  the  fubterranean  world  that  life 
which  it  was  fo  painful  to  lofe ;  and  this 
abode  appeared  commodious  for  the  recep- 
tion of  thofe  beloved  objedls  which  they 
could  not  prevail  on  themfelves  to  renounce. 
"  On  the  other  hand,  the  aflrological  and 
philofophic^l  prieils  told  fuch  ftories  of  their 
heavens  as  perfectly  quadrated  with  thefe 
fidions.  Having,  in  their  metaphorical  lan- 
guage, denominated  the  equinoxes  and  fol- 
ftices  the  gates  of  heaven,  or  the  entrance  of 
the  feafons,  they  explained  the  terreftrial 
phenomena  by  faying,  that  through  the  gate 
of  horn  (firft  the  bull,  afterwards  the  ram), 
vivifying  fires  defcended,  which,  in  fpring, 
gave  life  to  vegetation  ,  and  aquatic  Spirits, 
which  caufed,  at  the  folftice,  the  overflowing 

S  3  of 

262  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

of  the  Nile  :  that  through  the  gate  of  ivory 
(originally  the  Bowman,  or  Sagittarius,  then 
the  Balance')  and  through  that  of  Capricorn, 
or  the  urn,  the  emanations  or  influences  of 
the  heavens  returned  to  their  fource  and  re- 
afcended  to  their  origin;  and  the  milky  Way 
which  paffed  through  the  doors  of  the  fol- 
ftices,  feemed  to  them  to  have  been  placed 
there  on  purpofe  to  be  their  road  and  ve- 
hicle {6^),  The  celeftial  fcene  farther  pre- 
fented,  according  to  their  Atlas,  a  river  (the 
Nile,  defignated  by  the  windings  of  the 
Hydra)  -,  together  with  a  barge  (the  veflel 
Argo),  and  the  dog  Sirius,  both  bearing  re- 
lation to  that  river  of  which  they  forboded 
the  overflowing.  Thefe  circumftances  ad- 
ded to  the  preceding  ones,  increafed  the  pro- 
bability of  the  fiidlion  -,  and  thus,  to  arrive 
at  Tartarus  or  Elyfium,  fouls  were  obliged 
to  crofs  the  rivers  Styx  and  Acheron,  in  the 
boat  of  Cbaron  the  ferryman,  and  to  pafs 
through  the  doors  of  horn  and  ivory, 
which  were  guarded  by  the  maftifl:'  Cerbe- 
rus. At  length  a  civil  ufage  was  joined 
to  all  thefe  inventions,  and  gave  them  con- 

•^        ^  ''  Th€ 

I^EVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPJRES.        263 

*^  The  inhabitants  of  Egypt  having  re- 
marked th^t  the  putrefadion  of  dead  bodies 
became  in  their  burning  climate  the  fource 
of  peftilence  and  difeafes,  tlie  cuflom  was 
introduced  in  a  great  number  of  flates,  of 
burying  the   dead  at  a  dillance  from  the 
inhabited  diftridts,  in  the  defert  which  lies 
at  the  Weft.     To  arrive  there  it  was  necef- 
fary  to  crofs  the  canals  of  the  river  in  a  boat, 
and  to  pay  a  toll  to  the  ferryman,  otherwife 
the  body,  remaining  unburied,  would  have 
been  left  a  prey  to  wild  hearts.    This  cuftom 
fuggefted  to  her  civil  and  religious  legilla- 
tors,  a  powerful  means  of  affecting  the  man- 
ners of  her  inhabitants  ;  and  addreffing  fa- 
vage  and  uncultivated  men  with  the  motives 
of  filial  piety  and  reverence  for  the  dead, 
they  introduced,  as  a   neceflary  condition, 
the  undergoing  that  previous  trial  which 
ihould  decide  whether  the  deceafed  deferv- 
ed  to  be  admitted  upon  the  footing  of  his  fa- 
mily honours  into  the  black  city.      Such  an 
idea  too  well  accorded  with  the  reft  of  the 
bulinefs  not  to  be  incorporated  with  it :   it 
accordingly  entered  for  an  article  into  reli- 
gious creeds,  and  hell  had  its  Minos  and  its 

S  4  Radaman* 

264  ^    SURVEY    OF    THE 

Radamanthus,  with  the  wand,  the  chair,  the 
guards  and  the  urn,  after  the  exa<*l  model  of 
this  civil  tranfadion.  The  Divinity  then, 
for  the  firfl  time,  became  a  fubjed:  of  moral 
and  political  confideration,  a  legiflator,  by 
fo  much  the  more  formidable  as,  while  his 
judgment  was  final  and  his  decrees  without 
appeal,  he  was  unapproachable  to  his  fub- 
jeds.  This  mythologies.!  and  fabulous  cre- 
ation, compofed  as  it  was  of  fcattered  and 
difcordant  parts,  then  became  a  fource  of 
future  punifhments  and  rewards,  in  which 
divine  jufiice  was  fuppofed  to  corred:  the 
vices  and  errors  of  this  traniitory  fbate.  A 
fpiritual  and  myftica!  fyftem,  fuch  as  I  have 
mentioned,  acquired  fo  much  the  more  cre- 
dit as  it  applied  itfelf  to  the  mind  by  every 
argument  fuited  to  it.  The  oppreiTed  looked 
thither  for  an  indem.nincation;  and  enter- 
tained the  confoling  hope  of  vengeance ;  the 
oppreflcr  expedled  by  tbe  coftHnefs  of  his 
offerings  to  fecure  to  hlmfelf  impunity,  and 
iit  the  fam.e  time  employed  this  principle  to 
infpire  the  vulgar  with  timidity  :  kings  and 
priefts,  the  heads  of  the  people,  faw  in  it 
a  new  fource  of  po\ver,  as  they  referved  to 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        3t6j 

themfelves  the  privilege  of  awarding  the 
favours  or  the  cenfure  of  the  great  judge  of 
all,  according  to  the  opinion  they  fhould  in- 
culcate of  the  odioufnefs  of  crimes  and  the 
meritorioufnefs  of  virtue. 

"  Thus,  then,  an  invifible  and  Imaginary 
world  entered  into  competition  with  that 
which  was  real.  Such,  O  Perfians,  was  the 
origin  of  your  renovated  earth,  your  city  of 
refurredlion,  placed  under  the  equator,  and 
diftingui filed  from  all  other  cities  by  this 
fingular  attribute,  that  the  bodies  of  its  in- 
habitants caft  no  ihiade  (66).  Such,  O  Jews 
and  Chriftians,  difciples  of  the  Perfians,  was 
the  fource  of  your  new  Jerufalem,  your  para- 
dife  and  your  heaven,  modelled  upon  the 
aftrological  heaven  of  Hermes.  Meanwhile, 
your  hell,  O  ye  Muifulmans,  a  fubterraneous 
pit  furmounted  by  a  bridge,  your  balance  of 
fouls  and  good  works,  your  judgment  pro- 
nounced by  the  angels  Monkir  and  Nekir, 
derives  its  attributes  from  the  myflerious 
ceremonies  of  the  cave  of  Mithra  (67) ;  and 
your  heaven  is  exadlly  coincident  with  that 
of  Ofiris,  Ormudz  and  Brama.'' 


266  A    SURVEY    OF    TKS 

Sect.  VI.  Sixth  Eyjiem :  ^he  animated 
world,  or  ivorjloip  of  the  univerfe  wider 
different  emblems, 

"  WHILE  the  nations  were  lofing  them- 

felves  in  the  dark  labyrinth  of  mythology 
and  fables,  the  phyfiologlcal  priefts,  purfuing 
their  ftudies  and  enquiries  about  the  order 
and  difpofition  of  the  univerfe,  came  to  frefh 
refults,  and  fet  up  freih  fyftems  of  powers 
and  moving  caufes. 

"  Long  confined  to  (imple  appearances, 
they  had  only  iztn  in  the  motion  of  theflars 
an  unknown  play  of  luminous  bodies,  which 
they  fuppofed  to  roll  round  the  earth,  the 
central  point  of  all  the  fpheres ;  but  from 
the  moment  they  had  difcovered  the  rotun- 
dity of  our  planet,  the  confequences  of  this 
firfl:  fad  led  them  to  other  confiderations, 
and  from  inference  to  inference  they  rofe  to 
the  higheit  conceptions  of  aftronomy  and 

"  In  truth,  having  conceived  the  enlight- 
ened and  fimple  idea,  that  the  celeil:ial  globe 
is  a  fmall  circle  infcribed  in  the  greater  circle 
of  the  heavens,  the  theory  of  tlie  concentral 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         267 

circles  naturally  prefented  itfelf  to  their  hy- 
pothefis,  to  refolve  the  unknown  circle  of  the 
terreilrial  globe  by  known  points  of  the  ce- 
leftial  circle  ;  and  the  m^afure  of  one  or  fe- 
veral  degrees  of  the  meridian,  gave  precifely 
the  total  circumference.  Then  taking  for 
compafs  the  diameter  of  the  earth,  a  fortu- 
nate genius  defcribed  with  aufpicious  bold- 
nefs  the  immenfe  orbits  of  the  heavens;  and, 
by  an  unheard  of  abftradion,  man,  who 
fcarcely  peoples  the  grain  of  fand  of  which 
he  is  the  inhabitant,  embraced  the  infinite 
diftances  of  the  ilars,  and  launched  himfelf 
into  the  abyfs  of  fpace  and  duration*  There  a 
new  order  of  the  univerfe  prefented  itfelf,  of 
which  the  petty  globe  that  he  inhabited  no 
longer  appeared  to  him  to  be  the  center:  this 
important  part  was  transferred  to  the  enor- 
mous mafs  of  the  fun,  which  became  the  in- 
flamed pivot  of  eight  circumjacent  fpheres, 
the  movements  of  which  were  henceforward 
fubmitted  to  exadl  calculation. 

*  *  Th  e  human  mind  had  a]  ready  done  a  great 
deal,  by  undertaking  to  refolve  the  difpofitioa 
andf  order  of  the  great  beings  of  nature ;  but 
jiot  contented  with  this  firil  effort,  it  wifhed 


"268  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

alio  to  refolve  its  mechanlfm,  and  difcover  it^ 
origin  and  motive  principle.  And  here  it  is 
that,  involved  in  the  abflradl  and  metaphy- 
fical  depths  of  motion  and  its  iirft  caufe,  of 
the  inherent  or  communicated  properties  of 
matter,  together  with  its  fucceffive  forms  and 
extent,  or,  in  other  words,  of  boundlefs  fpace 
and  time,  thefe  phyfiological  divines  loft 
themfelves  in  a  cliaos  of  lubtle  argument 
and  fcholaflic  controverly. 

*'  The  adtion  of  the  fun  upon  terreftrial 
bodies,  having  iirfi:  led  them  to  conlider  its 
fubfliance  as  pure  and  elementary  fire,  they 
made  it  the  focus  and  refervoir  of  an  ocean 
of  igneous  and  luminous  fluid,  v/hich,  under 
the  name  of  ether,  nlled  the  univerfe,  and 
nourished  the  beings  contained  therein.  They 
afterwaras  aifcovered,  by  the  analyiis  of  a 
more  accurate  philofophy,  this  fire,  or  a  fire 
fimilar  to  it,  entering  into  the  compofition 
of  all  bodies,  and  perceived  that  it  was  the 
grand  agent  in  that  fpontaneous  motion, 
which  in  animals  is  denominated  life,  and 
in  plants  vegetation.  From  hence  they  were 
led  to  conceive  of  the  mechanifm  and  zCtion 
of  the  univerfcjas  cf  a  homogeneous  whole, 

a  fingle 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.       269 

a  fingle  body,  whofe  parts,  however  diftant 
in  place,  had  a  reciprocal  connexion  v/ith 
each  other  (69)  ;  and  of  the  vt^orld  as  a  living 
fubftance,  animated  by  the  organical  circu- 
lation of  an  ingneous  or  rather  electrical 
fluid  (70),  which,  by  an  analogy  borrowed 
from  men  and  animals,  was  fappofed  to  have 
the  fun  for  its  heart  (71). 

*'  Meanwhile,  among  the  theological  phi- 
lofophers,one  fecfl  beginning  from  thefe  prin- 
ciples, the  refult  of  experiment,  faid :  That 
nothing  was  annihilated  in  the  world;  that 
the  elements  were  unperiiliable  ;  that  they 
changed  their  combinations,  but  not  their 
nature  ;  that  the  life  and  death  of  beings 
were  nothing  more  than  the  varied  modifi- 
cations of  the  fame  atoms ;  that  matter  con- 
tained in  itfelf  properties,  which  were  the 
caufe  of  all  its  modes  of  exifting;  that  the 
world  was  eternal  (72),  having  no  bounds 
either  of  fpace  or  duration.  Others  faid  : 
That  the  whole  univerfe  was  God ;  and,  ac- 
cording to  them,  God  was  at  once  effect  and 
caufe,  agent  and  patient,  moving  principle 
and  thing  moved,  having  for  laws  the  inva- 
riable properties  which  conftitute  fatality ; 

tj6  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

and  they  defignated  their  idea  fometlmesby 
the  emblem  of  Pan  (the  great  all)  j  of 
of  Jupiter,  with  a  ftarry  front,  a  planetary- 
body,  and  feet  of  animals  ;  or  by  the  fymbol 
of  the  Orphic  tgg  *,  whofe  yolk  fufpended 
in  the  middle  of  a  liquid  encompailed  by  a 
vault,  reprefented  the  globe  of  the  fun 
fwimming  in  ether  in  the  middle  of  the  vault 
of  heaven  (73),  or  by  the  emblem  of  a  large 
round  ferpent,  figurative  of  the  heavens^ 
where  they  placed  the  firft  princicle  of  mo- 
tion, and  for  that  reafon  of  an  azure  colour, 
ftudded  with  gold  fpots  (the  ftars),  and  de- 
vouring his  tail,  that  is,  re-entering  into  him- 
felf,  by  winding  continually  like  the  revolu- 
tions of  the  fpheres ;  or  by  the  em.blem  of  ^ 
man,  Vv'ithhis  feet  preffed  and  tied  together  to 
denote  immutable  exiflence,  covered  with  a 
mantle  of  all  colours,  like  the  appearance  of 
nature,  and  wearing  on  his  head  a  fphere  of 
gold  (74),  figurative  of  the  fphere  of  the  pla- 
nets; or  by  that  of  another  man  fometimes 
featedupon  the  flower  of  Li?/^^,  borne  uponthe 
abyfs  of  the  waters,  at  others  reclined  upon 

*  Vide  CEdip.  ^gypt.  torn.  II.  p.  205. 

a  pile 

REVOLtJtIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        Ijt 

a  pile  of  twelve  culliions,  lignifying  the  tv>'elve 
celeflial  figns.  And  this,  O  nations  of  India:> 
Japan,  Siam,  Thibet,  and  China,  is  the  theo- 
logy, which,  invented  by  the  Egyptians,  haSj^ 
been  tranfmitted  down  and  preferved  among 
yourfelves,  in  the  pidlures  you  give  of  Brama, 
Beddou,  Sommanacodom,  and  Omito.  This, 
G  ye  Jews  and  Chriilians,  is  the  counterpart 
of  an  opinion,  of  which  you  have  retained  a 
certain  portion,  when  you  defcribe  God  as  the 
breath  of  life  moving  upon  the  face  of  the  wa^ 
tersy  alluding  to  the  wind  (75),  which  at  the 
origin  of  the  world,  that  is,  at  the  departure 
of  the  fpheres  from  the  fign  of  the  Crab,  an- 
nounced the  overflowing  of  the  Nile,  and 
feemed  to  be  the  preliminary  of  creation." 

-Sect.  VII.  Seventh  Syfiem:  WorpAp  of  the 
Soul  of  the  World,  that  />,  the  element 
of  fire  y  the  vital  principle  of  the  univerfe. 

«  BUT  a  third  fet  of  the  theological  phi- 
lofophers,  difgufted  with  the  idea  of  a  being 
at  once  effed:  and  caufe,  agent  and  patient, 
and  uniting  in  one  and  the  fame  nature  all 
contrary  attributes,  diftinguifhed  the  moving 
principle  from  the  thing  moved;  and  laying 
7  it 

2^3  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

It  down  as  a  datum  that  matter  was  In  itfelf 
inert,  they  pretended  that  it  received  its  pro- 
perties from  a  diilinfl  agent  of  which  it  was 
only  the  envelope  or  cafe.  Some  made  this 
agent  the  igneous  principle,  the  acknow- 
ledged author  of  all  motion^  others  made  it 
the  fluid  called  ether,  becaufe  it  was  thought 
to  be  more  adive  and  fubtile  :  now,  as  they 
denominated  the  vital  and  motive  principle 
in  animals,  a  foul,  a  fpirit;  and  as  they  al- 
ways reafoned  by  comparifon,  and  particu- 
larly by  comparifon  v/ith  human  exiflencCj 
they  gave  to  the  motive  principle  of  the 
whole  univerfethe  name  of  foul,  intelligence, 
fpirit;  and  God  was  the  vital  fpirit,  which, 
diffufed  through  all  beings,  animated  the  vaft 
body  of  the  v/orld.  This  idea  was  repre- 
fented  fometimes  by  You-piter,  eifence  of 
motion  and  animation,  principle  of  exiftence, 
or  rather  exiftence  itfelf  (76)  ;  at  other  times 
by  Vulcan,  or  Phthay  elementary  principle  of 
fire,  or  by  the  altar  of  Vefta,  placed  cen- 
trally in  her  temple,  like  the  fun  in  the 
fpheres  -,  and  again  by  Knephy  a  human  being 
dreffed  in  deep  blue,  holding  in  his  hands  a 
fceptre  and  a  girdle  (the  Zodiac),  wearing  on 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRESc       ^73 

liis  head  a  cap  with  feathers,  to  exprefs  the 
fugacity  of  thought,  and  producing  from  hil 
mouth  the  great  egg  (77). 

**  As  a  confcqucnce  from  this  fyftem,  every 
being  containing  in  itfelf  a  portion  of  the 
igneous  or  etherial  fluid,  the  univerfal  and 
common  mover,  and  that  fluid,  foul  of  the 
world,  being  the  Deity,  it  followed  that  the 
fouls  of  all  beings  were  a  part  of  God  him- 
felf,  partaking  of  all  his  attributes,  that  is, 
being  an  indivifible,  Ample,  and  immortal 
fubfl:ance ;  and  hence  is  derived  the  whole 
fyflem  of  the  immortality  of  the  foul,  which 
at^firft  was  eternity  (78).  Hence  alfo  its 
tranfmigrations  known  by  the  name  of  me- 
tem.pfychofis,thatis  tofay,paflage  of  the  vital 
principle  from  one  body  to  another;  an  idea 
which  fprung  from  the  real  tranfmigration 
of  the  material  elements.  Such,  O  Indians, 
Budfoifl:s,  Chriflians,  Mufliilmans,  was  the 
origin  of  all  your  ideas  of  the  fpirituality  of 
the  foul !  Such  was  the  fource  of  the  reve- 
ries of  Pythagoras  and  Plato,  your  inflitutors, 
and  who  were  themfelves  but  the  echoes  of 
another,  the  lafl:  fed;  of  vifionaryphilofophers 
that  it  is  necelTary  to  examine* 

~  T  Sect, 

274  ^    SURVEY    OF    THE 

Sect.  VIII.  Eighth fyjiem:  I' he  world  a  ma'^ 
chine :    ivorjJnp    of  the-  Demi-ourgos,  or 
Jupre?ne  artificer. 

"Hitherto  the  theologians.  In  exer- 
cifing  their  faculties  on  the  detached  and 
fubtile  fubllances  of  ether  and  the  igneous 
principle,  had  not  however  eeafed  to  treat 
of  exigences  palpable  and  perceptible  to 
the  fenfes,  and  their  theology  bad  conti- 
nued to  be  the  theory  of  phyfical  powers, 
placed  fometimes  exclufively  in  the  flars,  and 
fometimesdiileminated  through  the  univerfe. 
But  at  the  period  at  which  we  are  arrived* 
fome  fuperficial  minds,  lofing  the  chain  of 
ideas  which  had  direded  thefe  profound  en- 
quiries, or  ignorant  of  the  fadts  which  ferved 
as  their  bails,  rendered  abortive  all  the  refults 
that  had  been  obtained  from  them,  by  the. 
introdud:ion  of  a  flrange  and  novel  chimera. 
They  pretended  that  the  univerfe,  the  hea- 
vens, the  liars,  the  fun,  differed  in  no  re- 
fped  from  an  ordinary  machine  ;  and  applying 
to  this  hypotheiis  a  comparifon  drawn  from 
the  works  of  art,  they  ereded  an  edifice  of 
the  moil  whimfical  fophifms.  "A  machine," 


itEvoxtrTiojvrs  of  empires^      275 

faid  they,  **  cannot  form  itfelf,  there  muH  be 
**  a  workman  to  conftrud:  it  ^  its  very  exift- 
*'  ence inipUes  this.  The  world  is  a  machines 
*'  it  has  therefore  an  artificer  (79)/' 

*'  Hence  the  Demi-oiirgos,  or  fiipreme  ar- 
tificer, the  autocrator  and  fovereign  of  the 
univerfe.  It  was  in  vain  that  the  ancient  phi-. 
lofophy  objedled  to  the  hypothefis,  that  this 
artificer  did  not  ftand  in  lefs  need  of  parents 
and  an  author,  and  that  afcheme,which  add-=- 
cd  only  one  Hnk  to  the  chain  by  taking  the 
attributeof  eternity  from  the  world  and  giving 
it  to  the  creator,  was  of  little  value.  Thefd 
innovators,  not  contented  with  a  firfi  para- 
dox, added  a  fecond,  and  applying  to  their  ar- 
tificer the  theory  of  human  underftanding^ 
pretended  that  the  Demi-onrgos  falhioned  his 
machine  upon  an  archetype  or  idea  extant  in 
his  mind.  In  a  v/ord,  jufl  as  their  mafi:ers,the 
natural  philofophers,  had  placed  tht  primiim 
mobile  in  the  fphere  of  the  fixed  ftars,  under 
the  appellation  of  intelligence  and  reafon, 
fo  their  apes,  the  fpiritualills,  adopting  the 
fame  principle,  made  it  an  attribute  of  the 
Demi^ourgosy  reprefenting  this  being  as  a  dif- 
tinft  fubftance,  Hecefifarily  exifling,  to  which 
T  2  they 

U>.~*  v,> 

^y6  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

they  applied  the  terms  of  Mens  or  Logos ^  til 
other  words,  under  {landing  and  fpeech.  Se- 
parately from  this  being,  they  held  the  exig- 
ence of  a  folar  principle,  or  foul  of  the  world, 
which,  taken  wth  the  preceding,  made  three 
gradations  of  divine  perfonages ;  firft,  the 
Demi-Gurgos,  or  fupreme  artificer;  fecondly^ 
the  Logos,  underilanding  or  fpeech :  and 
thirdly,  tne  fpirit  or  foul  of  the  world  (80). 
And  this,  O  Chriftians,is  the  fidion  on  which 
you  have  founded  your  dodlrine  of  the  Trini- 
ty; this  is  the  fyllem,  which,  born  a  Heretic 
in  the  Egyp'ian  temples,  tranfmitted  a  Hea- 
then to  the  fchools  of  Greece  and  Italy,  is 
now  Catholic  or  Orthodox  by  the  converfion 
of  its  partifans,  the  difciples  of  Pythagoras 
and  Plato,  to  Chriftianity. 

*'  Thus  the  Deity,  after  having  been  origi- 
nally conlidered  as  the  fenfible  and  various 
adlion  of  meteors  and  the  elements  ;  then  as 
the  combined  power  of  the  ftars,  confidered 
in  their  relation  to  terreftrial  objeds ;  then 
as  thofe  terreflrial  objeds themfelves,  in  con- 
fequence  of  confounding  fymbols  with  the 
things  they  reprefented  ;  then  as  the  com- 
plex power  of  Nature,  in  her  two  principal 


REVOLUTIONS   OF    EMPIRES.        277 

operations  of  produdlion  and  deftrudlion ; 
then  as  the  animated  world  without  diftinc- 
tion  of  agent  and  patient,  caufe  and  effedt ; 
then  as  the  folar  principle  or  element  of  fire 
acknowledged  as  the  fole  caufe  of  motion— 
the  Deity,  I  fay,  ,confidered  under  all  thefe 
different  views,  became  at  laft  a  chimerical 
and  abftrad  being ;  a  fcholaftic  fubtlety  of 
fubftance  without  form,  of  body  without 
figure ;  a  true  delirium  of  the  mind  beyond 
the  power  of  reafon  at  all  to  comprehend. 
But  in  this  its  la  ft  transformation,  it  feeks  in 
vain  to  conceal  itfelf  from  the  fenfes :  the 
feal  of  its  origin  is  indelibly  ftamped  upon  it. 
All  its  attributes,  borrowed  from  the  phyfical 
attributes  of  the  univerfe,  as  immenfity,  eter- 
nity, indivifibility,  incomprehenfiblenefs ;  or 
from  the  moral  qualities  of  man,  as  goodnefs, 
juftice,  majefty;  and  its  very  names  (81), 
derived  from  the  phyfical  beings  which  were 
its  types,  particularly  the  fun,  the  planets, 
and  the  world,  prefent  to  us  continually,  in 
fpite  of  thofe  who  would  corrupt  and  dif- 
guife  it,  infallible  marks  of  its  genuine  na- 
^  Such  is  the  chain  of  ideas  through  which 
T3  the 

27?  A    SURVEY    OF    THE  . 

the  human  mind  had  already  run  at  a  period 
anterior  to  the  pofitive  recitals  of  hiftoryi 
and  fmce  their  fyftematlc  form  proves  them 
to  have  been  the  refult  of  one  fcene  of  fludy 
.and  inveftigation,  every  thing  inclines  us  to 
place  the  theatre  of  inveftigation,  where  its 
primitive  elements  v^^ere  generated,  in  Egypt> 
There  tliei.r  progrefs  was  rapid^  becaufe  the 
^d.Ie  curiofity  of  the  theological  philofophers 
had,  in  the  retirement  of  the  temples,  no 
pther  food  than  the  enigma  of  the  univerfe^ 
which  was  €ver  prefent  to  their  minds;  and 
becaufe,  in  the  political  diffentions  v/hich 
long  difunited  that  country,  each  flate  had 
its  coUege  of  priefts,  who,  being  in  turns 
;iuxiliaries  or  rivals,  haflened  by  their  dif- 
putes  the  progrefs  of  fcience  and  difcoyery 


^'  On  the  borders  of  the  Nile  there  hap- 
pened at  that  diftant  period,  what  has  iince 
Jbeen  repeated  all  over  the  globe.  In  pro- 
portion as  each  fyftem  was  formed,  it  excited 
by  its  novelty  quarrels  and  fchifms :  then, 
gaining  credit  even  by  perfecution,  it  either 
deftroyed  anterior  ideas,  or  incorporated  it- 
felf  with  and  modified  them.     But  political 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        279 

inftitutions  taking  place,  all  opinions,  by  the 
aggregation  of  ilates  and  mixture  of  different 
people,  were  at  length  confounded;  and  the 
chain  of  ideas  being  lofl,  theology,  plunged 
in  a  chaos,  became  a  mere  logogryph  of  old 
traditions  no  longer  underftood.  Religion, 
lofing  its  objed:,  was  now  nothing  more  than 
a  political  expedient  by  which  to  rule  the 
credulous  vulgar  3  and  was  embraced  either 
by  men  credulous  themfelves  and  the  dupes 
of  their  own  vifions,  or  by  bold  and  energe- 
tic fpirits,  who  formed  vail  projeds  of 

Sect.  IX.   Religion  of  Mofes,  or  worjhip  of 
the  foul  of  the  world  (Tou-piter), 

"Of  this  latter  defcription  was  the  He- 
brew legiflator,  who,  defirous  of  feparating 
his  nation  from  every  other,  and  of  forming 
a  diftind;  and  excluiive  empire,  conceived 
the  defign  of  takingfor  its  balls  religious  pre- 
judices, and  of  eredling  round  it  a  facred 
rampart  of  rites  and  opinions.  But  in  vain 
did  he  profcribe  the  worfhip  of  fymbols,  the 
reigning  religion,  at  that  time,  in  Lower 
jEgypt  and  Phenicia  (83)  :  his  God  was  not 
T4  00 

280  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

on  that  account  thelefs  an  Egyptian  God,  of 
the  invention  of  thofe  priefts  whofe  difciple 
Mofes  had  been;  and  Tahouh  (84),  deteded 
by  his  very  name,  which  means  effence  of 
beings,  and  by  his  fymbol,  the  fiery  bulli,  is 
nothing  more  than  the  foul  of  the  world,  the 
principle  of  motion,  v/hich  Greece  iliortly 
after  adopted  under  the  fame  denomination 
in  her  Tou-pitery  generative  principle,  and 
under  that  of  £/,  exiilence  (85);  which  the 
Thebans  confecrattd  by  the  name  c^ Kneph-^ 
which  Sais  worfliipped  under  the  emolem  of 
I/is  veiled,  with  this  infcription,  lam  all  thai 
has  been,  all  that  is,  and  all  that  ivill  be,  and 
no  mortal  has  draiim  ajide  my  veil-,  which  Py- 
thagoras honoured  under  the  appellation  of 
Vef.a,'^YiA  which  the  Stoic  philofophy  defined 
with  precifion,  by  calling  it  the  principle  of 
fire.  In  vain  did  Mofes  wifh  to  blot  from 
his  religion  whatever  could  bring  to  remem- 
brance the  worlhip  of  the  iiars;  a  multi- 
plicity of  traits  in  fpite  of  his  exertions  ftill 
remained  to  point  it  out :  the  {q,v^\\  lamps 
of  the  great  candleflick,  the  twelve  ftones 
©r  figns  of  the  Urim  of  the  high^prieft,  the 
feaft  of  the  two  e(juinoxes,  each  of  whith  a^ 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES,       281 

that  eppcha  formed  a  year^  the  ceremony  of 
the  lam.b  cr  celeilial  ram,  then  at  its  fifteenth 
degree  ;  laftly,  the  name  of  Ofiris  even  pre- 
ferved  in  his  fong  (86)5  and  the  ark  or  coffer, 
an  imitation  of  the  tomb  in  which  that  God 
was  inclofed ;  all  thefe  remain  to  bear  record 
to  the  genealogy  of  his  ideas,  and  their  deri- 
vation from  the  common  fourc( 


Sect.  X.     Religion  of  Zoroa/ier. 

**  Zoroaster  was  alfo  g  man  of  the 
fame  bold  and  energetic  ilamp,  who,  five 
centuries  after  Mofes,  and  in  the  time  of 
David,  revived  and  moralized  arnong  the 
Medes  and  Eacftrians  the  whole  Egyptian 
fyftem  of  Ofiris,  under  the  names  of  Ormuzd 
and  Ahrimanes.  He  called  the  reign  of 
fummer,  virtue  and  good  5  the  reign  of  win- 
ter, fin  and  evil ;  the  renovation  of  nature  in 
fpring,  creation  ;  the  revival  of  the  fpheres 
in  the  fecular  periods  of  the  conj  undlion,  re- 
furredlion ;  and  his  future  life,  hell,  paradife, 
were  the  Tartarus  and  Elyfium  of  the  an- 
cient aftrologers  and  geographers;  in  a  worfl, 
he  only  confecrated  the  already  exifling  re- 
veries of  the  nayftic  lyftem/' 


252  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

Sect.  XI.      Budolfmy  or  religion   of  the 
In  the  fame  rank  muft  be  included  the 
promulgators  of  the  fepulchral  dodrlne  of 
the  Samaneans,  who,  on  the  balls  of  the  me- 
tempiychoiis,  raifed  the  mifanthropic  fyflem 
of  feif-renunciation  and  denial,  who,  laying 
it  down  as  a  principle,  that  the  body  is  only 
a  prifon  where  the  fool  lives  in  impure  con- 
finement; that  life  is  but  a  dream,  an  illu- 
lion,  and  the  world  a  place  of  paflage  to  an- 
otlier  country,  to  a  life  without  end;  placed 
virtue  and  perfection  in  abfolute  infenfibility, 
in  the  abnegation  of  phyfical  organs,  in  the 
annihilation  of  all  being:  whence  refulted  the 
fails,  penances,  macerations,  folitude,  con- 
templations, and  all  the  deplorable  pra(ftices 
cf  the  mad-headed  Anchorets/' 

Sect.  XII.  Braminijhy  or  the  Indian  Jyjiem. 

"  Finally,  of  the  fame  call  were  the 
founders  of  the  Indian  fyftem,  who,  refining 
.after  Zoroafter  upon  the  two  principles  of 
creation  and  deftrudtion,  introduced  an  inter- 
mediate one,  that  of  confervation,  and  upon 
jheir  trinity  in  unity,  of  Brama,  Chiven,  and 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        283 

Bichenou,  accumulated  a  multitude  of  tra- 
ditional allegories,  and  the  alembicated  fub- 
tleties  of  their  metaphyfics." 

*'  Thefe  are  the  materials  which,  fcatter- 
cd  through  Afia,  there  exifled  for  many  ages, 
when,  by  a  fortuitous  courfe  of  events  and 
circumftances,  new  combinations  of  them 
were  introduced  on  the  banks  of  the  Euphra- 
tes, and  on  the  fhores  of  the  Mediterranean*'* 

Sect.  XIIL  Chriftianttyy  or  the  allegorical 
worjhip  of  the  Sun,  under  the  cabalijlical 
names  of  Qn''ii  ^r  Christ,  ^W  Yes- 
us  (?r  Jesus. 

"In  conftitutinga  feparate  people,  Mofes 
had  vainly  imagined  that  he  fbould  guard 
them  irom  the  influence  of  every  foreiga 
idea  :  but  an  invincible  inclination,  founded 
on  affinity  of  origin,  continually  called  back 
:the  Hebrews  to  the  worfhip  of  the  neigh- 
bouring nations  ;  and  the  relations  of  com- 
merce that  neceflarilyfubfifted  between  them, 
Itended  every  day  to  flrengthen  the  propenfity. 
While  the  Mofaic  inftitution  maintained  its 
ground^  the  coercion  of  government  and  the 
Jaws^  wj^s  a  confiderable  Qbfta(;:le  to  the  inlet 

254  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

of  innovations ;  yet  even  t}ien  the  principal 
places  were  full  of  idols,  and  God  the  fun 
had  his  chariot  and  horfes  painted  in  the 
palaces  of  kings,  and  in  the  very  temple  of 
Yahoah :    but  when  the  conquers  of  the 
kings  of  Nineveh  and  Babylon  had  diffolved 
thp  bands  of  public  power,   the  people  left 
to  themfelves,  and  folicited  by  their  conque- 
rors, no  longer  kept  a  reflraint  on  their  in- 
clinations, and  profane  opinions  were  openly 
profeiTcd  in  Judea,     At  firft  the  AfTyriaq 
colonies,  placed  in  the  iituation  of  the  old 
tribes,  filled  the  kingdom  of  Samaria  with 
the  dogmas  of  |he  Magi,  which  foon  pene- 
trated into  Judea.      Afterwards  Jerufalem 
having  been  fubjugated,  the  Egyptians,  Sy- 
rians and  Arabs,  entering  this  open  country:^ 
introduced  their  tenets,  and  the  religion  of 
Mofes  thus  underwent  a  fecond  alteration. 
In  like  manner  the  priefts  and  great  men, 
removing  to  Babylon,  and  educated  in  the 
fcience  of  the  Chaldeans,  imbibed,  during  a 
refidcnce  of  feventy  years,  every  principle  of 
their  theology,   and  from  that  moment  the 
dogmas  of  the  evil  Genius  (Satan),  of  the 
archangel  Michael  (87),  of  the  Ancient  of 


HEVOtU'tlONS    OF    EMt>lRES.        ^85 

Days  (Ormu:^d>,  of  the  rebellious  angels,  the 
celeilial  combats,  the  immortality  of  the  foul, 
and  the  refurredlon,  dogmas  unknown  to 
Mofes,  or  rejeded  by  him,  fmce  he  obferves 
a  perfed:  filence  refpedting  them,  became 
naturalized  among  the  Jews. 

*'  On  their  return  to  their  country,  the 
emigrants  brought  back  with  them  thefe 
ideas  ',  and  at  firft  the  innovations  occafioned 
difputes  between  their  partifans,  the  Phari-* 
fees,  and  the  adherents  to  the  ancient  na- 
tional worfhip,  the  Sadducees :  but  the  for- 
mer, feconded  by  the  inclination  of  the  peo- 
ple, and  the  habits  they  had  already  con- 
traded,  and  fupported  by  the  authority  of 
the  Perfians,  their  deliverers,  finally  gained 
the  afcendancy,  and  the  theology  of  Zoro- 
after  was  confecrated  by  the  children  of 
Mofes  (88). 

*'  A  fortuitous  analogy  between  two  lead- 
ing ideas,  proved  particularly  favourable  to 
this  coalition,  and  formed  the  bafis  of  a  laft 
fyftem,  not  lefs  furpriling  in  its  fortune  than 
in  the  caufes  of  its  formation. 

''  From  the  time  that  the  Affyrians  had 
deflroyed  the  kingdom  of  Samaria,  fome  fa- 


286  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

gaciousfpirits  forefaw,  announced,  and  pre- 
dicted the  fame  fate  to  Jerufalem  :  and  all 
their  predictions  were  flamped  by  this  parti- 
cularity, that  they  always  concluded  with 
prayers  for  a  happy  re-eftabhlhment  andre- 
'- eneration,  which  were  in  like  manner  fpoken 
of  in  the  way  of  prophefies.  The  enthufiafm 
of  the  Hierophants  had  figured  a  royal  de- 
liverer, who  was  to  re-eftablifh  the  nation  in 
its  ancient  glory :  the  Hebrews  were  again  to 
become  a  powerful  and  conquering  people, 
and  Jerufalem  the  capital  of  an  empire  that 
was  to  extend  over  the  whole  world. 

"  Events  having  realized  the  firfl:  part  of 
thofe  predidions,  the  ruin  of  Jerufalem,  the 
people  clung  to  the  fecond  with  a  firmnefs 
of  belief  proportioned  to  their  misfortunes; 
and  the  afflidled  Jews  waited  with  the  im- 
patience of  want  and  of  defire  for  that  vidlo- 
rious  king  and  deliverer  that  was  to  come, 
in  order  to  fave  the  nation  of  Mofes,  and  re- 
ftore  the  throne  of  David. 

"  The  facred  and  mythological  traditions 

of  precedent  times  had  fpread  over  all  Afia  a. 

tenet  perfedtiy  analogous.    A  great  mediator, 

a  final  judge,  a  future  faviour,  was  fpoken  of, 

I  who. 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    El^PIRES.        287 

who,  as  king,  God,  and  vidlorious  legiflator, 
was  to  reftore  the  golden  age  upon  earth  (89), 
to  deliver  the  world  from  evil,  and  regain  for 
mankind  the  reign  of  good,  the  kingdom  of 
peace  and  happinefs.  Thefe  ideas  and  ex- 
prefTions  were  in  every  mouth,  and  they  con- 
foled  the  people  under  that  deplorable  ftate 
of  real  fuffering  into  which  they  had  been 
plunged  by  fucceffive  conqueils  and  con- 
querors, and  the  barbarous  defpotifm  of  their 
governments.  This  refemblance  between 
the  oracles  of  different  nations  and  the  pre- 
dictions of  the  prophets,  excited  the  attention 
of  the  Jews  ;  and  the  prophets  had  doubt- 
lefs  been  careful  to  infufe  into  their  pictures, 
the  fpirit  and  ftyle  of  the  facred  books  em- 
ployed in  the  Pagan  myfteries.  The  arri- 
val of  a  great  ambaffador,  of  a  final  faviour, 
was  therefore  the  general  expectation  in  Ju- 
dea,  when  at  length  a  Cngular  circumftance 
was  made  to  determine  the  precife  period 
of  his  coming. 

"  It  was  recorded  in  the  facred  books  of 
the  Perfians  and  the  Chaldeans,  that  the 
world,  compofed  of  a  total  revolution  of 
twelve  thoufand  periods,  was  divided  into 


288  A    SURVEY    OP    THE 

two  partial  revolutions,  of  which  one,  the 
age  and  reign  of  good,  was  to  terminate  at 
the  expiration  of  fix  thoufand,  and  the  other, 
the  age  arid  feign  of  evil,  at  the  expiration 
of  another  fix  thoufand. 

**  Their  firft  authors  had  meatnt  by  thefe 
recitals,   the  annual  revolut'on  of  the  great 
celeftialorb  (a  revolution  compofed  of  twelve 
months  or  figns  each  divided  into  a  thoufand 
parts),  and  the   two  fy Hematic  periods  of 
winter  and  fummer,  each  confi fling  equally 
of  fix  thoufand.    But  thefe  equivocal  cxpref- 
fions  having  been  erroneouily  explained j  and 
having  received  an  abfolute  and  moral,   in- 
ftead  of  their  aftrological  and  phyfical  fenfe, 
the  refult  was,  that  the  annual  was  taken 
for  a  fecular  world,  the  thoufand  periods  for 
a  thoufand  years  ^  and  judging,  from  the  ap- 
pearance of  things,    that  the   prefent  was 
the  age  of  misfoi tune,   they  inferred  that  it 
would  terminate  at  the  expiration  of  the  fix 
thoufand  pretended  years  (90). 

**  Now,  according  to  the  Jewifli  compu- 
tation, fix  thoufand  years  had  already  nearly 
elapfed  fmcc  the  fuppofed  creation  of  the 
world  (91).      This  coincidence   produced 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         289 

confiderable  fermentation  in  the  minds  of 
the  people.     Nothing  was  thought  of  but 
the  approaching  termination.     The  Hiero- 
phants  were  interrogated,  and  their  facred 
books  examined.     The  great  Mediator  and 
final  Judge  was  expeded,  and  his  advent  de- 
fired,  that  an  end  may  be  put  to  fo  many 
calamities.     This  was  fo  much  the  fubjecl 
of  converfation,  that  fome  one  was  faid  to 
have  feen  him,  and  a  rumour  of  this  kind 
was  all  that  was  wanting  to  eftablifh  a  ge- 
neral certainty.     The   popular  report   be- 
came a  demonftrated  fad;   the  imaginary 
being  was   realized;    and  all  the  circum- 
ftances  of  mythological  tradition   being  in 
fome  manner  conneded  with  this  phantom, 
the  refult  was  an  authentic  and  regular  hif- 
tory,  which   from  henceforth  it  was  blaf- 
phemy  to  doubt. 

**  In  this  mythological  hiftory  the  fol- 
lowing traditions  were  recorded  :  "  That, 

in  the  beginnings  a  man  aiid  a  wo?nan  had^ 

by  their  falU  brought  fm  and  ml  into  the 
\.  <.*  world''     (Examine  plate  II.) 

"  By  this  was  denoted  the  aftronomical 

fad  of  tlie  celeflial  Virgin,  and  the  herdfman 

i;  {Bootes) 


200  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

(Bootes)  who,  fetting  heliacally  at  the  au- 
tumnal equinox,  refigned  the  heavens  to  the 
wintry  conflellations,  and  feemed,  in  fink- 
ing below  the  horizon,  to  introduce  into 
the  world  the  genius  of  evil,  Ahrimanes, 
reprefented  by  the  conflellation  of  the  Ser- 
pent (92.) 

"  T^hat  the  woman  had  decoyed  and  Jednced 
*•  the  man  (93)-" 

"  And  in  reality,  the  Virgin  fetting  firil, 
appears  to  draw  the  Herdfinan  (Bootes) 
after  her.  '      - .     ^    .  ■ 

"  That  the  ijooman  had  tempted  him,  by 
"  offering  him  fruit  pleafant  to  the  Jight  and 
"  good  for  food,  which  ga^ce  the  knowledge  of 
**  good  and  evil!' 

"  Manifeilly  allnding  to  the  Virgin,  who 
is  depicted  holding  a  bunch  of  fruit  in  her 
hand,  wdiich  lliC  appears  to  extend  towards 
the  Herdfrnan  :  in  like  irjanner  the  branch, 
emblem  cf  autumn,  placed  in  the  picture  of 
Mithra  (94)  on  the  front  of  winter  and  fum« 
mer,  feems  to  open  the  door,  an.d  to  give  the 
knowledge,  the  key,  of  good  and  evil. 

«'  T^hat  this  couple  had  been  driven  from  the 

**  cclejlial_  garden,  arid  that  a  cherub  with  a 

■■  \  .  ':  '^  famifig, 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        201 

^^  jlamingfword  had  been  placed  at  the  door  to 
*'  guard  it  J* 

''  And  when  the  Virgin  and  the  Herdf- 
man  fink  below  the  \¥e{lern  horizon, 
Perfeus  rifes  on  the  oppofite  fide  ((y5), 
and  fword  in  hand,  this  Genius  may  be 
faid  to  drive  them  from  the  ilimmer  hea- 
ven, the  garden  and  reign  of  fruits  and 

'*  That  from  this  virgin  irould  be  born, 
''  would fpring  up  afjoot,  a  child,  that  Jhould 
"  crufo  the  jerpenfs  heady  a?id  deliver  the 
"  world  from  Jin,'' 

*'  By  this  was  denoted  the  Sun,  which, 
at  the  period  of  the  fummer  folftice,  at  the 
precife  moment  that  the  Perfian  Magi  drew 
the  horofcope  of  the  new  year,  found  itfelf 
in  the  bofom  of  the  Virgin,  and  v/hich,  on 
this  account,  was  reprefented  in  their  aftro- 
logical  pidures  in  the  form  of  an  infant 
fuckled  by  a  chafle  virgin  (96),  and  after- 
wards became,  at  the  vernal  equinox  the 
Ram  or  Lamb,  conqueror  of  the  conflella- 
tion  of  the  Serpent,  which  difappeared  from 
the  heavens. 

**  ^/hat  in  his  infancy^  this  reftorer  of  the 
U  2  "  divine 

2*92  ^    SURVEY    OF    THEf 

<*  divine  or  celejlial  ?2ature,  would  lead  a  mean^ 
*^  humble y  ohfciire  and  indigent  IHeT 

**  By  which  was  meant,  that  the  winter 
fun  was  humbled,  depreffed  below  the  ho*- 
rizon,  and  that  this  firft  period  of  his  four 
ages,  or  the  feaibns,  was  a  period  of  obfcu- 
rity  and  indigence,  of  falling  and  privation. 
**  T^hat  bei?2g  put  to  death  by  the  wicked,  he 
"  would  glorioujly  rife  again,  afcendfrom  hell 
**  into  heaven,  where  he  would  reign  for 
"  ever,'' 

"  By  thefe  expreffions  was  defcribed  the 
life  of  the  fame  Sun,  who,  terminating  his 
career  at  the  winter  folftice,  v/hen  Typhon 
and  the  rebellious  angels  exercifed  their 
'  fway,  feemed  to  be  put  to  death  by  them  j. 
but  fl^ortly  after  revived  and  rofe  again- 
(97)  in  the  firmament,  where  he  ftill  re- 

^*  Thefe  traditions  went  flill  fartJier,  fpe- 
Gifying  his  aftrological  and  myfterious  names, 
maintaining  that  he  was  called  fometimes 
Chris  or  Confervator  (98);  and  hence  the 
Hindoo  God,  Cb-is-en,  or  Chrijina-,  and  the 
Chriftian  Chris-tos^  the  fon  of  Mary.  That 
.   at  other  times  he  was  called  Tes,  by  the 


ilEVOLUTIONS   OF    EMPIRES.        293 

cinion  of  three  letters,  which,  according  to 
their  numerical  value,  form  the  number 
608,  one  of  the  folar  periods  (99).  And 
behold,  O  Europeans,  the  name  which,  with 
a  Latin  termination  has  become  your  Tes-us 
or  Jefus^  the  ancient  and  cabaliftical  name 
given  to  young  Bacchus,  the  clandeftine  fon 
of  the  virgin  Minerva,  who  in  the  whole 
hiftory  of  his  life,  and  even  in  his  death, 
calls  to  mind  the  hiRory  of  the  God  of  the 
Chriftians;  that  is,  the  ftar  of  day^  of  which 
they  are  both  of  them  emblems/* 

At  thefe  words  a  violent  murmur  arofe 
on  the  part  of  the  Chriftian  groupes ;  but 
the  Mahometans,  the  Lamas  and  the  Hin- 
doos having  called  them  to  order,  the  orator 
thus  concluded  his  difcourfe. 

**  You  ar£  not  to  be  told,"  faid  he,  *'  in 
what  manner  the  rcO:  of  this  fyftem  was 
formed  in  the  chaos  and  anarchy  of  the  three 
firft  centuries ;  hov/  a  multiplicity  of  opi- 
nions divided  the  people,  all  of  which  were 
-embraced  with  equal  zeal  and  retained  v/ith 
equal  obftinacy,  becaufe  alike  founded  on 
ancient  tradition,  thev  were  ^iike  facred. 
You^know  how,  at  the  end  of  three  centu- 

U  3  ries, 

294  ^    SURVEY    OF     THE 

taries,  government  having  eipouled  one  of 
thefe  kdiSy  made  it  the  orthodox  religion  ^ 
that  is  to  fay,  the  predominant  religion,  to 
the  exclufion  of  the  refr,  which,  on  account 
of  their  inferiority,  were  denominated  here- 
fies ;  how.  and  by  what  means  of  violence 
and  feduction  this  religion  v/as  propagated 
and  gained  fbrength,  and  afterwards  became 
divided  and  weakened ;  how,  fix  centuries 
after  the  innovation  of  Chrillianity,  another 
fyflem  was  formicd  out  of  its  materials  and 
thofe  of  the  Jews,  and  a  political  and  theo- 
logical empire  was  created  by  Mahomet  at 
the  expence  of  that  of  Pvloles  and  the  vicars 
of  Jefiis.  -    ' 

**  Now,  if  you  take  a  retrofped  of  the 
whole  hifrory  of  the  fpirit  of  religion,  you 
will  f  nd,  that  in  its  origin  it  had  no  other 
author  than  the  fenfaticns  and  wants  of 
man  :  that  the  idea  of  God  had  no  other 
type,  no  ether  model,  than  that  of  phyiical 
powers,  material  exiflenccs,  operating  good 
or  evil,  by  impreffions  of  pleafure  or  pain  on 
fenfible  beings.  You  will  find  that  in  the 
formation  of  every  fyitem,  this  fpirit  of  reli- 
gion purfued  the  fame  track,  and  was  uni- 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRFS.         295 

form  in  its  proceedings ;  that  in  all,  the 
dogma  never  failed  to  reprefent,  under  the 
name  God,  the  operations  of  nature,  and  the 
paffions  and  preiudices  of  men  ;  that  in  all, 
morality  had  fcr  its  fole  end,  defire  of  hap- 
pinefs  and  averiion  to  pain ;  but  that  the 
people  and  the  majority  of  leglflators,  igno- 
rant of  the  true  road  that  led  thereto,  in- 
vented falfe,  and  therefore  contrary  ideas 
of  virtue  and  vice,  of  good  and  evil ;  that 
is,  of  what  renders  man  happy  or  miferable. 
You  will  find,  that  in  all,  the  means  and 
caufes  of  propagation  and  eftablifhment  ex- 
hibited the  fame  fccnes,  the  fame  paflion?, 
and  the  fame  events,  continual  difputes  about 
words,  falfe  pretexts  for  inordinate  zeal,  for 
revolutions,  for  wars,  lighted  up  by  the  am- 
bition of  chiefs,  by  the  chicanery  of  pro- 
mulgators, by  the  credulity  of  profelytes,  by 
the  ignorance  of  the  vulgar,  and  by  the 
grafping  cupidity  and  the  intolerant  pride  of 
all.  In  fhort,  you  will  find  that  the  whole 
liiftory  of  the  fpirit  of  religion,  is  merely  that 
of  the  fallibility  and  uncertainty  of  the  hu- 
man mind,  which,  placed  in  a  world  that  it 
does  not  comprehend,  is  yet  defirous  of  folv- 
U  4  ing 

296  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

ing  the  enigma ;  and  which,  the  aftonifhed 
fpedator  of  this  myilerlous  and  vifible  pro- 
digy, invents  caufes,  fuppofes  ends,  builds 
fyftems  ;  then,  finding  one  defedlive,  aban- 
dons it  for  another  not  lefs  vicious ;  hates 
the  error  that  it  has  renounced,  is  ignorant 
of  the  new  one  that  it  adopts ;  rejeds  the 
truth  of  which  it  is  in  purfuit,  invents  chi- 
meras of .  heterogeneous  and  contradictory 
beings,  and,  ever  dreaming  of  wifdom  and 
happinefs,  lofes  itfelf  in  a  labyrinth  of  tor- 
ments and  illufions,"' 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES,         297 

jilMd  of  all  religions  the  same. 

i  Hus  fpoke  the  orator,  in  the  name  of 
thofe  who  had  made  the  origin  and  genea- 
logy of  religious  ideas  their  peculiar  ftudy. 

The  theologians  of  the  different  iyftems 
now  exprelTed  their  opinions  of  thisdifcourfe, 
*'  It  is  an  impious  reprefentation/'  faid  fome, 
**  which  aims  at  nothing  lefs  than  the  fub- 
**  veriion  of  all  belief,  the  introducing  in- 
^*  fubordination  into  the  minds  of  men,  and 
'^  annihilating  our  power  and  miniftry." — 
**  It  is  a  romance,^'  faid  others,  *'  a  tifTue  of 
^*  conjedures,  fabricated  with  art,  but  defli- 
*^  tute  of  foundation." — The  moderate  and 
prudent  faid,  "  Suppofing  all  this  to  be  true, 
**  where  is  the  ufe  of  revealing  thefe  myfte- 
^*  ries?  Our  opinions  are  doubtlefs  pervaded 
•"  with  errors,  but  thofe  errors  are  a  necef- 
^^  fary  curb  on  the  multitude.  The  world 
^*  has  gone  on  thus  for  two  thoufand  years; 
^*  why  fiiould  we  now  alter  its  courfe  ?'* 
3  -     The 

298  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

The  murmur  of  difapprobation,  which 
never  fails  to  arife  againfl  every  kind  of  in- 
novation, already  began  to  increafe,  when  a 
numerous  groupe  of  plebeians  and  untaught 
men  of  every  country  and  nation,  without 
prophets,  without  dodiors,  without  religious 
worlhip,  advancing  in  the  fand,  attra6ted  the 
attention  of  the  whole  afiembly;  and  one  of 
them,  addreiling  himfelf  to  the  legiQators, 
fpoke  as  follows : 

'*  Mediators  and  umpires  of  nations !  The 
flrange  recitals  that  have  been  made  during 
the  whole  of  the  prefent  debate,  we  never 
till  this  day  heard  of;  and  our  underftand- 
ing,  ailcniil.ed  and  bewildered  at  fuch  a 
multitude  of  doclrincs,  fome  of  them  learn- 
ed, others  abfurd,  and  all  unintelligible,  re- 
mains in  doubt  and  uncertainty.  One  re- 
iiedion  however  has  ilruck  us :  in  reviewing 
fo  many  prodigious  facts,  fo  many  contra- 
didlory  aifertions,  we  could  not  avoid  allying 
curfelves.  Of  what  importance  to  us  are  all 
thefe  difcufiions  ?  Where  is  the  neceffity 
of  our  knowing  what  happened  five  or  fix 
thoufand  years  ago,  in  countries  of  which 
we  are  ignorant,  among  men  who  will  ever 



REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        299 

be  unknown  to  us  ?  True  or  falfe,  of  what 
importanc©  is  it  to  us  to  know  whether  the 
world  has  exifted  fix  thoufand  years  or 
twenty  thoufand;  whether  it  was  made  of 
fomething  or  of  nothing  -,  of  itfclf,  or  by  an 
-  artificer,  equally  in  his  turn  requiring  an  au- 
thor ?  What  1  uncertain  as  we  are  of  what 
is  palling  around  us,  fliall  we  pretend  to  af~ 
certain  what  is  tranfadting  in  the  fan,  the 
moon,  and  imaginary  fpaces  ?  Having  for- 
gotten our  own  infancy,  ihall  we  pretend  to 
know  the  infancy  of  the  world  ?  Who  can 
attefl:  what  he  has  never  feen  ?  Who  can 
certify  the  truth  of  what  no  one  compre- 
hends ? 

*'  Befide,  what  will  it  avail  as  to  our  ex- 
igence, whether  we  believe  or  rejedl  thefe 
chimeras  ?  Hitherto  neither  our  fathers  nor 
ourfelves  have  had  any  idea  of  them,  and  yet 
we  do  not  perceive  that  on  that  account  we 
have  experienced  more  or  lefs  fun,  more  or 
iefs  fubliftence,  more  or  lefs  good  or  evil. 

*'  If  the  knowledge  of  thefe  things  be 
necefTary,  how  is  it  that  we  have  lived  as 
happily  without  it  as  thofe  whom  it  has  fo 
much  difquieted  ?  If  it  be  fuperfluous,  v/hy 
Should  we  now  take  upon  ourfelves  the  bur- 

thea  ?" 

-00  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

then?" — Then  addrefTing^himfelf  to  the 
dorters  and  theologians  :  **  How  can  it  be 
required  of  us,  poor  and  ignorant  as  we  are, 
v/hofj  every  moment  is  fcarcely  adequate  to 
the  cares  of  our  fabfii"i:ence  and  the  labours 
of  v/hich  you  reap  the  profit ;  how  can  it 
be  required  of  us  to  be  verfed  in  the  nume- 
rous hiilories  you  have  related,  to  read  the 
variety  of  books  which  you  have  quoted, 
and  to  learn  the  different  languages  in 
v/hich  they  are  written  ?  li  our  lives  v/ere 
protradted  to  a  thouiand  years,  fcarcely 
would  it  be  fufficient  for  this  purpofe." 

"  It  is  not  neceffary,"  faid  the  doctors, 
'*'  that  you  ihould  acquire  all  this  fcience  : 
we  poifefs  it  in  your  ftead." 

*^  Meanwhile,"  replied  thefe  children  of 
fimplicity,  "  with  all  your  fcience,  do  you 
ao-ree  amono^  vourfelves  ?  What  then  is  its 
utility  ?  Belides,  how  can  you  anfwer  for 
us  ?  If  the  faith  of  one  man  may  be  the 
fubftitute  of  the  faith  of  many,  what  need 
was  there  that  you  ihould  believe  ?  Your 
fathers  might  believe  for  you  ;  and  that 
would  have  been  the  more  reafonable,  fince 
they  v/e;-e  the  eye-witneffes  upon  whofe 
credit  you  depend.  Laftly,  what  is  this 
•  .  ,  circumflance 

KEVOL0TIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        30I 

circumftance  which  you  call  behef  if  it  has 
no  pradlical  tendency  ?  And  what  practical 
tendency  can  you  dlicover  in  this  queftion> 
whether  the  world  be  eternal  or  no  ?'* 

"  To  beheve  wrong  refpeding  it  would 
be  offenfive  to  God/'  laid  the  dodlors. 

'^  How  do  you  know  that  ?"  cried  the 
children  of  limplicity  ? 

**  From  our  fcriptures/'  replied  the  doc- 

'^  We  do  not  undeffland  them/'  rejoined 
the  iimple  men. 

"  We  underftand  them  for  you,''  faid  the 

"  There  lies  the  difficulty,"  refumed  the 
iimple  men.  ''  By  what  right  have  you  ap- 
pointed yourfelves  mediators  between  God 
and  us  ?" 

"  By  the  command  of  God,"  faid  the 

"  Give  us  the  proof  of  that  command,'* 
faid  the  iimple  men. 

"  It  is  in  our  fcriptures/'  fyid  the  dodlors* 

**  We  do  not  underftand  them/'  anfwered 
the  iimple  men;  nor  can  we  underftand 
how  a  juft  God  can  place  you  over  oar 
heads.  V/hy  does  our  comm-on  Father  re- 

202  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

quire  us  to  believe  the  fame  propofitions 
with  a  lefs  degree  of  evidence  ?  He  has 
fpoken  to  you  -,  be  it  fo  ;  he  is  infallible,  he 
cannot  deceive  you.  But  we  are  fpoken  to 
by  you ;  and  who  will  affure  us  that  you  are 
not  deceived,  or  that  you  are  incapable  of 
deceiving  ?  If  we  are  iniflaken,  how  can  it 
confifl  with  the  juilice  of  God,  to  condemn 
us  for  the  ne.q;le(fl  of  a  rule  with  which  we 
were  never  acquainted  ?" 

*^  He  has  given  you  the  law  of  nature/* 
faid  the  dehors. 

"  What  is  the  law  of  nature  ?"  faid  the 
iimple  men.  "  If  this  law  be  fufficient,  why 
does  he  give  us  another  ?  If  it  be  infuffi- 
cient,  why  did  he  give  us  that  ?'* 

"The  judgments  of  God,"  replied  the  doc- 
tors, ^'  are  myfterious  ;  his  juftice  is  not  re- 
trained by  the  rules  of  human  juilice." 

**  If  juftice  with  him  and  with  us,"  faid 
the  iimple  men,  "  m.ean  a  different  thing, 
what  criterion  can  we  have  to  judge  of  his 
juftice  ?  And  once  more,  to  what  purpofe 
all  thefe  laws  ?  What  end  does  he  propofe 
by  them  ?" 

"  To  render  you  more  happy,"  replied  a 
dodor, "  by  rendering  you  better  and  more 



virtuous.  God  has  manifefted  himfelf  by 
fo  many  oracles  and  prodigies  to  teach  man- 
kind the  proper  ufe  of  his  benefits,  and  to 
diffliade  them  from  injuring  each  other/* 

"  If  that  be  the  cafe,"  faid  the  fimple 
men,  "  the  fludies  and  reafonings  you  told  us 
of  are  unneceffary  :  wq  want  nothing  but 
to  have  it  clearly  made  out  to  us,  which  is 
the  religion  that  beft  fulfils  the  end  that  ail 
propofe  to  themfelves." 

Inftantly,  every  groupe  boafling  of  the 
fuperior  excellence  of  its  morality,  there  arole 
among  the  partifans  of  the  different  lyftems 
of  worfhip,  a  new  difpute  more  violent  than 
any  preceding  one.  "  Ours,"  faid  the  ?/Ia- 
hometans,  "  is  the  purefl:  morality,  which 
teaches  every  virtue  ufeful  to  men  and  ac- 
ceptable to  God.  We  profefs  juftice,  difin- 
tereftednefs,  refignation,  charity,  almfgiving, 
and  devotion.  We  torment  not  the  foul 
with  fuperftitious  fears ;  we  live  free  from 
alarm,  and  we  die  without  remorfe/' 

"  And  have  you  the  prefumption,"  replied 
the  Chriftian  priefts,  "  to  talk  of  morality  ; 
youwhofe  chief  has  pra6tifed  licentioufnefs, 
and  preached  dodrines  that  are  a  fcandal 
to  all  purity,  and  the  leading  principle  of 


304.  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

whofe  religion  is  homicide  and  war.  For 
the  truth  of  this  we  appeal  to  experience. 
For  twelve  centuries  pafl:  your  fanaticifm 
has  never  ceafed  to  Ipread  defolation  and 
carnage  through  the  nations  of  the  earth  ; 
and  that  Afia,  once  fo  fiourifhing,  now 
languifhes  in  iniigniticance  and  barbarifm, 
is  afcribable  to  your  dodinnc ;  to  that  doc- 
trine, the  friend  of  ignorance,  the  enemy 
of  all  infl:ra6lion,  which,  on  the  one  hand, 
confecrating  the  moil  ab folate  defpotifm 
in  him  who  commands,  and  on  the  other, 
impofing  the  moil  blind  and  pailive  obe- 
dience on  thofe  who  are  governed,  has  be- 
numbed all  the  faculties  of  man,  and  plung- 
ed nations  in  a  flate  of  brutality. 

**  How  different  is  the  cafe  with  our  fublime 
and  celeftial  morality  !  iLis-ihe  that  drew 
the  earth  from  its  primitive  barbarity,  from 
the  abfurd  and  cruel  fuperftitions  of  idolatry, 
from  human  facrifices  (100),  and  the  orgies 
of  Pagan  myftery:  it  is  (he  that  has  purified 
the  manners  of  men,  profcribed  inceil  and 
adultery,  poliilied  favage  nations,  aboliflied 
ilavery,  introduced  new  and  unknown  virtues 
to  the  world,  univerfal  charity,  the  equality 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         70Z 

of  mankind  in  the  eyes  of  God,  forgivenefs 
and*  forgetfalnefs  of  injuries,  extinction  of 
tlie  paiiions,  contempt  of  worldly  greatnefs, 
and,  in  (l^iort,  taught  the  necellity  of  a  life 
perfectly  holy  and  fpiritual." 

^^  We  admire,"  faid  the  Mahometans, 
•^^  the  eafe  with  which  you  can  reconcile  that 
^evangelical  charity  and  meeknefs  of  which 
you  fo  much  boall:,  with  the  injuries  and 
"outrages  that  you  are  continually  exercifing 
towards  your  neighbour.  When  you  crimi- 
nate with  fo  little  ceremony  the  morals  of  the 
great  charader  revered  by  us,  we  have  a  fair 
opportunity  of  retorting  upon  you  in  the 
condud:  of  himi  whom  you  adore:  but  we  dif- 
dain  fuch  advantages,  and,  confining ourfelves 
to  the  real  objed:  of  the  queflioa,  we  main- 
tain, that  your  gofpel  moi-ality  is  by  no  means 
charadlerifed  by  the  perfedlion  v/hich  you 
afcribe  to  it.  It  is  not  true,  that  it  has  in- 
troduced into  the  world  new  and  unknown 
virtues  :  for  example,  the  equality  of  man- 
kind in  the  eyes  of  God,  and  the  fraternity 
and  benevolence  which  are  the  confequence 
of  this  equality,  were  tenets  formerly  pro- 
fefTed  by  the  fed  of  Hermetics  and  Sama- 
X  ne.ans 

3C6  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

jieans  (loi),  from  whom  you  have  your 
defcent.  As  to  forgiveiiefs  of  injuries,  it 
had  been  tiught  by  the  Pagans  themfelves  ^ 
but  in  the  latitude  you  give  to  it,  it  ceafes  to 
be  a  virtue,  and  bccom.cs  an  immoFality  and 
a  crime.  Your  boafied  precept,  to  him  that 
Jfrikcs  thee  en  thy  right  checlz  turn  the  other 
aijo,  is  not  only  contrary  to  the  feehngs  of 
man,  but  a  flagrant  violation  of  every  prin- 
liple  of  juilice  ;  it  emboldens  the  wicked  hj 
impunity,  dc^grades  the  vij-tuous  by  the  ier- 
vih'ty  to  v/Iiich  it  fubjed"S  them ;  delivers  up 
the  Vv'or'd.  to  diforder  and  tyranny,  and  dif- 
f  dves  the  bands  of  fuciety  :  fuch  is  the  t^ruc 
ipirit  of  your  doctrine.  The  precepts  and 
parables  of  your  goipel  alio  never  repreient 
God  other  than  as  a  defpot,  a<?dng  by  no 
ride  of  ec;uiiv;  th;^]T  as  a  partial  fither, 
treating  a  debauched  and  prodigal  Ion  with 
greater  favour  lii-^n  his  obedient  and  virtuous 
children  ;  than  as  a  capricious  miafler,  giving 
the  f?.me  v/ages  to  liim.  who  has  wrought  but 
one  hour,  as  to  ti^ofe  who  have  borne  the 
burthen  and  heat  of  the  day,  and  preferring 
the  lail:  comers  to  the  fee'i^,'  In  fhort,  your 
morality  throughout  is  unfrrendly. to  hunian-r 


REVOLUTIONS    OF     EMPIRES.       ..?07 

•J    / 

ifitercourle,a  code  of  mifanthropy,  calculated 
to  give  men  a  difguO:  for  life  and  fociety,  and 
attach  them  to  folitude  and  celibacy. 

*'  With  refpedt  to  the  manner  in  which 

you  have  pradiifed  your  boafted  docflrine,  we 

in  our  turn  appeal  to  the  teflimony  of  fad:, 

and  afk  :  Was  it  your  evancrellcal  meeknefs 

and  forbearance  v/hich  excited  thofe  endlefs 

wars  your  fedaries,  thofe  atrocious 

perfecutioRS  of  vvhat    you  called   heretics, 

thofe  cruiades  againfl  the  Arians,  the  Mani- 

cheans  and  the  Protefrants;  not  to  mention 

thofe  which  you  have  committed  againfl  us, 

nor  the  iacrilei^ious  affociatlons  ilillfubfiftin^ 

among  you,  formacd  of  m.en  who  have  fworn 

to  perpetuate  them  *  ?    Was  it  the  charity 

of  your  gofpel   that  led  you  to  exterminate 

whole  nations  in  Am^erica,  and  to  deftroy  the 

Gmpires  of  Mexico  and  Peru ;  that  makes 

you  ftill  defolate  Africa,   the  inhabitants  of 

which  you  fell  like  cattle,   notwithftanding 

the  abolition  of  ilavery  that  you  pretend  your 

religion  has  cffeded;  that  makes  you  ravage 

*  The  Oath  taken  by  the  Knights  of  the  Order  of 

^lalta,  is  to  kill,  or  make  the  Mahometaris  prifoners,  for 
the  gloi^^  of  God. 

X  2  India 

208  A    SVRVEY    OF    THE 

India  whofe  domains  you  uilirp;  in  iliort,  is 
it  charity  that  has  promptsd  you  for  three- 
centuries  paiL  to  difturb  the  peaceable  inha- 
bitants of  three  continents,  the  moft  prudent 
of  whom,  thofe  of  Japan  and  China,  have 
been  conftrained  to  baniili  you  from  their 
country,  that  they  might  efcape  your  chains 
and  recover  their  domeflic  tranquillity  V 

Here  the  Bramins,  the  Rabbins,  the  Bonzes, 
the  Chamans,  the  prief^s  of  the  Molucca 
lilands  and  of  the  coaft  of  Guinea,  over- 
whelming the  Chriflian  do6lors  with  re- 
proaches, cried:  *' Ye?,  thefe  men  are  rob- 
bers and  hypocrites,  preaching  nmplicity  to 
enveigle  confidence;  humility,  the  more  eafy 
to  enfiave;  poverty,  in  order  to  appropriate  all 
riches  to  themiielves;  they  promife  another 
world  the  better  to  invade  this  ;  and,  while 
they  preach  toleration  and  charity,  they 
commit  to  the  ilamcs,  in  tliC  name  of  God, 
thofe  who  do  not  worfliip  him  exactly  as 
they  do/' 

•*  Lying  pritils"  retoi  ted  the  miffionaries, 
'*  it  is  ycu  v/lio  abuie  the  credulity  of  igno- 
rant nations,  that  you  may  bend  them  to 
your  yoke :  your  miniftry  is  the  art  of  inipaf- 


ture  and  deception  :  you  have  made  religion 
a  iyilem  of  avarice  and  cupidity  :  you  feign 
to  have  correfpondence  with  fpirits,  and  the 
oracles  they  iliue  are  your  own  w^ills;  you  pre- 
tend to  read  the  ftars,  and  your  deiires  only  are 
what  deftiny  decrees :  you  make  idols  fpeak, 
and  the  Gods  are  the  mere  inflruments  of 
your  paffions  :  you  have  invented  facrifices 
and  libations  for  the  fake  of  the  profit  you 
would  thus  derive  from  the  milk  of  the 
flocks,  and  the  flefla  and  fat  of  victims  ^  and 
under  the  cloak  of  piety  you  devour  the  of- 
ferings made  to  Gods  v/lio  cannot  eat,  and 
the  fubftance  of  the  people,  obtained  by  in- 
duftry  and  toil." 

*' And  you,"  replied  the  Bramins,  the  Bon- 
zes, and  the  Chamans,  '^  fell  to  the  credulous 
fur\^ivor  vain  prayers  for  the  fouls  of  his  dead 
relatives.  With  your  indulgences  and  abfo- 
lutions  3^ou  have  arrogated  to  yourfelves  the 
power  and  fundions  of  God  himfelf:  and 
making  a  traffic  of  his  grace,  you  have  put 
heaven  up  to  au^flion,  and  have  founded,  by 
your  fyftem  of  expiation,  a  tariff  of  crimes 
that  has  perverted  the  confcieaces  of  mea 


-^lO  A     SURVEY    OF     THE 

"  Add  to  this,"  faid  the  Imans,  "  that  with 
thefe  men  has  originated  the  mo/l  infidious. 
of  ail  wicked nefs 5  the  abfurd  and  impious 
obHgation  of  recounting  to  them  the  ivjAi 
impenetrable  fecrets  of  adlions,  of  thoughts, 
(ji'iidUiicSy  (confeiiicn';  -,  by  ixieans  of  which 
their  infoleiit  curionty  has  carried  its  inqui- 
fition  even  to  the  facred  fanduary  of  ihe 
nuptial  bed  (103),  and  the  inviolable  afyliun 
of  the  heart.'* 

Ey  thus  reproaching  each  other,  the  chiefs 
ofthedittbrent  vvoi-Qiips  revealedall  the  crimes 
of  their  miniilry,  all  the  hidden  vices  oi  their 
profeflicn,  and  U  cipnearcd  thai  the  fpirit,  the 
fyfiem  of  conduct,  uie  adiions  and  manners 
ofprieih  were,  among  all  nations,  uniformly 
the  lame:  tha;,  every  wiiere  they  had  formed 
fecretanbciatloriC.rurporations  of  individuals, 
enemies  to  me  refc  or  the  fociety  (104)  :  — 
that  they' h.-d  attributed  to  themfclves  ccr-- 
tain  prerogatives  and  imn amities,  in  order  to 
be  exempt  from  the  binlhens  "-Inch fell  up- 
on the  otL'.r  dalles  : — that  they  ihared  nei- 
ther the  toil  of  the  labourer,  nor  tlie  perils 
of  the  foldier,  nor  tbe  viciflitudes  of  the 
merchant: — that  they  \^(i  a  life  of  cchbacy, 


Hevolutigns  of  empires.  311 
to  avoid  domeftic  inconveniences  and  cares  : 
— that,  under  the  garb  of  poverty,  they  found 
the  fecret  of  becoming  rich,  and  of  procuring 
every  enjoyment: — that  under  the  name  of 
mendicants,  theycolleded  impoftsmore  con- 
iiderable  than  thofe  paid  to  princes :-— that 
under  the  appellation  of  gifts  and  offerings, 
they  obtained  a  certain  revenue  unaccompa- 
nied Vvdth  trouble  or  expence : — that  upon 
the  pretext  of  feclulion  and  devotion,  they 
lived  in  indolence  and  licentioufnefs  :  — • 
that  they  had  made  alms  a  virtue,  that  they 
plight  fubfifl  in  comfort  upon  the  labour  of 
other  men: — that  they  had  invented  the  ce- 
remonies of  worfliip  to  attradt  the  reverence 
of  the  people,  calling  themfelves  the  medi- 
lators  and  interpreters  of  the  Gods,  with  the 
fole  viev/  of  aliuming  all  his  power ;  and  that 
for  this  purpofe,  according  to  the  know^ledge 
or  ignorance  of  thofe  upon  whom  they  had 
to  work,  they  made  themfelves,  by  turns, 
aftrologers,  carters  of  planets,  augurers,  ma- 
gicians (106),  necromancers,  quacks,  cour- 
tiers,  confeffors  of  princes,  always  aiming  at 
influence  for  their  own  exclufive  advantage: 
—that  fometimes  they  had  exalted  the  pre- 

X  4  rogative 

212  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

rogative  of  kings,  and  held  their  perfons  to  be 
facred,  to  obtain  their  favour  or  participate  in 
their  power : — that  at  others  they  had  de- 
cried this  dodrine  and  preached  the  murder 
of  tyrants  (referving  it  to  themfelves  to  fpe- 
cify  the  tyranny),  in  order  to  be  reveijgedof 
the  flights  and  d'fjbedience  they  had  expe- 
rienced from  them:-- -that  at  all  times  they 
had  called  by  the  name  of  im  oiety  wha  t  prov- 
ed injurious  to  their  interefc ;  had  oppofed 
public  in  ft  ruction,  that  they  might  miOncpo- 
lize  icicnce;  and^  in  iliort,  had  univerfally 
found  the   fecret  of  living   in   tranquillity 
amid  ft  the  anarchy  they  occalioned  ;  fecure, 
under  the  defpotifm  they  fanclioned ;  rn  indo- 
lence, amidft'the  induftry  they  recommend- 
ed; and  in  abundance,  in  the  very  bofom  of 
fcarcity;  and  all  this,  by  carrying  on  thefmgu- 
lar  com.merce  of  felling  words  and  geftures 
to  the  credulous,  v/ho  paid  for  them  as  for 
commodities  of  the  greateft  value  (107). 

Then  the  people,  feized  with  fury,  were 
upon  the  poLnt  of  tearing  to  pieces  the  men 
Vv'ho  had  deceived  them  ;  but  the  legiflators, 
arrefting  this  fally  of  violence,  and  addreiTing 
the  chiefs  and  dodtors,  faid:  '^i^^nd  is  it  thus, 

O  in- 


O  inftitutors  of  the  people,  that  you  have 
mided  and  abufed  them  ?'' 

And  the  terrified  priefls  replied:  ^^  O  legif- 
ktors,  we  are  men,  and  the  people  are  fo 
fuperflitious  !  their  weaknefs  excited  us  to 
take  advantage  of  it  *.'' 

And  the  kings  faid :  ''  O  legiflators,  the 
people  are  fo  fervile  and  fo  ignorant  !  they 
have  proilrated  themfelves  before  the  yoke 
which  we  fcarcely  had  the  boldnefs  to  Caow 
to  them  -j-.'* 

Then  tlie  legiflators,  turning  towards  the 
people,  faid  to  them : ''  Remember  what  you 
have  juft  heard;  it  contains  two  important 
truths.  Yes,  it  isyourfelves  that  caufe  the 
evils  of  which  you  complain  ;  it  is  you  that 
encourage  tyrants  by  a  bafe  flattery  of  their 
power,  by  an  abfurd  admiration  of  their  pre- 
tended beneficence,  by  converting  obedience 
into  fervihty,  and  liberty  into  licentioufnefs, 
and  receiving  every  impofi tion  with  credulity, 

*  Confider  in  this  view  the  Brabanters. 

t  The  inhabitants  of  Vienna,  for  example,  who  har- 
neiTed  themfelves  like  cattle,  and  drew  the  chariot  of 


314  -^    SURVEY    OF    THE 

Can  you  think  of  punching  upon  them  the 
errors  of  your  own  ignorance  and  fclfiili- 
pefs  ?" 

And  the  people,  fmitten  with  confulion, 
^remained  in  a  melancholy  filence. 

i  '.I .-  -  ■' 
xrcv, : : 

1-    • 

C  II  A  P. 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES,         3I5 

CHAP.      XXIV, 



i  HE  leg-iilators  then  refumed  their  addrefs. 
?*  O  nations  1"  faid  they,  "  we  have  heard  the 
dlfculiion  of  your  opinions;  and  the  difcord 
that  divides  you  has  fuggeiled  to  us  various 
refledlions,  which  we  beg  leave  to  propoie 
to  you  as  queilions  v/hich  it  is  neceflary  you 
fliould  folve. 

"  Gonlidering,  in  the  firR-  place,  the  nu- 
merous and  contradictory  creeds  you  have 
adopt'cd,  we  would  a&  on  what  motives 
your  perfualion  is  founded  ?  Is  it  from 
deliberate  choice  that  you  have  enhfted 
under  the  banners  of  one  prophet  rather 
than  under  thofe  of  another  ?  Before  you 
adopted  this  dodlrine  in  preference  to  that, 
did  you  fird  compare,  did  you  maturely  ex- 
amine them  ?  Or  has  not  your  belief  been 
rather  the  chance  refult  of  birth,  and  of  the 
empire  of  education  and  habit?    Are  you 


il6  A    SURVEY    OF     THE 

not  born  Chrillians  on  the  banks  of  the 
Tiber,  Mahometans  on  thofe  of  the  Eu- 
phrateSs  Idolaters  on  the  iliores  of  India,  in 
the  fame  manner  as  you  are  born  fair  in 
cold  and  temperate  regions,  and  of  a  fable 
complexion  under  the  African  fun  !  And  if 
your  opinions  are  the  effedl  of  your  poll  don 
on  the  globe,  of  parentage,  of  imitadon,  are 
fuch  fortuitous  circumitances  to  be  regard- 
ed as  grounds  of  convidiion  and  arguments 
of  truth  ? 

*'  In  the  fecond  place,  wlien  we  relied: 
on  the  profcriptive  fpirit  and  the  arbitrary 
intolerance  of  your  mutual  claims,  we  are 
terriiied  at  the  confequences  that  flow  from 
your  principles.  Nations  !  who  reciprocally 
doom  each  other  to  the  thunder-bolts  of 
celeftial  v/rath,  fuppofe  the  univerfal  Being, 
whom  you  revere,  v/ere  at  this  njoment  to 
defcend  from  heaven  among  this  crowd  of 
people,  and,  clothed  in  all  his  power,  were 
to  fit  upon  this  throne  to  judge  you  :  fuppofe 
bim  to  fay—"  Mortals  1  I  confent  to  adopt 
^*  your  own  principles  of  juftice  into  my  ad- 
**  minidration.  Of  all  the  different  reli- 
*'  gions  you  profefs,  a  fingle  religion  fliall 
.  ■   '  **  now 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         317 

''  now  be  preferred  to  the  refl;  all  the  others, 
*'  this  vaft  multitude  of  ftandards,  of  nations, 
^«  of  prophets,  fhall  be  condemned  to  ever- 
«'  lafting  defcrudlicn.  Nor  is  this  enough  : 
*^  amonp-  the  different  fedls  of  the  chcfen  re- 
''  ligion  one  only  {l;all  experience  my  favour, 
*^  and  the  reft  be  condemned.  I  will  go 
^'  farther  than  this  :  of  this  fmgle  fed  of 
*^  this  one  religion,  I  will  reje(fl  all  the  in- 
*'  dividuals  whofe  conduct  has  not  corre- 
*'  fponded  to  their  fpeculative  precepts.  O 
*'  man  !  few  indeed  will  then  be  the  number 
"  of  the  eled:  you  affign  me  !  Penurious 
*^  hereafter  will  be  the  ftream  of  beneficence 
*'  which  will  fucceed  to  my  unbounded 
*'  mercy  ?  Rare  and  folitary  will  be  the  ca- 
"  talogue  of  admirers  that  you  henceforth 
*'  deftine  to  my  greatnefs  and  my  glory." 

And  the  legiflators  ariiing  faid :  *'  It  is 
enough  ;  you  have  pronounced  your  w'ill. 
Ye  nations,  behold  the  urn  in  which  your 
names  fhall  be  placed;  one  fmgle  name  Ihall 
be  drawn  from  the  multitude  ;  approach  and 
conclude  this  terrible  lottery/' — Butthe  peo- 
ple, feized  with  terror^  cried  :  ''  No,,  no)  we 
are  brethren  and  equals,  v/e  cannot  confent 


*;i8  A    SURVF.Y    OF    THE 

-to  condemn  each  other." — Then  the  legif- 
lators  having  refumed  their  feats,  continued : 
<^  O  men  !  who  difpute  upon  lb  many  fub- 
ie^LS,  lend  an  attentive  ear  to  a  problem  we 
lubmit  to  you,  and  decide  it  in  the  exercife 
of  your  own  judgments." — The  people  ac- 
cordingly lent  the  flrideil:  attentions  and  tl>e 
legiilators  lifting  one  hand  towards  heaven> 
and  pointing  to  the  fi'n,  faid :  **  O  nations, 
i§  the  form  of  this  fun  \vhich  enlightens  you 
triangular  or  fquare?"— -And  they  replied 
v.ith  one  voice,  *^  It  is  neither,  it  is  round." 

Then  taking  the  golden  balance  that  was 
upon  the  altar,  "  This  metal,"  aiked  the 
legifiators,  *'  which  you  handle  every  day,  is 
a  mafs  of  it  heavier  than  another  mafs  of 
equal  dimenfions  of  brafs  ?" — '^  Yes,"  the 
people  again  unanimouily  replied;  "  gold  is 
heavier  than  brafs." 

The  legiilators  then  took  the  fword.  **  Is 
this  iron  lefs  hard  than  lead  ?" — *'  No,"  faid 
the  nations. 

"  Is  fno-ar  fweet  and  eall  bitter  ?— "  Yes." 

"  Do  you  love  pleafure,  and  hate  pain?" — 
"  Yes."        •  .     ^ 

"  Refpeding  thefs  objedls  and  a  multi- 

REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMP'lRES.        319 

pllcity  of  Others  of  a  fimilar  nature,  you  have 
then  but  one  opinion.  Now  tell  us,  is  there 
an  abyfs  in  the  centre  of  the  earth,  and  are 
there  inhabitants  in  the  moon  V* 

At  this  queition  a  general  noife  was  heard^ 
and  every  nation  gave  a  different  anfwer. 
Some  replied  in  the  affirmative,  others  in  the 
negative  ;  fome  faid  it  was  probable,  others 
that  it  was  an  idle  and  ridiculous  queflion, 
and  others  that  it  was  a  fabjedl  worthy  of 
enquiry;  in  fliort  there  prevailed  among 
them  a  total  difagreement. 

After  a  fl:iort  interval,  the  legillators  hav- 
ing reftored  iilence  :  **  Nations,"  faid  they, 
'^  how  is  this  to  be  accounted  for  ?  We 
propofed  to  you  certain  quefhions,  and  you 
were  all  of  one  opinion  without  diftincftion  of 
race  or  fee?: :  fair  or  black,  difciples  of  Ma- 
homet or  of  Mofes,  v/orihippers  of  Bedou  or 
of  Jefus,  you  all  gave  the  fame  anfwer.  We 
now  propofe  another  queil:ion,  and  you  all 
differ  !  whence  this  unanimity  in  one  cafe, 
and  this  difcordance  in  the  other." 

And  the  groupe  of  fimple  and  untaught 
men  replied  :  "  The  reafon  is  obvious.  Re- 
fpeding  the  fir  ft  queflion  s,  we  fee  and  feci 


0  20  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

the  objects ;  we  fpeak  of  them  from  fenfa- 
tion  :  refpedting  the  fecond,  they  are  above 
the  reach  of  our  icnf^s,  and  v/e  have  no 
guide  buf  conjecture/' 

''  You  have  folved  the  problem/*  faid  the 
Ip'^lilators;  *'  and  the  fcllowln'^  truth  is  thus 
by  your  own  confciTion  eflabliihed :  When- 
ever objects  are  prefent  and  can  be  judged  of 
by  your  fenfes,  you  invariably  agree  in  opi- 
nion ;  and  your  differ  in  fentiment  only  when 
they  are  abfent  and  out  of  your  reach. 

*'  From  this  truth  flov/s  another  equally 
clear  and  deferving  of  notice.  Since  you 
ao-i-ee  refpeding  what  you  with  certainty 
kncv^%  it  follov/s,  that  when  you  difagree,  it 
is  becaufe  you  do  not  know,  do  not  under- 
ftand,  are  not  fure  of  the  objedl  in  queflion  : 
or  in  other  v/ords,  that  you  difpute,  quarrel 
and  fight  among  yourfelves,  for  v/hat  is  un- 
certai.i,  for  that  of  which  you  doubt.  But 
is  this  w^ife  ;  is  this  the  part  of  rational  and 
intelligent  beings  ? 

''  And  is  it  not  evident,  that  it  is  not  truth 
for  v/hich  you  contend ;  that  it  is  not  her 
caufe  you  are  jealous  of  maintaining,  but  the 
caufe  of  your  own  paffions  and  prejudices ; 


REVOLUTIONS   6#    EMPIRES.        32I 

that  it  is  not  the  object  as  it  really  exifts  that 
you  wifh  to  verify,  but  the  objed;  as  it  ap- 
pears to  you  ;  that  it  is  not  the  evidence  of 
the  thing  that  you  are  anxious  fhould  pre- 
vail, but  your  perfonal  opinion,  your  mode 
of  feeing  and  judging  ?  There  is  a  power 
that  you  want  to  exercife,  an  intereil  that 
you  want  to  maintain^  a  prerogative  chat  you 
want  to  affume;  in  fliort,  the  whole  is  a 
ftruggle  of  vanity.  And  as  evety  individual, 
when  he  compares  himfelf  with  every  other^ 
finds  himfelf  to  be  his  equal  and  fellow,  he 
refifts  by  a  fi milar  feeling  of  right ;  and  from 
this  right,  which  you  all  deny  to  each  other, 
and  from  the  inherent  confcioufnefs  of  your 
equality,  fpring  your  difputes,  your  combats^ 
and  your  intolerance. 

**  Now,  the  only  way  of  reftoring  unani- 
mity is  by  returning  to  nature^  and  taking 
the  order  of  things  which  flie  has  eilablifh- 
ed  for  your  diredlor  and  guide  ;  and  this  far- 
ther truth  will  then  appear  from  your  uni- 
formity of  fentiment : 

"  That  real  objeds  have  in  themfelves  an 
identical,  conftant,  and  invariable  mode  of 
txiftence,  and  that  in  your  organs  exifts  a 

Y  fimilar 

g22  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

fimilar  mode  of  being  afFeded  andimpreffed 
by  them. 

"  But  at  the  fame  time,  inafmuch  as  thefc 
organs  are  liable  to  the  direction  of  your 
will,  you  may  receive  different  impreffions, 
and  find  yourfelves  under  different  relations 
towards  the  fame  objects ;  fo  that  you  are 
with  refpedt  to  them,  as  it  were  a  fort  of 
mirror,  capable  of  refledling  them  fuch  as 
they  are,  and  capable  of  disfiguring  and  mif- 
reprefenting  them. 

"  As  often  as  you  perceive  the  objeds, 
fuch  as  they  are,  your  feelings  are  in  accord 
with  the  objefe,  and  you  agree  in  opinion  ; 
and  it  is  this  accord  that  conftitutes  truth. 

**  On  the  contrary,  as  often  as  you  differ 
In  opinion,  your  diffentions  prove  that  you 
do  not  fee  the  objeds  fuch  as  they  are,  but 
vary  them. 

''  Whence  it  appears,  that  the  caufe  of 
your  diffentions  is  not  in  the  objeds  them- 
felves,  but  in  your  m.inds,  in  the  manner  in 
which  you  perceive  and  judge. 

"  If  therefore  we  would  arrive  at  uni- 
formity of  opinion,  we  muff  previoufly 
efcablilli   certainty,   and  verify  the  refem- 


REVOlUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.        323 

Maflce  which  our  ideas  have  to  their  mo- 
dels. Now  this  cannot  be  obtained,  except 
fo  far  as  the  objedts  of  our  enquiry  can 
be  referred  to  the  teftimony  and  fubjeded 
to  the  examination  of  our  fenfes.  What- 
ever cannot  be  brought  to  this  trial  is  be- 
yond the  limits  of  our  underflanding ;  wo 
have  neither  rule  to  try  it  by,  nor  meafure 
by  which  to  inftitute  a  comparifon,  nor 
fource  of  demonftration  and  knowledge  con- 
cerning it. 

"  Whence  it  is  obvious,  that,  in  order  to 
live  in  peace  and  harmony,  we  mufl  confent 
not  to  pronounce  upon  fuch  objects,  nor 
annex  to  them  importance;  we  muft  draw 
a  line  of  demarcation  between  fuch  as  can  be 
verified  and  fuch  as  cannot,  and  feparate  by 
an  inviolable  barrier,  the  world  of  fantaftic 
beings  from  the  world  of  realities  :  that  is  to 
fay,  all  civil  efFed:  muft  be  taken  away  from 
theological  and  religious  opinions. 

"  This,  O  nations,  is  the  end  that  a  great 
people,  freed  from  their  fetters  and  preju- 
dices, have  propofed  to  themfeives;  this  is  the 
work  in  which,  by  their  command,  and  un- 
der their  immediate  aufpices,  we  were  en- 
Y  2  gaged,  - 

J24  A    SURVEY    OF    THE 

gaged,  when  your  kings  and  your  priefts 
came  to  interrupt  our  labours. . . .  Kings  and 
priefts,  you  may  yet  for  a  while  fufpend  the 
Iblemn  publication  of  the  laws  of  nature ; 
but  it  is  no  longer  in  your  power  to  annihi- 
late or  to  fubvert  them.'* 

A  loud  cry  was  then  heard  from  every 
quarter  of  the  general  affembly  of  nations ; 
and  the  whole  of  the  people,  unanimoufly 
teilifying  their  adherence  to  the  fentiments 
of  the  legillators,  encouraged  them  to  refume 
their  facred  and  fublimaC  undertaking.  ^'  In« 
vefligate,"  faid  they,  ''  the  laws  which  na- 
ture, for  our  direction,  has  implanted  in  our 
breafts,  and  form  from  thence  an  authentic 
and  immutable  code.  Nor  let  this  code  be. 
calculated  for  one  family,  or  one  nation  only, 
but  for  the  whole  without  exception.  Be 
the  legiflators  of  the  human  race,  as  ye  are 
the  interpreters  of  their  common  nature. 
Shew  us  the  line  that  feparates  the  world  of 
chimeras,  from  that  of  realities  y  and  teach 
us,  after  fo  many  religions  of  error  and  delu- 
fion,  the  religion  of  evidence  and  truth." 

Upon  this,  the  legiflators  refuming  their 
enquiry  into  the  phyfical  and  conftituent 


REVOLUTIONS    OF    EMPIRES.         325 

attributes  of  man,  and  the  motives  and  af- 
fedlions  which  govern  him  in  his  individual 
and  focial  capacity,  unfolded  in  the  follow- 
ing terms  the  laws  on  which  Nature  herfelf 
has  founded  his  felicity. 

^ND    OF    THE    FIRST    PART, 



Jf  AG E  I.  (*)  Eleventh  year  of  Abd-id  Hamld.  That  is, 
1784  of  the  Chriftian  sera,  and  1198  of  the  Hegira.  The 
emigration  of  the  Tartars  took  place  in  March,  imme- 
diately on  the  nianifefto  of  the  emprefs  declaring  the 
Crimea  to  be  incorporated  with  RulHa. , . .  A  MuJfuU 
man  prince  of  the  na?ne  of  Gengis  Khan.  It  was  Chahin 
Guerai.  Gengis  Khan  was  borne  and  ferved  by  the  kings 
whom  he  conquered :  Chahin,  on  the  contrary,  after 
felling  his  country  for  a  penfion  of  eighty  thoufand  roubles, 
accepted  the  commiilion  of  captain  of  guards  to  Cathe- 
rine II.  He  afterwards  returned  home,  and,  according  to 
cuftom  was  ftrangled  by  the  Turks. 

Page  7.  {a).  The  precious  thread  ofSerica.  That  is  the 
filk  originally  derived  from  the  mountainous  country  where 
the  great  wall  terminates,  and  v/hich  appears  to  have  been 
the  cradle  of  the  Chinefe  empire.  .  .  .  The  tijfues  of  Caf- 
ftmere.  The  fhav/ls  which  Ezckiel  feems  to  have  defcribed 
under  the  appellation  of  Choud-choud.  .  .  .  The  gold  of 
Ophir,  This  country,  which  was  one  of  the  twelve  Arab 
y  4  cantons, 

328  NOTES. 

cantons,  and  \yhich  has  fo  much  and  fo  unfuccefsfully 
been  fought  for  by  the  antiquaries,  has  left  however  fome 
trace  of  itfeh"  in  Ofor,  in  the  province  of  Oman,  upon  the 
Perfian  Gulph,  neighbouring  on  one  fide  to  the  Sabeans, 
who  are  celebrated  by  Strabo  for  their  plenty  of  gold, 
and  on  the  other  to  Aula  or  Hevila  where  the  pearl 
£lliery  was  carried  on.  See  the  27th  chapter  of  Ezekiel,  -." 
which  gives  a  very  curious  and  extenfive  picture  of  the 
commerce  of  Aila  at  that  period. 

Page  8.  [b).  This  Sjria  contained  a  hundred flourijhing 
cities.  According  to  Jofephus  and  Strabo,  there  were  in 
Syria  tyreh^e  millions  of  fouls  j  and  the  traces  that  remain 
of  culture  and  habitation  confirm  the  calculation. 

Page  12.  (t).  A  hl'md  fatality.  This  is  the  univerfaland 
rooted  prejudice  of  the  Eaft.  "  It  was  written,"  is  there 
the  anfwer  to  every  thing.  Hence  refuit  an  unconcern  and 
apathy,  the  moft  powerful  impediments  to  inilruclion  and 

Page  28.  (J).  The  toe  famous  penlnfula  cf  India.  Of 
what  real  good  has  been  the  commerce  of  India  to  the 
mafs  of  the  people  ?  On  the  contrary,  how  great  the  evil 
occafioned  by  the  fuperflition  of  this  country  having  been 
added  to  the  general  fuperftition  ? 

Page  2.9.  (f).  Ancient  kingdom  of  Ethiopia.  In  the  next 
volume  of  the  Encyclopedia  will  appear  a  memoir  refpedtw 
ing  the  chronology  of  the  twelve  ages  anterior  to  the 
palling  of  Xerxes  into  Greece,  in  which  I  conceive  my- 
felf  to  have  proved,  that  Upper  Egypt  formerly  compofed 
a  diftin6t  kingdom;,  known  to  the  Hebrews  by  the  name 
of  Kous^  anJ  to  which  the  appellation  of  Ethiopia  was 
fpecially  given.  This  kingdom  preferved  its  independ- 
ence to  the  time  of  Pfammeticus,  at  which  period,  being 
'  united 

NOTES.  329 

united  to  the  Lower  Egypt,  it  loft  its  name  of  Ethiopia, 
which  thenceforth  was  bellowed  upon  the  nations  of  Nu- 
bia, and  upon  the  different  hordes  of  Blacks,  including 
Thebes,  their  metropolis. 

Page /W.  (y).  Thebes  with  its  hundred  palaces.  The 
idea  of  a  city  with  a  hundred  gates,  in  the  common  accep- 
tation of  the  word,  is  fo  abfurd,  that  I  am  alloniihed  the 
equivoque  has  not  before  been  felt. 

It  has  ever  been  the  cuftom  of  the  Eafl:  to  call  palaces 
■and  houfes  of  the  great  by  the  name  of  gates,  becaufe 
the  principal  luxury  of  thefe  buildings  confifts  in  the 
fmgular  gate  leading  from  the  ftreet  into  the  court,  at  the 
■  fartheft  extremity  of  which  the  palace  is  fituated.  It  is 
under  iino.  veflibule  of  this  gate  that  converfation  is  held 
with  pafTengers,  and  a  .fort  of  audience  and  hofpitality 
given.  All  this  v/as  doubtlefs  known  to  Homer ;  but 
poets  make  no  commentaries,  and  readers  love  the  mar- 

This  city  of  Thebes,  now  Lougfor,  reduced  to  the  con- 
dition of  a  miferable  village,  has  left  aftoniihing  monu- 
ments of  its  magnificence.  Particulars  of  this  may  be  k^n. 
in  the  plates  of  Norden,  in  Pocock,  and  in  the  recent 
travels  of  Bruce.  Thefe  monuments  give  credibility  to 
all  that  Homer  has  related  of  its  fplendour,  and  led  us  to 
infer  of  its  political  power  and  external  commerce. 

Its  geogiaphicai  pofition  was  favourable  to  this  two- 
fold object.  For,  on  one  fide,  the  valley  of  the  Nile, 
fmgularly  fertile,  mull  have  early  occafioned  a  numerous 
population  ;  and,  on  the  other,  th^  Red  Sea  giving  com- 
munication wiih  Arabia  and  India,  and  the  Nile  with 
AbyiTmia  and  the  Mediterranean^  Thebes  was  thus  na- 
turally allied  to  the  richefl  countries  on  the  globe ;  an 




alliance  that  procured  it  an  acllvity  fo  much  the  greater, 
as  Lower  Egypt,  at  firft  a  fwamp,  was  nearly,  if  not  to- 
tally, uninhabited.  But  when  at  length  this  country  had 
been  drained  by  the  canals  and  dikes  which  Selbftris 
conftruc!:cd,  population  was  introduced  there,  and  wars 
grofe  which  proved  fatal  to  the  power  of  Thebes.  Com- 
merce then  took  another  route,  and  defcended  to  the 
point  of  the  Red  Sea,  to  the  canals  of  Sefoftris  (See 
JStrabo)  and  wealth  and  activity  were  transformed  to 
Memphis.  This  is  manifeilly  what  Diodorus  means, 
when  he  tells  us  (Lib.  L  feft.  2.)  that  as  foon  as  Mem.- 
phis  was  eftablifned  and  m.ade  a  wholefome  and  delicious 
abode,  kings  abandoned  Thebes  to  fix  themfelves  there. 
Thus  Thebes  continued  to  decline,  and  Memphis  tq 
flourifli  till  the  time  of  Alexander,  who,  building  Alex- 
andria on  the  border  of  the  fea,  caufed  Memphis  to  fall 
in  its  turn ;  fo  that  profperity  and  power  feem  to  have 
defcended  hiflorically  flep  by  ftep  along  the  Nile :  whence 
it  refults,  both  phyfically  and  hlftorically,  that  the  exift- 
cnce  of  Thebes  was  prior  to  that  of  the  other  cities.  The 
teftimony  of  writers  is  very  pofitive  in  this  refpect.  "  The 
"  Thebans,"  fays  Diodorus,  "  confider  themfelves  as  the 
"  moft  ancient  people  of  the  earth,  and  affert,  that  v/ith 
''  them  originated  phiiofophy  and  the  fcience  of  the 
*«  ftars.  Their  fituation,  it  is  true,  is  infinitely  favourable 
"  to  agronomical  obfervation,  and  they  have  a  more  accu- 
"  rate  divifion  of  time  into  months  and  year  than  other 
*'  nations,  &:c." 

What  Diodorus  fays  of  the  Thebans,  every  author  and 

himfelf  elfewhere,  repeat  of  the  Ethiopians,  which  tends 

more  firmly  to  eftablilhi  the  identity  of  place  of  v^hich  I 

Jiave  fpoken.   "  The  Ethiopians  conceive  themfelves  (fays 

t  "he, 

NOTES,  331 

l<  he.  Lib.  lit)  tp  be  of  greater  antiquity  than  any  othef 
«'  nation :  and  it  is  probable  that,  born  under  the  fun's  path, 
f'  its  warmth  may  have  ripened  them  eadier  than  other 
?«  men.  They  fuppofe  themfelves  alfo  to  be  the  inventors 
*'  of  divine  worfhip,  of  feftivals,  of  folemn  aflembUes, 
.*'  of  facrifices,  and  every  other  rehgious  pradice.  They 
^'  affirm  that  the  Egyptians  are  one  of  their  colonies,  and 
<«  that  the  Delta,  which  was  formerly  fea,  became  land 
*'  by  the  conglomeration  of  the  earth  of  the  higher 
"  country,  which  was  wafhed  down  by  the  Nile.  They. 
<'  have,  like  the  Egyptians,  two  fpecies  of  letters,  hiero- 
*'  glyphics  and  the  alphabet;  but  among  the  Egyptians 
*'  the  firft  was  known  only  to  the  priefts,  and  by  them 
«  tranfmitted  from  father  to  fon,  whereas  both  Ipecies  are 
<'  common  among  the  Ethiopians." 

"  The  Ethiopians,"  fays  Lucian,  page  985,  "  were  the 
»*  firft  who  invented  the  fcience  of  the  ftars,  and  gave 
<*  names  to  the  planets,  not  at  random  and  without  mean- 
f'  ing,  but  defcriptive  of  the  qualities  which  they  con- 
«  ceived  them  to  pofiefs ;  and  it  was  from  them  that 
5<  this  art  pafied,  ftill  in  an  imperfeil:  ftate,  to  the  Egyp- 
«  tians."^ 

It  would  be  eafy  to  multiply  citations  upon  this  fubje^l; 
'from  all  which  it  follows,  that  we  have  the  ftrongeft 
reafon  to  believe  that  the  country  neighbouring  to  the 
tropic,  was  the  cradle  of  the  fciences,  and  of  confequence 
that  the  firft  learned  nation  was  a  nation  of  Blacks,  for 
it  is  incontrovertible,  that  by  the  term  Ethiopians,  the 
ancients  meant  to  reprefent  a  people  of  black  complexion, 
thick  lips,  and  woolly  hair.  I  am  therefore  inclined  to 
})elieve,  that  the  inhabitants  of  Lower  Egypt  were  origi- 
p^lly  a  foreign  colony  imported  from  Syria  and  Arabia,  a 


332  NOTES. 

jr.edley  of  difFerent  tribes  of  Savages,  originally  fliepherds 
and  iifhermcn,  who  by  degrees  formed  themfelves  into  a 
nation,  and  who,  by  nature  and  defcent,  were  enemies  of 
the  Thebans,  by  whom  they  were  no  doubt  defpifed  and 
treated  as  barbarians. 

i  have  jfaggeftcd  the  fame  ideas  in  my  Travels  into 
Syria,  founded  upon  the  black  complexion  of  the  Sphinx. 
I  have  fince  afcertained,  that  the  antique  images  of 
Thebais  have  the  fame  characleriftic ;  and  Mr.  Bruce 
his  offered  a  multitude  of  analogous  facts  :  but  this 
traveller,  of  whom  I  heard  fome  mention  at  Cairo,  ha& 
lb  interwoven  thefe  facis  with  certain  fyftematic  opinions, 
that  we  fhould  have  recourfe  to  his  narratives  with 

It  IS  fnigular  that  Africa,  fituated  To  near  us,  fnould  be 
the  country  on  earth  which  is  the  leaft  known.  The 
Englidi  are  at  this  moment  making  attempts,  the  fuccef^ 
of  which  ought  to  excite  our  emulation, 

Piige  30.  (g).  Here  ivere  the  ports  of  the  Idumeam^ 
Ailah  (Eloth),  and  Atfiom-Gaber  (Hefion-Geber). 
The  name  of  the  firft  of  thefe  towns  Hill  fubhfls  in  its 
ruins,  at  the  point  of  the  gulph  of  the  Red  Sea,  aud  in 
the  route  which  the  pilgrims  take  to  Mecca.  Hefion 
"has  at  prefent  no  trace,  any  more  than  Qolzoum  and 
Faran  :  it  was,  however,  the  harbour  for  the  fleets  of 
Solomon.  The  vcfTels  of  this  prince,  condu6ted  by  the 
Tyrians,  failed  along  the  coafl  of  Arabia  to  Ophir  in  the 
Perfian  Gulph,  thus  opening  a  communication  with  the 
merchants  of  India  and  Ceylon.  That  this  navigation 
was  entirely  of  Tyrian  invention,  appears  both  from  the 
pilots  and  fhipbuilders  employed  by  the  Jews,  and  the 
names  that  were  given  to  the  trading  iflands,  viz.  Tyrus 
*  and 

NOTES.  333 

and  Aradus,  now  Barhaln.     The  voyage  was  performed 
in   two   diffent  modes,    either  in  canoes   of  ofier  and 
rufiies,  covered  on  the  outfide  with  fkins  done  over  with 
pitch  :  thefe  veflels  were  unable  to  quit  the  Red  Sea,  or 
i'o  much  as  to  leave  the  fhore.     The  fecond  mode  of 
carrying  on  the  trade  was  by  means  of  velTels  with  decks 
of  the  fize  of  our  long  boats,  which  were  able  to  pafs  the 
ftrait  and  to  v/eather  the  dangers  of  the  ocean  :  but  for 
this  purpofe  it  was  nec'eiTary  to  bring  the  wood  from 
Mount  Lebanus  and  Cilicia,  where  it  is  very  fine  and  in 
great  abundance.     This  wood  was  firfl  conveyed  iji  floats 
from  Tarfus  to  Phenicia,  for  which  reafon  the  vefiels 
were  called  fliips  of  Tarfus :   from  whence  it  has  been  ^ 
ridiculoufly  inferred,  that  they  went  round  the  promon- 
tary  of  Africa  as  far  as  Tortofa  in  Spain.     From  Phenicia 
it  was  tranfported  on  the  backs  of  camels  to  the  Red  Sea, 
which  pra6tice  ftill  continues,  becaufe  the  fliores  of  this 
fea  are  .abfolutely  unprovided  with  wood  even  for  fuel. 
Thefe  vefiels  fpent  a  complete  year  in  their  voyage,  that 
is,  failed  one  year,  fojourned  another,  and  did  not  return 
till  the  third.     This  tedioufnefs  was  owing,  firft  to  their 
cruizing  from  port  to  port,  as  they  do  at  prefent;  fecondly^ 
to  their  being  detained  by  the  Monfoon  currents ;  and 
thirdly,  becaufe,  according  tathe  calculations  of  Pliny  and 
Strabo,  it  was  the  ordinary  practice  among  the  ancients 
to   fpend  three  years  in  a  voyage  of  twelve  hundred 
leagues.     Such  a  commerce  muft  have  been  very  expen- 
five,  particularly  as  they  were  obliged  to  carry  with  them 
their  proviiions  and  even  freil:^  water.     For  this  reafon 
Solomon  made  himfelf  mafter  of  Palmyra,  which  was  at 
that  time  inhabited,  and  was  already  the  magazine  and 
high  road  of  merchants  by  the  way  of  the  Euphrates., 


33i.  NOTE    S. 

This  conquefl  brought  Solomon  much  nearer  to  th& 
tountry  of  gold  and  pearls.  This  alternative  of  a  route 
either  by  the  Red  Sea  or  by  the  river  Euphrates  was  to 
the  ancients,  what  in  later  times  has  been  the  alternative 
in  a  voyage  to  the  Indies,  either  by  crofling  the  Ifthmus 
of  Suez  or  doubling  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  It  appears 
that  till  the  time  of  Mofes  this  trade  was  carried  on  acrofs 
the  defert  of  Syria  and  Theais ;  that  afterwards  it  fell 
into  the  hands  of  the  Phenicians,  who  fixed  its  fite  upon 
the  Red  fea,  and  that  it  was  mutual  jealoufy  that  induced 
the  kings  of  Nineveh  and  Babylon  ta  undertake  the  de- 
ftrudtion  of  Tyre  and  Jerufakm.  I  infift  the  more  upon 
thefefa6ls,  bocaufe  I  have  never  feen  anything  reafonablc 
upon  the  fubjefl. 

Pac^e  31.  {h),  Babylon,  the  ruins  of  which  are  trodden  un^ 
derfiot  of  men.  It  appears  that  Babylon  occupied  on  the 
Eaftern  Bank  of  the  Euphrates  a  fpace  of  ground  fix 
leagues  in  length.  Throughout  this  fpace  bricks  are  found, 
b'/  means  of  which  daily  additions  are  made  to  the  tov/n 
of  Helle.  Upon  many  of  thefe  are  chara6lers  written  with 
a  nail  fimilar  to  thofe  of  Perfepolis.  I  am  indebted  for 
thefe  fa6ls  to  M.  de  Bcauchamp,  grand  vrcar  of  Babylon, 
a  traveller  equally  diftinguiflied  for  his  knowledge  of  aftro- 
nomy  and  his  veracity. 

Page  59.  f/j.  Thofe  wells  of  Tyre.  See  refpe£ting  thefe 
monuments,  my  Travels  into  Syria,  vol.  ii.  p.  214. 

Thofe  arttficial  banks  of  the  Euphrates.  From  the  toWn 
or  village  of  Samaouat  the  courfe  of  the  Euphrates  is 
accompanied  vv'ith  a  double  bank,  which  defcends  as  far 
as  its  junction  v/ith  the  Tygris,  and  from  thence  to  the 
fea,  being  a  length  of  about  a  hundred  leagues  French 
meafjre.   The  heighth  of  thefe  artiiicial  banks  is  not  uni- 


NOTES.  333 

form,  but  Increafes  as  you  advance  from  the  Tea ;  it  may 
be  efti mated  at  from  twelve  to  fifteen  feet.  But  for  them, 
the  inundation  of  the  river  vi'ould  bury  the  country 
around,  which  is  flat,  to  an  extent  of  twenty  or  twenty-- 
five  leagues  ;  and  even,  notwithftanding  thefe  banks,  there 
has  been  in  modern  times  an  overflow  which  has  covered 
the  whole  triangle  formed  by  the  jundtion  of  tliis  river 
to  the  Tigris,  being  a  fpace  of  country  of  130  fquare 
leagues.  By  the  ftagnation  of  thefe  waters  an  epidemical 
difeafe  of  the  moft  fatal  nature  was  occafioned.  It  follows 
from  hence,  i.  That  all  the  flat  country  bordering  upon 
thefe  rivers  was  originally  a  marfh  ;  ^.  That  this  marfh 
could  not  have  been  inhabited  previoufly  to  the  conftruc* 
tion  of  the  banks  in  quefliion ;  3.  That  thefe  banks  could 
not  have  been  the  work  but  of  a  population  prior  as  to 
date  :  and  the  elevation  of  Babylon  therefore  muft  have 
been  poflerior  to  that  of  Nineveh,  as  I  think  I  have  chro- 
nologically demonftrated  in  the  memoir  above  cited.  See 
Encyclopedie,  vol.  xiii.  of  Antiquities. 

Page  id.  (k).  Thofe  conduits  of  Medea.  The  modern 
Aderbidjan,  which  was  a  part  of  Medea,  the  mountains 
of  Kourdeftan,  and  thofe  of  Diarbekr,  abound  with 
fubterranean  canals,  by  means  of  which  the  ancient  in- 
habitants conveyed  water  to  their  parched  foil  m  order  to 
fertilize  it.  It  was  regarded  as  a  meritorious  a6},  and  a 
religious  duty  prefcribed  by  Zoroafter,  who,  inftead  of 
preaching  celibacy,  mortifications,  and  other  pretended 
virtues  of  the  Monkifh  fort,  repeats  continually  in  the 
paflages  that  are  preferved  refpedting  him  in  the  Sad-der 
and  the  Zend-avefta,  «  That  the  adion  moft  pleafmg  to 
"  God  is  to  plough  and  cultivate  the  earth,  to  water  it 
«  with  running  ftrearas,  to  multiply  vegetation  and  living 

"  beings. 

23S  NOTE    S. 

«  beings,  to  have  numerous  flocks,  yoiung  and  fruitft^ 
'•  virgins,  a  multitude  of  children,  &c.  &c.'* 

Page  62.  fl).  This  inequaUty^  the  r,fult  of  accident^  was 
taken  for  the  laiv  of  nature.  Ahrioft  all  the  ancient  philo- 
fophers  and  politicians  have  laid  it  down  as  a  principle, 
that  men  are  born  unequal,  that  nature  has  created  fome 
to  he  free,  and  others  to  be  Haves.  Expreflions  of  this 
kind  are  to  be  found  in  Ariftotle,  and  even  in  Plato, 
called  the  divine,  doubtkfs  in  th'^  i  :r<e  fenfe  as  the  my- 
thological reveries  which  he  promulgated.  With  all  the 
people  of  antiquity,  the  Gauls,  the  Romans,  the  Athe- 
nians, the  right  of  the  ftrongeft  was  the  right  of  na- 
tions ;  and  from  the  fame  principle  are  derived  all  the 
political  diforders  and  public  national  crimes  that  at  pre- 
fent  exift. 

Page  id,  (m).  Paternal  tyranny  laid  the  foundation  of 
political  defpatifin.  Upon  this  fmgle  expreifion  it  would 
be  eafy  to  write  a  long  and  important  chapter.  We 
might  prove  in  it,  beyond  contradiction,  that  all  the 
abufes  of  national  governments  have  fprung  from  thofe 
of  domcilic  government,  from  that  government  called 
patriarchal,  which  fuperficial  minds  have  extolled  without 
having  analyzed  it.  Numberlefs  fe6ls  demonftrate,  that 
with  every  infant  people,  in  every  favage  and  barbarous 
ftate,  the  father,  the  chief  of  the  family,  is  a  dcfpot,  and  a 
cruel  and  infolent  defJDOt.  The  wife  is  his  flave,  the 
children  his  fervants.  This  king  fleeps  or  fmokes  his 
pipe,  v/hile  his  wife  and  daughters  perform  all  the 
drudgery  of  the  houle,  and  even  that  of  tillage  and  culti- 
vation, as  far  as  occupations  of  this  nature  are  pra6i:ifcd. 
in  fuch  focieties;  and  no  fooner  have  the  boys  acquired; 
§rength,  than  they  are  allowed  to  beat  the  females  and. 


NOTES.  337 

rr>ake  them  ferve  and  wait  upon  them  as  they  do  upon 
their  fathers.  Similar  to  this  is  the  (late  of  our  own  un- 
ci vihzed  peafants.  In  proportion  as  civih'zation  fpreads, 
the  mr,nners  become  milder,  and  the  condition  of  the 
women  improves,  till,  by  a  contrary  excefs,  they  arrive 
at  dominion,  and  then  a  nation  becomes  effeminate  ap.d 
corrupt.  It  is  remarkable,  that  parental  authority  is  great 
accoiding  as  the  government  is  derpctic.  China,  India, 
and  Turkey  are  (hiking  examples  of  this.  One  would 
fuppofe  that  tyrants  gave  themfdves  accomplices,  and 
intercftcd  ilibaltern  defpots  to  maintain  their  authority* 
In  oppofkion  to  this  the  Romans  will  be  cited;  but  it  re- 
mains to  be  proved  that  the  Romans  were  men  truly 
free  ;  and  their  quick  paffage  from  their  republican  de- 
fpotifm  to  their  abjeiSt  fertility  under  rhe  emperors,  gives 
room  at  leai}  for  confiderable  doubts  as  to  that  freedom. 

Page  67.  («).  Akvays  tending  to  concenter  the  poivc-r  m 
a fingle  hand.  It  is  remarkable,  that  this  has  in  all  in- 
Ranees  been  the  conftant  progrefs  of  focieties  :  beginning 
with^  ftate  of  anarchy  or  dem^ocracy,  that  is,  with  a  sreat 
divifion  of  power,  they  have  palled  to  ariftocracy,  and  from 
arillocracy  to  monarchy.  Docs  it  not  hence  follow,  that 
tbofe  who  conditute  fVates  under  the  democratic  form, 
dePdne  them  to  undergo  all  the  intervening  troubles  be- 
tv/een  that  and  monarchy ;  and  that  the  fupreme  adroi- 
niftration  by  a  frngle  chief  is  tlie  moft  natural  govern- 
ment, as  well  as  thiit  beft  calculated  for  peace  ? 

Page  69.  [0).  A>id  kings  follo'wcd  the  diclates  of  every 
depraved  tajle.  It  is  equally  worthy  of  remark,  that  the 
<:ondu6l  and  manners  of  princes  and  kings  of  every  coun- 
try and  every  age,  are  found  to  be  precifcdy  the  fame  at 

Z  iimilar 

3-^g  NOTES. 

fimilar  period?,  whether  of  the  formation  or  diiTolution  of 
errrplres.  Hiftory  every  where  prefents  the  fame  pictures 
of  juxury  and  folly;  of  parks,  gaFde'\-.  iakes,  rock^^ 
palaces,  furniture,  cxccfs  of  the  table^  vvine,  woinc]  , 
eoneluding  with  brutality. 

The  abfurd  rock  in  the  gardesi  cf  Vcrfailles  has  a' one 
coft  three  millions.  I  have  fometimes  calculated  whiit 
might  have  been  done  v.'ith  the  expence  of  the  three 
pyramids  of  Gitah,  and  I  have  found  that  it  would  eafily 
have  ccnftrucled,  from  the  Red  Sea  to  Alexandria,  a  canal 
150  feet  wide  and  30  deep,  completely  covered  in  with 
Gut  flones  and  a  parapet,  together  with  a  fortified  and 
commercial  tov/n,  confilling  of  400  houfes  furnifhed  witii 
cifterns.  What  difference  in  point  cf  utility  between 
fuch  a  canal  and  thefe  pyramids  ? 

Page  79.  {p).  By  their  led  horjcs^  oV.  A  Tartar  horfe- 
man  has  always  two  horfes,  cf  which  he  kads  one  in 
hand.  . .  .  The  Kalpak  is  a  bonnet  made  of  the  fkin  of  a 
fheep  or  other  animal.  The  part  of  the  head  covered  by 
this  bonnet  is  fnaved,  with  the  exception  of  a  tuft  about 
the  fize  cf  a  crown-piece,  and  which  is  fufFered  to  grow 
to  the  length  of  itYi^n  or  eight  inches,  precifely  where 
our  priefts  place  their  tonfure.  It  is  by  this  tuft  of  hair, 
worn  by  the  m.ajority  of  Muliiilmans,  that  the  angel  of 
the  tomb  is  to  take  the  clcCt  and  carry  them  into  Para- 

Page  80.  (^).  I'ffideh  are  in  pojfejjion  of  a  conjccratcdland. 
It  IS  not  in  the  power  of  the  fultan  to  cede  to  a  foreign 
power  a  province  inhabited  by  true  believers.  The 
reopie,  infligated  by  the  lawyers,  would  not  fail  to  revolt. 
This  is  one  reafon  v/hich  has  led  thofe  who  know  th© 
^  Turks, 

N    O    T    E     S.  .339 

Turks,  to  regard  as  chimerical  the  ceding  of  Candia, 
Cyprus,  and  Egypt,  projected  by  certain  European  po- 

Pa^e  86.  (r).  Pronouncing  fjiyjlerioujly  the  "juord  Aum. 
This  v/ord  is  in  the  religion  of  the  Hindoos  a  Ikcred  em- 
blem of  the  Divinity.  It  is  only  to  be  pronounced  in 
fecret,  without  being  heard  by  any  one.  It  is  formed  of 
three  letters,  of  v.'hich  the  firft,  ^,  fignifies  the  principle  of 
ail,  the  creator,  Brama  j  the  fecond,  u^  the  confervator, 
Vichenou ;  and  the  lafl,  w,  the  deftroyer,  who  puts  an  end 
to  all,  Chiven.  It  is  pronounced  like  the  monofyilable 
um,  and  expreffes  the  unity  of  thofe  three  Gods.  The 
idea  is  precifcly  that  of  the  Alpha  and  Omega  mentioned 
lin  the  New  Teftament. 

Page  id.  (s).  IVhether  he  ought  tohegh  the  ccremcjiy  at 
the  elbo-jjy  ^c.  7>ds  is  one  oi  the  grand  points  of  fchifm 
between  the  partizans  of  Omar  and  thofe  of  Ali.  Sup- 
pofe  two  iMahometans  to  meet  on  a  journey,  and  to  ac- 
coil  each  other  with  brotherly  affediion  :  the  hour  of 
prayer  arrivss;  onebeo;ins  his  ablution  at  his  fingers,  the 
other  at  the  elbow,  and  inftantly  they  are  mortal  enemies, 
O  fublime  importance  of  religious  opinions  !  O  profound 
philofophy  of  the  authors  of  them  ! 

Page  99.  {t).  The  horde  of  Oguzlans.  Before  the 
Turks  took  th.e  name  of  their  chief  Othman  I.  they  bore 
tliat  of  Oguzians  ;  and  it  was  under  this  appellation  that 
they  were  driven  out  of  Tartary  by  Gengis,  and  came 
from  the  borders  of  Gihoua  to  fettle  themfelves  in 

Page  100.  (.v).  A  general  anarchy  takeplace^  as  happened 

in  the  empire  of  the  Sophis,    In  Perfi^  after  the  death  of 

Thamas-Koulikan,  each  province  had  its  chief,  and  for 

Z  2  forty 

j4(^  NOTES. 

ferry  years  thefe  chiefs  were  in  a  conftant  ftate  of  \vzi\ 
In  this  view  the  Turks  do  not  fay  without  reafon:  "  Ter*- 
"  years  of  a  tyrant  are  leis  dcftruilive  than  a  lingls  night 
"  of  anarchy." 

Page  107.  {x).  Fro}n  people  to  people  harharous  wars  were 
prevalent.  Read  the  hiftory  of  the  w?rs  of  Rome  and 
Carthage,  of  Sparta  and  MelTina,  of  Athens  and  Syracufe^ 
of  the  Hebrews  and  the  Phenicians  :  yet  thefe  are  the  na- 
tions of  which  antiquity  boalls  as  being  moll:  pciifned  ! 

Page  1 14.  (  v).  The  decifion  of  their  difpiites.  What  is 
a  people  ?  An  individual  of  the  fociety  at  large.  What 
a  war  ?  A  duel  between  two  individual  people.  In  what 
manner  ought  a  fociety  to  a(5l  when  two  of  its  members 
fight  ?  Interfere  and  reconcile,  or  reprcfs  them.  In  the 
days  of  the  Abbe  de  Saint-  Pierre  this  was  treated  as  a 
dream,  but  happily  for  the  human  race  it  begins  to  be 

Page  119.  (s).  Tlje  Chinefe  fuhjeSled  to  an  tn/oleni  def- 
fot'ifm.  The  emperor  of  China  calls  himfelf  the  fon  of 
heaven,  that  is,  o^  God ;  for  in  the  opinion  of  the  Ch:nefe> 
the  material  heaven,  the  arbiter  of  fatality,  is  the  Deity 
himfelf.  "  The  emperor  only  fnows  himfdf  once  in  ten 
"  months,  left  the  people,  accuftomied  to  fee  him,  might 
«  lofe  their  refpeft  ;  for  he  holds  it  as  a  maxim,  that 
<'  power  can  only  be  fuppdrted  by  force,  that  the  people 
"  have  no  idea  of  juftice,  and  are  not  to  be  governed  but 
<^  by  coercion."  Narrative  of  two  Mahometan  Travellers 
in  851  and  877,  tranHated  by  the  Abbe  Renaudot  ia 

Notwiihftanding  what  is  alTertcd  by  the  miiHoaarles, 

this  fituation  has  undergone  no  change.     The  bamboo 

ftili  reigns  in  China,  and  the  Ton  of  heaven  baftinadcs, 

\  ..:  .  fbr 

NOTES.  341 

for  the  moil:  trivial  fault,  the  Mandarin,  who,  in  his  turn, 
bafiinades  the  people.  The  Jcfuits  may  tell  us  that  this 
is  the  bed  governed  country  in  the  world,  and  its  inha- 
bitants the  hnppieil  of  men:  but  a  fingle  letter  from 
Amyot  has  convinced  me,  that  China  is  a  truly  Turkifli 
government,  and  the  "account  of  So^nerat  confirms  it. 
See  v^oL  LL  of  Fcyage  mix  Indes^  in  4to. 

Ihe  irremediable  vice  of  their  language.  As  long  as  the 
Cbinefe  mall  in  wrirjng  make  ufe  of  their  prefcnt  cha- 
ra-s'^ers,  they  can  be  expecled  to  make  no  progrefs  in 
civilization.  The  necefTary  introductory  flen  muft  be  the 
giving  them  an  alphabet  like  our  ov/n,  or  the  fubilituting 
in  the  room  of  their  language  that  of  the  Tartars  :  the 
improvement  made  in  the  latter  by  M.  dc  Lengles,  is 
calculated  to  introduce  this  change.  See  the  A'lantchou 
^Iphabetj  the  produition  of  a  mind  truly  learned  in  the 
formation  of  language. 

Page  I  ig.  (  I.)  In  the  North  I  fee  nothh-ig  hut  f erf s  re^ 
duced  to  the  level  of  cattle.  When  this  was  written  the 
revolution  in  Poland  had  not  taken  place.  I  hf^  leave  to 
apologife  to  the  virtuous  nobles  and  the  enlightened  prince 

by  whom  it  was  efFeeled. 

Page  1 28.  (2.)  Jnd  govern  yoivfeljjes.  This  dialogue 
between  the  people  and  the  indolent  clailes,  is  applicable 
to  every  fociety  j  it  contains  the  feeds  of  all  the  political 
vices  and  diforders  that  prevail,  and  which  may  tnus  be 
defined  ;  men  who  do  nothing,  and  who  devour  the  fub- 
flance  of  others  j  and  m.en  who  arrogate  to  themfelves 
particular  rights  and  exclufive  privileges  of  wealth  and 
indolence.  Compare  the  Mamlouks  of  Egypt,  the  nobi- 
lity of  Europe,  the  Na<rs  of  India,  the  Emirs  of  Arabia, 
the  Patricians  of  Rome,  the  Chriftian  clergyj  the  Imans, 
Z  3  the 

342  N    O    T    E     S. 

the  Bramins,  the  Bonzes,  the  Lamas,  kc.  kc.  an.d  you 
will  find  in  all  the  fame  characieriftic  featurej— "  Men 
"  living  in  idhneis  at  the  expence  of  thofe  who  labour." 

Page  13S.  (3).  Equality  and  liberty  crjufiltute  the phyfical 
lafis.  In  the  declaration  of  rights  there  is  an  inverfion  of 
ideas  in  the  firft  article,  liberty  biing  placed  before  equa- 
lity from  wnich  it  in  reality  fprings.  This  defecl  is  not 
to  be  wondered  at;  the  fcience  of  the  rights  of  man  is 
a  ne.v  fcience;  it  was  ir.venlcd  yeOei-day  by  the  Ameri- 
cans, to  day  the  French  are  perf::<5ting  it,  but  there  yet 

{litute  it  there  .s  a  geiioabgical  order  which,  from  its 
bafis,  phyfical  equaiiiy,  to  tne  minuti'il:  and  mofc  remote 
branches  of  government,  ought  to  proceed  in  an  unin- 
terrup:?d  feries  of  inferences.  Tiiis  will  be  demonftraied 
in  t!]e  fecond  part  of  this  work. 

Page  147.  (4.)  A  vajl  hat  of  the  leaves  of  the  ■palm-tree. 
This  fpccics  of  the  palm-tree  is  called  Latcnicr.  Its  leaf, 
fimiiar  to  a  fan-mount,  grows  upon  a  ilalk  iiiui.ig  dire(51]y 
from  the  earth.  A  fpecimen  may  be  feen  in  the  botanic 

Pa:;e  1^8.  (5.)  The  contem-pUtion  of  on:  fpeclcs  thus  in- 
finitely "varkd.  A  hall  of  coftumas  in  one  of  the  galleries 
of  the  Louvre,  would  in  every  point  of  view  be  an  in- 
terefHng  eftaDhriiment :  it  v/ould  furniin  an  admirable 
treat  to  the  curiofitv  of  a  great  number  of  m.en,  excellent 
models  to  the  artif",  and  ufeful  fubiec5ls  of  meditation  to 
the  phyr.cian,  the  philofopner,  aiid  the  legiflaior.  Picfure 
to  vr  irfdf  a  co]Ie6tiorj  of  the  v.:rious  faces  and  figures  of 
e-eiv  country  and  natinn,  exhibiting  accurately  colour, 
features  ar.d  form  :  what  a  field  for  invefl-igation  and  en- 
quiry as  to  the  influence  of  cliniatc,  manners,  aliment. 

NOTES.  343 

^c. !  It  might  truly  be  ilyled  the  fcience  of  man  !  Buffon 
has  attempted  a  chapter  of  this  nature,  but  it  only  ferves 
to  exhibit  more  ftrikingly  our  adlual  ignorance.  Such  a 
colleftion  it  is  faid  is  begun  at  Peterfburg,  but  it  is  faid  at 
the  fame  time^  to  be  as  imperfect  as  the  vocabulary  of 
the  300  languages.  The  euterprize  would  be  worthy  of 
the  French  nation. 

Page  157,  (6).  Thus  are  there  jc6ls  to  the  number  ofje* 
\jenty-two.  The  MuiTulmans  enumerate  in  common  fe- 
venty-two  feels;  but  I  read,  while  I  i;efided  among  them, 
a  work  which  gave  an  ^iccQunt  of  more  than  eighty,  all 
equally  v/ife  and  important. 

Page  id.  (7).  Has  ?iever  ceajcdfor  twelve  hundred  year  s^ 
Read  the  hiftory  of  Idamifm  by  its  own  writers,  and  you 
will  be  convinced  that  one  of  the  princip'il  caufes  of  the 
wars  which  have  defolated  ATia  and  Africa  fmce  the  days 
of  Mahomet,  has  been  the  apoftolical  fanaticifm  of  its 
do61rine.  Csefar  has  been  fuppoied  to  have  deftroyed 
three  millions  of  men :  it  would  be  interefting  to  make  a 
fim.ilar  calculation  refpcding  every  founder  of  a  religious 

Page  16  r.  (8).  The  NeJlorianSy  the  Eutycheans^  and  a 
hundred  others.  Confult  upon  this  fubje61:  D'l^lonnaire 
des  Herefics  -par  f  Ahhe  Piuquet^  in  two  volumes,  8vo  ;  a 
work  admirably  calculated  to  infpire  the  mind  with  phi- 
lofophy,  in  the  fenfe  that  the  Lacedemonians  taught 
their  children  temperance,  by  fhewing  to  them  the  drunken 

Page  163.    (9).  Difcjpks  of  Zoroajfer,     They  are  the 

Parfes,  better  known  by  the  opprobrious  name  of  Gaures 

or  Guebres,  another  word  for  infidels.    They  are  in  Afia 

Z  4  what 

344  NOTES. 

v'hat  t\v.'  Jews  are  in  Europe.     The  name  of  their  pope 
or  high  pried:  is  Mobed. 

Page  164.  {jg).  Their  D^/curs  'y  that  is  to  fay,  their 
priefts.  See,  re(|oe6ling  th-^  ntcs  of  this  rciigion,  H-ury 
Lord-i  Hydcy  and  the  ZendaUijJa,  l>;;.Mr  coduma  if;  a  robe 
with  a  belt  of  four  knoi>,  and  a  veil  over  tiie  mouth  for 
fear  of  polluting  the  fire  with  their  breath. 

Pa-^e  id.  (11  )•  The  refityrMiOi:  of  the  bcdy^  or  the  foi-l^ 
or  hth,  I'he  Zoroaftrians  are  dividea  between  two 
opinions,  one  party  believing  tliat  both  (oul  and  body  will 
rife,  the  other,  that  it  will  be  the  foul  only.  I'he 
Chridians  and  Mahometans  have  embraced  the  mod  folid 
cf  the  two. 

Paire  165.  (12).  They  wear  a  net  over  their  imiithi^  (Jc, 
According  to  the  fyftem  of  the  Metcmpiychci.s,  a  foul,  to 
undergo  purification,  paifes  into  the  bodj  of  fome  infect 
or  animal.  It  is  of  importance  not  to  diif  urb  this  penance, 
as  the  work  mufl  in  that  cafe  begin  afreOi.  .  .  .  Paria. 
This  is  the  name  of  a  cafl:  or  tribe  r.puted  unclean,  bc- 
caufe  they  eat  of  v/hat  has  enjoyed  life. 

Page  id.  (  ;  3).  Brhma. — reduced  io  jervc  fis  a  fcdeflalto 
the  Lingciin.      See  Sor.nerat-i  Voyage  aux  Indts.  Vol.  I. 

Page  166.  (14}.  Hiderus  forms  of  a  bcar^  a  licn^  (S'c. 
Thefe  are  the  incarnations  of  Yichen^l)u,  or  metamorphofcs 
cf  the  fun.  He  is  to  come  at  the  end  of  the  ^vorld,  that 
is,  at  the  expiration  of  the  great  period,  in  the  form  of  a 
horfe,  like  the  four  horfes  of  the  apocalypfe. 

Page  id.  (15).  In  their  deljcticn.^  &c.  When  a  feclary 
of  Ciiiven  hears  tb:^  ^ame  of  Vichencu  pronounced,  he 
ftops  his  tars,  flies,  and  purifies  himftlf. 

Page  167.  (16).  llje  Chlneje  zuo'/J!::^-  him  uiukr  the  name 


NOTES.  34S 

of  J^ot.  The  original  name  of  this  God  is  Balts^  which 
iQ  Hebrew  llgnifies  an  egg.  The  Arabs  pronounce 
in  Baidhj  g''-'i'-g  to  the  dh  an  emphatic  found  which 
makes  it  approach  to  dz.  Kempfer,  an  accurate  travellefj 
writes  it  Budjo^  which  muft  be  pronounced  Boudfo^  u'hence 
is  derived  rhc  name  of  Budfoift  and  of  Bonze,  applied  to 
tXiQ  prieils.  Clement  of  Alexandria,  in  his  Stromata, 
wrices  it  Bcdou^  as  it  is  pronounced  alfo  by  the  Chingulaisj 
and  Saint  Jerome^  Boudd.i  and  Boutta.  At  Thibet  they 
cJl  it  Budd  :  and  hence  the  name  of  the  country  called 
Boud'ian  arid  Ti-budd:  it  was  in  this  province  that  this 
fyuem  of  religion  was  firft  inculcated  in  Upper  Afia; 
Ln  is  a  corruption  of  Allah^  the  name  of  God  in  the 
Syriac  language,  from  which  many  of  the  Eaftern  dialecSIs 
appear  to  be  derived.  The  Chinefe  having  neither  b  nor 
//,  have  fupplied  their  place  bj^/and  t^  and  have  there- 
fore faid  Font, 

Page  i68.  (17).  That  the  foul  can  cxiji  hdependently  of 
the  fenfes.  See  in  Kempfer  the  doctrine  of  the  Sintoifts, 
which  is  a  mixture  of  that  of  Epicurus  and  of  the  Stoics. 

Page  id,  (18}.  Talipat  fcreen.  It  is  a  leaf  of  the  La- 
tan'ier  fpccies  of  the  "palm  tree.  Hence  the  Bonzes  of 
Siam  take  the  appellation  of  Talapo'ui,  The  ufe  of  this 
fcrecn  is  an  exclufive  privilege. 

Page  ihg.  f '9;.  Conjun^i'iGn  of  the  Jlars.  The  fe6l:aries 
of  Confucius  are  no  lefs  addi6led  to  aftrology  than  the 
Bonzes.  It  is  indeed  the  malady  of  every  eaftern  na- 

Page /V.  (2C).  ^e  Grand  Lama,  The  Delai-La-May 
or  immenfe  high  priefts  of  La^  is  the  fame  perfon  whom 
we  find  mentioned  in  our  old  books  of  travels,  by  the 


346  N     O     T     E     $. 

r.aiiie  of  Frcfler  John,  froir.  a  corruption  of  the  Perfian 
^vortl  Djchan-t  which  fignifies  the  world,  to  which  has 
heen  prefixed  the  French  word  preftre  or  prc:re,  priefl. 
Thus  the  pr'ieji  world  and  the  God  world  are  in  the  Per- 
sian idiom  the  fame. 

Page  i^/.  (21),  The  excrcmrizts  cf  their  ponfiff.  In  a 
recent  expedition,  the  EngliOi  have  found  certain  idols  of 
ihc  Lamas  nllcd  in  the  infide  with  facred  paltils  from 
the  clofe-llool  of  the  high-prieil.  Mr.  Halting?,  and 
Colonel  Pollier  who  is  now  at  Laufanne,  are  \W\n^  v/it- 
neiTes  of  this  facl,  and  undoubtedly  worthy  of  credit.  It 
T/ill  be  very  extraordinary  to  obfcrvej  that  this  difgufting 
ceremony  is  conne6led  vv'ith  a  profour.d  philofophical 
fyitcm,  to  wit,  that  of  the  raetempfychofis,  admitted  by 
the  Lamas.  When  the  Tartars  fwallow  thefe  facred  relics, 
v/hich  thev  are  accuiicmed  to  do,  they  imitate  the  laws 
of  the  univerfe,  the  parts  of  vv'hich  are  inceflantly  ab- 
sorbed and  pafs  into  the  fubuance  of  each  other.  It  is 
upon  the  model  of  the  fci-pent  who  devours  his  tail,  and 
this  ferpent  is  Budd  and  the  world. 

Page  170.  (22).  The  hihahita;it  ofjiuda,^  oV.  It  fre- 
qiientlv  happens,  that  the  fwine  devour  t!ie  very  fi:!ecies 
of  ferpents  which  the  negroes  adore,  v/hich  is  a  fource 
of  great  defoiation  in  the  country.  Prcfident  de  BrolTes 
has  given  us  in  his  hifl:ory  of  the  Fetiche^  a  curious  col- 

kaion  of  abfurdities  of  this   nature The  Tcleatean 

drejfes^  ^c.  The  Teleuteans,  a  Tartar  nation,  paint  God 
as  v.-earlng  a  veflure  of  all  colours,  particularly  red  and 
green  i  and  as  thefe  connitute  the  uniform  of  the  Ruliian 
dragoons,  they  compare  him  to  this  defcription  ot  fol- 
diers.     The  Egyptiaiis  alio  drefs  the  God  Vyorid  in  -^ 


NOTES.  34^ 

garment  of  every  colour.  Eufehius  Pr^p.  Evang,  p,  115. 
L  3.  The  Teleuteans  call  God  Bou^v/hich  is  only  an  al- 
teration of  Boudd,  the  God  Egg  and  World. 

Page  id.  (2.3).  The  Kamchadale  reprefents  God  under 
the  figure  of  an  ill-natured  and  arbitrary  old  man.  Con- 
iult  upon  thib  fi'bjedt  a  work  entitled,  Dcfcriptiondez  Feu- 
pies  fomnis  a  la  Riijpy  and  it  will  be  found  that  the  picture 
is  not  overcharged. 

Page  179,  (24.)  His  [an 'in-law  Ali^  or  his  vicars  Omar 
and  Aboubtkre.  Thefe  are  the  two  grand  parties  into 
which  the  Mullulmans  are  divided.  The  Turks  have 
embraced  the  fecond,  the  Perhans  the  firft. 

V'dgQ  1^2.  [^-'^'^.  To  niaki'  war  upon  infidels.  Whatever 
the  advocates  for  the  philofophy  and  civilization  of  the 
Turks  may  aficrc,  to  :nake  war  upon  infidels  is  confidered 
hy  them  as  an  obligatory  precept  and  an  ad:  of  religion. 
See  Reland  de  Relig.  Moham. 

Page  190.  (26).  Tour  fy ft  em  refls  entirely  on  myflical  in- 
terpretations.  When  we  read  the  fathers  of  the  church, 
and  fee  upon  what  arguments  they  have  built  the  edifice 
of  religion,  v^^e  are  inexpreflibly  aftonifhed  with  their 
creduliiy,  or  their  knavery  ;  but  allegory  was  the  rage  of 
that  period  :  the  Pagans  employed  it  to  explain  the  a6lions 
of  their  Gods,  and  the  Chriftians  adied  in  the  fame  fpirit 
when  they  employed  it  after  their  falhion. 

Page  195.  (27).  It  was  not  till  four  hundred  years  after. 
See  the  Chronology  of  the  Twelve  Ages,  in  which  I  con- 
ceive myfelf  to  have  clearly  proved  that  Mofes  lived  about 
1400  years  before  Jefus  Cbrift,  and  Zoroafter  about  a 

Page  196.  (28).  /;;  the  correBed  publication  of  their facred 
hocks.     In  the  iirft  periods  of  the  Chriftian  church,  not 


343  NOTES.  the  moft  learned  of  thofc  who  have  fince  been  de- 
nominatecl  heretics,  but  many  of  the  ortnodox,  cciiceived 
Mofes  to  have  v/rltten  neither  the  law  nor  the  Penta- 
teuch, but  that  the  work  was  a  compilation  made  by  the 
ddcrs  of  the  people  and  the  Seventy,  who,  nfter  the  death 
of  Mofes,  coilci^ed  his  fcattercd  ordinances,  and  mixed 
\vith  them  things  that  were  extraneous ;  fimilar  to  what 
happened  as  to  the  Koran  of  ivlahomet.  See  Les  Clemen- 
//;/£•.?,  Home}.  2.  {td^.  51.  and  Homcl.  3.  fe£i  42. 

Modern  critics,  more  enlightened  or  more  .ittentivc 
than  the  ancients,  have  found  in  Genefis  in  particular, 
marks  of  its  having  been  compofed  on  the  return  from 
the  captivity;  but  the  principal  proofs  have  efcaped  them. 
Thtfe  I  mean  to  exhibit  in  an  analyfis  of  the  book  of 
Gcncfis,    \n  which  1   fnall   deinonflratc   that  the   tenth 
chapter,   among  others,  which   treats   of  the  pretended 
generations  of  the  Man  called  Noah,  is  a  real  geographi- 
cal pi^iure  of  the  world,  as  it  vras  known  to  the  Hebrews 
at  the  epoch  of  the  captivity,  which  was  bounded  by 
Greece  or  Kellas  at  the  Weir,  mount  Caucafus  at  the 
North,  Perfia  at  the  Eall,  and  Arabia  and  Egypt 
iit  the  South.     All  the  pretended  perfonages  from  Adam 
to  Abraham  or  his  father  Terah,  are  mythological  beings, 
fiar?,  confrellationsj  countries.     Adam  Is  Bootes ;  Noah 
is  Ofvris,  Xifuthrus  Janus,  Saturn;  that  is  to  fay  Capri- 
corn, or  the  celeftial  Genius  that  opened  the  year.     The 
Alexandrian  Chronicle   fays    exprefsly,    page    85,    that 
Nimrod  was  fuppofed  by  the  Perfians  to  be  their  firil 
king,  as  having  invented  the  art  of  hunting,  and  that  he 
Vs'as  tranflated  into  heaven,  v/here  he  appears  under  the 
iiame  of  Orion. 

Page  197.  (29).  Creation  of  the  ivorld  infix  gahmu,  or 


N     O     T    K     S. 


pericds,  or  into  fix  gahan-bars^  that  is,  fix  periods  of  time. 
Thefe  periods  r,re  what  Zoroafter  calls  th<z.  ihoujands  vf 
God  or.  of  lights  meaning  the  fix  fuinmer  months.     In 
the   £rii,   fiy   the    Pcrfiai:?,    God  created    (arranged  in 
order)  the  heav^ens  j   in  the  fecond  the  waters;  in  the 
third  the  earth  ;    in  the  fourth  trees ;    in  the  fifth  ani- 
mals ;    and  in  the  fixth.  man :    correfponding  v/ith   the 
account  in  Genefis.  r    For  particulars  fee  Hjdey  ch,  9,  and 
Henry  Lcrd^  ch.  2.   On  the  religion  of  the  ancient  Perjlan^:. 
It  is  remarkable,  that  the  fame  tradition  is  found  in  the 
facred  books  of  the  EtruriaiiS,  which  relate,  "  that  \k\t 
*'  Fabricator  of  all  things  had  cornprifed  the  duration  of 
"  his  work  in  a  period  of  twelve  thoufand  years,  which 
^'  period  was  diftributed  to  the  twelve  houfes  of  the  fun." 
In  the  firil  thcufand,  God  made  heaven  and  earth;   irx 
the  fecond,  the  nrmam.ent  3   in  the  third,  the  fea  and  the 
vvaters  ;   in  the  fourth,  the  fun,  moon,  and  ilars ;  in  the 
fifth,  isi^  foul  of  animals,  bir4s,  and  reptiles  ;  in  the  fixth, 
man.     '^q&  Suida^-^  at  V.\2  \vcy6,  Tyrrke7:a',  which  fhows 
iirii,   the    identity  of  their  theological  and   aOToloo-icai 
opinions  ;  and  fecondly,  the  identity,  or  rather  confufion 
cf  ideas,  between  abfolute  and  fvfternatical  creation,  that 
is,  the  periods  ailigned  for  renewing  the  face  of  nature^ 
which  were  at  firil  the  period  cf  the  year,  and  afterwards 
periods  of  60,   of  6co,   of  25jOOO,  of  36,000.  and  of 
432,000  years. 

Page  198.  (30).  Auricular  confejion^  ifc.  The  mo- 
dern. Parfes  and  the  ancient  Mithriacs,  who  are  the  fame 
{qc^^  obferve  all  the  Chriftian  facraments,  even  the  laying 
on  of  hands  in  confirmation.  "  The  prieft  of  Alithra," 
fays  Tertullian  (de  Prcefcriptione,  c.  40.)  «  promifes  ab- 
"folution  ffom  fm  on  confefTion  and  baptifm  ;  and,  if  I 

"  righti? 

35C3  NOTE    g. 

«  rightly  remember,  Mithra  marks  the  foldiers  in  the  foie- 
"  head  (with  the  chrifm,  called  in  Egyptian  KotiphiJ  ;  he 
"  celebrates  the  lacrifice  of  bread,  v^hich  is  the  refurrec- 
"  tion,  and  prefents  the  crown  to  his  followers,  menacing 
"  them  at  the  fame  time  with  the  fvvord,  &c.'^ 

In  thefe  myfteries  they  tried  the  courage  of  the  initiated 
with  a  thoufand  terrors,  prefci.ting  fi;e  to  his  face,  a 
fword  to  his  breait,  &:c.  ;  they  alio  offered  him  a  crov/n 
which  he  rcfufed,  faying,  God  is  my  crown :  and  this 
crown  is  to  l)e  fecn  in  the  celeftial  fphere  by  the  fide  cf 
Bootes.  The  perfonages  in  thefe  myfteries  were  diftin- 
guiftied  by  the  names  of  the  animal  conftellations.  The 
ccrem.ony  of  mafs  is  nothing  more  than  an  imitation  of 
thefe  myfteries  and  tl}ofe  of  Eleufis.  The  benedidion  ths 
Lord  be  luiib  you,  is  a  literal  tranflation  of  the  formular 
of  admiftion  chon-k,  a?}:,  p-ak.  See  BeaJAjob,  Hiji,  Du 
Man'icheijme,  vol.  ii. 

,  Page  199.  (31).  The  Vedes^the Chaf.res^and the P oiirans. 
Thefe  are  the  facred  volumes  of  the  Hindoos  ;  the}^  are 
fometimes  written  Fedarns,  Potiranains^  CbaJJranSy  be- 
caufe  the  Hindoos,  like  the  Perfians,  are  accuftomed  to 
give  a  nafal  found  to  the  terminations  of  their  words, 
which  we  reprefent  by  the  affixes  cri  and  an,  and  the 
Portuguefe  by  the  affixes  C7n  and  am.  Many  of  thefe 
books  have  been  tranflated,  thanks  to  the  liberal  fpirit  of 
Mr.  Haftings,  who  has  founded  at  Calcutta  a  literary 
fociety  and  a  printing  prefs.  At  the  fame  time,  how- 
ever, that  we  exprefs  our  gratitude  to  this  fociety,  we 
muft  be  permitted  to  complain  of  its  cxclufive  fpirit,  the 
number  of  copies  printed  of  each  book  being  fuch  as  it  is 
impoffible  to  purchafe  them  even  in  England  j  they  are 
wholly   in   the   hands    of   the   Eaft  India   proprietors. 


NOTE     S.  351 

Scarcely  even  is  the  Afiatic  Mifcellany  known  in  Europe, 
and  a  man  rnuil  be  very  learned  in  oriental  antiquity  be- 
fore he  (o  much  as  hears  of  the  Jones's,  the  \Vilkins*s 
and  the  H:ilhed's,  Szc,  As  to  ih^  iacrcd  books  of  th.e 
Hindoos,  all  that  are  yet  in  our  hands  are  the  Bhagvat 
Geeta,  the  Ezour-Vedam,  the  Bngavadam,  and  certain 
fragments  of  die  Chadres  printed  at  the  end  of  the 
Bhagvat  Geeta^  Thefe  books  are  in  Indoftan  what  the 
Cld  and  New  Teilament  are  in  Chriftendom,  the  Koraii 
in  Turkey,  the  Sad-der  and  the  Zendavefta  among  the 
Parfe?,  dcc.  When  I  have  taken  an  cxtenfive  furvey  of 
their  contents,  I  have  fometimes  af^ed  myfelf,  what 
would  be  tlie  lofs  to  the  human  race  if  a  new  Omar  con- 
demned them  to  the  flames  |  and  unable  to  difcover  any 
mifchief  that  would  enfue,  I  call  the  im^aginary  cheft  that 
contains  them,  the  box  of  Pandora. 

Page  201.  (32).  Bru?naj  Blchen  or  Viche7ioii^  Ck'ih  or 
Chivcn.  Thefe  names  are  differently  pronounced  ac- 
cording to  the  difieren:  dialecls :  thus  they  fay  Birmah^ 
Brcirrnia^  Brciunci.  Blchen  has  been  turned  into  Vichcr^ 
\iy  the  eafy  exchange  of  a  -S  for  a  V-^  and  into  richenou 
by  means  of  a  grarnniatlcal  affix.  In  the  fame  manner 
Ch'ih-i  which  is  fynonymcus  v/ith  Satan,  and  iignifies  ad- 
veifary,  is  frequently  v/ritten  Ch'ib-a  and  Ckh-ew,  he  i> 
called  alfo  Roiidcr  and  Roiitr-en^  that  is,  the  deftroyer. 

Page  id,  (33).  In  the  Jhape  of  a  tortoife.  This  is  the 
ccnileliation  tcjludo.^  or  the  lyre^  which  was  at  firft  a 
toruoife,  on  account  of  its  P.ow  motion  round  the  Pole  \ 
then  a  lyre,  becaufe  it  is  the  fhell  of  this  reptile  on  which 
the  firings  of  the  lyre  are  mounted.  See  an  excellent 
memoir  of  M.  Duptiis^  fur  I'Origine  dcs  Conjlellathnsy 
in  ^to, 

page  204.   (34.).   Thai  you  ha-ve  horrovjed  the  a?2cicnt 


3^2  NOTES. 

Pagjn'ifm  of  the  TVeftern  world.  All  the  ancient  opinion? 
of  the  E^^yptian  and  Grecian  theologians  are  to  be  found 
in  India,  and  they  appear  to  hai'e  been  incroduced,  by 
means  of  the  commerce  of  Arabia  and  the  vicinity  of 
Perfia,  time  immemorial. 

Page  205.  (35)'  Breathed  upon  the  face  of  the  zuaters. 
This  cofmo!a;ony  of  the  Lamas,  the  Bonzes,  and  even  the/ 
Bramins,  as  Henry  Lord  afTerts,  is  literally  that  of  the  an- 
cient Egyptians.  "  The  Egyptians,'*  fays  Porphyry,  "  call 
"  Knepk^  intelligence,  or  efncient  caufe  of  the  univerfe- 
"  They  relate  that  this  God  vomitted  an  ege,  from  which 
*«  vv^as  produced  another  God  named  Phiha  or  Vulcan, 
**•  (igneous  principle,  or  the  fun,)  and  they  add,  that  this 
"  egg  is  the  world."     Eufcb.  Prtsp.  Evang.  p.  115. 

"  They  reprefent,"  fays  the  fame  author  in  another 
place,  "the  God  Kneph^or  efficient  caufe, under  the  form 
«^  of  a  man  in  deep  blue  (the  colour  of  the  fky),  having 
"  in  his  hand  a  fceptre,  a  belt  round  his  body,  and  a  fmall 
^i  bonnet  royal  of  light  feathers  on  his  head,  to  denote 
"  how  very  fubtile  and  fugacious  the  idea  of  that  being 
"  is."  Upon  which  I  ihall  obferve,  that  Kneph  in  He- 
brew fio-nihes  a  wing,  a  feather,  and  that  this  colour  of 
fky-blue  is  to  be  found  in  the  majority  of  the  Indian  Gcds^ 
and  is,  under  the  name  of  Narayan,  one  of  their  uioil 
diftinguifhing  epithets. 

Page  208.  (36).  Tijat  the  Lamas  ivcre  a  degenerate  f£f 
ef  the  Nejiorians,  This  is  afiertcd  by  our  mifHonaries, 
and  among  others  by  Georgi  in  his  unfinifhed  'work  of 
the  Thibetan  alphabet :  but  if  it  can  be  proved  that  the 
Manicheans  were  but  plagiarids,  and  the  ignorant  echo  of 
a  dodrine  that  exifted  fifteen  hundred  years  before  them, 
what  becomes  of  the  declarations  of  Georgi  ?  See  upon 
this  fubjea  Beaufoh.  Hif}.  du  Mankheijmc, 


NOTES.  353 

But  the  Lama  dmionjirated^  &c.  The  eaflern  writers 
in  general  agree  in  placing  the  birth  of  Bedou  1027  years 
before  Jefus  Chrift,  which  makes  him  the  cotemporary 
of  Zoroafter,  with  whom,  in  my  opinion,  they  confound 
him.  It  is  certain  that  his  doitrine  notorioufly  exifted 
at  that  epoch :  it  is  found  entire  in  that  of  Orpheus^ 
Pythagoras,  and  the  Indian  gymnofophifts.  But  the 
gymnofophifts  are  cited  at  the  time  of  Alexander  as  an 
ancient  lect  already  divided  into  Brachmans  and  Sama*- 
ncans.  See  Bardefanes  en  Saint  yerome^  Ep'itre  a  'Jov'iem, 
Pythagoras  lived  in  the  ninth  century  before  Jefus  Chrift  ; 
See  Chronology  of  the  Twelve  Ages  j  and  Orpheus  is  of 
Hill  greater  antiquity.  If,  as  is  the  cafe,  the  doctrine  of 
Pythagoras  and  that  of  Orpheus  are  of  Egyptian  origin, 
that  of  Bedou  goes  back  to  the  common  fource ;  and  in 
reality  the  Egyptian  priefts  recite  that  Hermes,  as  he  was 
dying,  faid  :  "  I  have  hitherto  lived  an  exile  from  my 
"  country,  to  which  I  now  return.  Weep  not  for  me, 
"  I  afcend  to  the  celeftial  abode,  where  each  of  you  will 
"follow  in  his  turn:  there  God  is:  this  life  is  only 
"  death."  Chalcidius  in  Thimaiim.  Such  was  the  profef- 
Hon  of  faith  of  the  Samaneans,  the  fe6taries  of  Orpheus, 
and  the  Pythagoreans.  Farther,  is  no  other 
than  Bedou  himfelf;  for  among  the  Indians,  Chinefe, 
Lamas,  &c.  the  planet  Adercury,  and  the  correfponding 
day  of  the  week  (Wednefday)  bear  the  name  of  Bedou: 
and  this  accounts  for  his  being  placed  in  the  rank  of 
mythological  beings,  and  difcovers  the  iJlulion  of  his 
pretended  exigence  as  a  man,  fmcc  it  is  evident  that 
Mercury  was  not  a  human  being,  but  the  Genius  or 
Decan,  who,  placed  at  the  fum.mcr  folflice,  opened  the 
A  a  Kgyptiao 

354  N    O    T    E    ^. 

Egyptinn  year :  hence  his  attributes  taken  from  th* 
conftellation  Syrius,  and  his  name  of  Anubis,  as  well  as 
that  of  Efculapius,  having  the  figure  of  a  man  and  the 
head  of  a  dog :  hence  his  ferpent,  which  is  the  Hydraj 
emblem  of  the  'Nile  (Hydor,  humidity);  and  from  this 
ferpent  he  fecms  to  have  derived  his  name  of  Hermes,  as 
Remes  (with  z  fchln)^  in  the  oriental  languages,  fignifies 
ferpent.  Now  Bedou  and  Hermes  being  the  fame 
names,  it  is  manifeft  of  what  antiquity  is  the  fyftem 
afcribed  to  the  former.  As  to  the  fia^me  of  Samanean,  it 
is  precifely  that  of  Chaman  preferved  in  Tartary,  China, 
and  India.  The  interpretation  given  to  it  is,  man  of  the 
woods^  a  hermit  mortifying  thefefh^  fuch  being  the  charac- 
teriftic  of  this  kci ;  but  its  literal  meaning  is  celejlial 
(Samaoui),  and  explains  the  fyftem  of  thofe  who  are 
called  by  it.  This  fydem  is  the  fame  as  that  of  the 
fedaries  of  Orpheus,  of  the  Eilenians,  of  the  ancient 
Anchorets  of  Perfia  and  the  whole  Eaftern  country.  See 
Porphyry^  de  Abftin.  Animal.  Thefe  celeftial  and  penitent 
men,  carried  in  India  their  infanlty  to  fuch  an  extreme,  as 
to  v/ifli  not  to  touch  the  earth,  and  they  accordingly 
lived  in  cages  fufpended  to  trees,  where  the  people^ 
whofe  admiration  was  not  lefs  abfurd,  brought  them 
provifions.  During  the  night  there  were  frequent  rob- 
beries, rapes  and  murders,  and  it  was  at  length  dif- 
covered  that  they  were  com.mitted  by  thofe  men,  who^ 
defcending  from  their  cages,  thus  indemnified  themfelves 
for  their  reftraint  during  the  day.  The  Bramins,  their 
rivals,  embraced  the  opportunity  of  exterminathig  them; 
and  from  that  time  their  name  in  India  has  been  fynony- 
mous  with  hypocrite.     See  Hifl,  de  la  Chine^  in  5  vols, 


NOTES.  355 

4to,   at  the  note  page  50 ;  Hijl,  de  Huns,  2  vols. ;  and 
Preface  to  the  Ezour-Fedam, 

Page  209.  (37).    Demonjiratehis  exiftence^^c,  Thtve 
are  abfolutely  no   other  monuments  of  the  exiftence  of 
Jefus  Chrift  as  a  human  being,  thana  paflage  in  Jofephus 
{Antiq.  Jud.  lib.    1 8.  c.  3.)?  a  fmgle  phrafe  in  Tacitus, 
[Jnnal,  lib.  15.  c.  44.),  and  the  Gofpels.  But  the  paflage 
in  Jofephus  is  unanimoufly  acknowledged  to  be  apocry- 
phal, and  to  have  been  interpolated  towards  the  clofe  of 
the  third  century,  {See  Trad,  de  Jojephe^  par  M.  Gillet)  ; 
and  that  of  Tacitus  is  fo  vague,  and  fo  evidently  taken 
from  the  depofition  of  the  Chriftians  before  the  tribunals, 
that  it  may  be  ranked  in  the  clafs  of  evangelical  records. 
It  remains  to  enquire  of  v/hat  authority  are  thefe  record?, 
"  All   the  world  knows,"   fays   Fauftus,  who,    though 
a  Manichean,  was  one  of  the  moft  learned  men  of  the 
third  century,  "  All  the  world  knows,  that  the  Gofpels 
"  were  neither  written  by  Jefus  Chrift,  nor  his  apoftles, 
"  but  by  certain  unknown  perfons,  who,  rightly  judging 
"  that   they  fhould  not  obtain  belief  refpecling  things 
•'  which  they  had  not  feen,  placed  at  the  head  of  their 
"  recitals  the  names  of   contemporary  apoftles."      See 
Beaujob.  vol.  i.  and  Hift.  des  Apologiftes  de  la  Relig.  Chret. 
par  Burigni^  a  fagacious  writer,  who  has  demonftrated 
the  abfolute  uncertainty  of  thofe  foundations  of  the  Chrif- 
tian  religion,  fo  that  the  exiftence  of  Jefus  is  no  better 
proved  than  that  of  Ofiris  and  Hercules,  or  that  of  Fot 
or  Bedou,  with  whom,  fays  M.  de  Guignes,  the  Chinefe 
continually  confound   him,  for  they  never  call  Jefus  by 
any  other  name  than  Fot.     Hiji.  de  Huns, 

Page  id.   (38.)    Tour  Gcfpels  are  takrnfrom  the  bochs  of 

ths  Alithriacs*     That  is  to  fay,  from  the  pious  romances 

A  a  a  formed 

356  NOTES. 

formed   out  of  the  facred  legends  of  the  Myfteries  of 
Mithra,  Ceres,  Ifts,  &c.j  from  whence  are   equally  de- 

-  rived  the  books  of  the  Hindoos  and  the  Bonzes.  Our 
millionaries  have  long  remarked  a  ftriking  refemblance 
between  thofe  books  and  the  Gofpels.  M.  Wilkins  ex- 
prefsly  mentions  it  in  a  note  in  the  Bhagvat-Geeta.  All 
?.aree  that  Krifna,  Fot,  and  Jefus,  have  the  fame  charac- 
teriftic  features  ^  but  religious  prejudice  has  ftood  in  the 
v^ay  of  drawing  from  this    circuniftance  the  proper  znd 

■  natural  inference.     To  time  and  reafon  muft  it  be  left  to 

-difplay  the  truth. 

Page  210.  (39).  The  interior  and fecret  doclrine.  The 
Budfoifts  have  two  dodrines,  the  one  public  and  often- 
lible,  the  other  interior  and  fee  ret,  precifely  like  the 
Egyptian  priefts.  It  may  be  afked,  why  this  dilHndlion  ? 
It  is,  that  as  the  public  doctrine  recommends  offerings, 
expiations,  endowments,  he.  the  priefts  find  their  pro- 
fit in  teaching  it  to  the  people  ;  v/hereas  the  other,  teach- 
ing the  vanity  of  worldly  things,  and  attended  with 
no  lucre,  it  is  thought  proper  to  make  it  known  only  to 
adepts.  Can  the  teachers  and  followers  of  this  religion, 
•be  better  claffed  than  under  the  heads  of  knavery  and 
credulity  ? 

Page  212.  (40).  That  happinr^fs  and  mis  fortune^  i5fc» 
Thefe  are  the  exprcflions  of  La  Loubere,  in  his  de- 
fcription  of  the  kingdom  of  Si  am  and  the  theology  of  the 
Bonzes.  Their  dogmas,  compared  with  thofe  of  the 
;ancient  philofophers  of  Greece  and  Italy,  give  a  com- 
plete reprefcntation  of  the  whole  fyfiem  of  the  Stoics  and 
Epicureans,  mixed  withaftrological  fuperftitions,  and  fome 
traits  of  Pythagorifm. 

Page  224.  (41).  The  original  barbarous Jlati^  ofmankivd, 
:■:    ■■  ,,  .:.    .       -.-■    -  It 

NOTES.  357 

It  Is  the  unanimous  teflimony  of  hiftory,  and  even  of 
legends,  that  the  firft  human  beings  were  every  where 
favagesj  and  that  it  was  to  civilize  them,  and  teach 
them  to  make  hready  that  the  Gods  manifefted  them- 

Page  jd.  (42).  Man  receives  no  ideas  hut  through  the  me- 
dium  ofhisfenjes.  The  rock  on  which  all  the  ancients  have 
fplit,  and  which  has  occafioned  all  their  errors,  has  been 
their  fuppofmg  the  idea  of  God  to  be  innate  and  co- 
eternal  with  the  foul  j  and  hence  all  the  reveries  developed 
in  Plato  and  Jamblicus.  See  the  Timceus^  the  Phedon^ 
and  De  Myji.  Mgyptionm^  fe^.  I.  c.  3. 

Page  231.  (43).  B.e cord  of  all  the  mojiuments  of  antiquity. 
It  clearly  rcfults,  fays  Plutarch,  from  the  verfes  of 
Orpheus  and  the  facred  books  of  the  Egyptians  and 
Phrygians,  that  the  ancient  theology,  not  only  of  the 
Greeks,but  of  all  nations,  v/as  nothing  more  than  a  fyftem  of 
phyfics,  a  picture  of  the  operations  of  nature,  wrapped  up 
in  myfterious  allegories  and  enigmatical  fymbols,  in  a 
manner  that  the  ignorant  multitude  attended  rather  to  their 
apparent  than  to  their  hidden  meaning,  and  even  in  what 
they  underftood  of  the  latter,  fuppofed  there  to  be  fome- 
thing  more  deep  than  what  they  perceived.  Fragment 
of  a  work  of  Plutarch  now  loft^  quoted  by  Eufebius^  Pra^ 
par.  Evang.  lib.  3.  ch.  1.  p.  83. 

The  majority  of  philofophei'S,  fays  Porphyry,  and 
among  others  Chicremon  (who  lived  in  Egypt  in  the 
firft  age  of  Chriflianity),  imagine  there  never  to  have  ' 
been  any  other  world  than  the  one  we  fee,  and  acknow- 
ledge no  other  Gods  of  all  thofe  recognized  by  the 
Egyptians,  than  fuch  as  are  commonly  called  planets, 
%ns  of  the  Zodiac,  and  conftellations  \  whofe  afpeds, 
~      A  a  3  that 

358  NOTES. 

that  is,  rifing  and  fetting,  are  fuppofed  to  influence  the 
fortunes  of  men  ;  to  which  they  add,  their  divifions  of  the 
figns  into  decans  and  difpenfers  of  time,  whom  they  flyie 
lords  of  the  afcendant,  whofe  names,  virtues  in  the  re- 
lieving diftempers,  rifmg,  fetting,  and  prefages  of  future 
events,  are  the  fubjecls  of  almanacks  ;  (for  be  it  obferved, 
that  the  Egyptian  priefts  had  almanacks  the  exacSt  counter- 
part of  Matthew  LanilDerg's)  for  when  the  priefts 
affirmed  that  the  fun  was  the  architect  of  the  imiverfe, 
Chaeremon  prefently  concludes  that  all  their  narratives 
refpecling  Ifis  and  Ohris,  together  with  their  other  facred 
fables,  referred  in  part  to  the  planets,  the  phafes  of 
the  moon,  and  the  revolution  of  the  fun,  and  in  part  to 
the  flars  of  the  daily  and  nightly  hemifpheres  and  the 
river  Nile ;  in  a  word,  in  all  cafes  to  phyfical  and  natural 
exiflences,  and  never  to  fucli  as  might  be  immaterial  and 
incorporeal.  ...  All  thefe  philofophers  believe,  that  the 
acts  of  our  v/ill,  and  the  motion  of  our  bodies,  depend 
upon  thofe  of  the  ftars  to  which  they  are  fubjeded,  and 
they  refer  every  thing  tq  the  laws  of  phyfical  necefiity, 
which  they  call  dediny  or  Fatum^  fuppofing  a  chain  of 
caufes  and  effects  which  binds,  by  I  know  not  what  con- 
nection, all  beings  together,  from  the  meanell  atom  to 
the  fiipreme  power  and  primary  influence  of  the  Gods ; 
fo  that,  v/hether  in  their  temples  or  in  their  idols,  the 
only  fubject  of  worfhip  is  the  pov/er  of  deftiny.  For- 
phyr.  Epiji,  ad  yanebonem. 

Page  232.  (44).  7 he  pra^Ace  of  agriculture  required  the 
ohfervaiian  and  knowUdge  of  the  heavens.  It  continues  to  be 
repeated  every  day,  on  the  indirect  authority  of  the  book 
of  Gene. iS,  that  aftronomy  was  the  invention  of  the  chil- 
dren of  Noah.  It  has  been  gravely  faid,  that,  while 
jl    v  wandering 


NOTES.  359 

wandering  fhepherds  in  the  plains  of  Shinar,  they  em- 
ployed their  leifure  in  compofing  a  planetary  fyftem :  as 
if  fliepherds  had  occafion  to  know  more  than  the  Polar 
ilar,  and  if  necefTity  was  not  the  fole  motive  of  every  in- 
vention !  If  the  ancient  fliepherds  w^.ere  fo  ftudious  and 
fagacious,  how  does  it  happen  that  the  modern  ones  are 
fo  ftupid,  ignorant,  and  inattentive  ?  And  it  is  a  fadl,  that 
the  Arabs  of  the  defer!  know  not  fo  many  as  fix  conftel- 
lations,  and  underftand  not  a  word  of  aftronomy. 

Page  233.  (45).  Geniiy  Gods^  authors  of  good  and  evih 
It  appears  that  by  the  words  genius,  the  ancients  denoted 
a  quality,  a  generative  power ;  for  the  following  words, 
which  are  all  of  one  family,  convey  this  meaning  :  gene^ 
rary^  genos^  genefis^  genus,  ge?is. 

The  Sabeans,  ancient  and  modern,  fays  MaimonldeSj 
acknov/ledge  a  principal  God,  the  maker  and  inhabitant 
of  heaven;  but  on  account  of  his  great  diftance  they  con- 
<:eive  him  to  be  inacceffible ;  and  in  imitation  of  the 
conduct  of  people  towards  their  kings,  they  employ  as 
mediators  with  him,  the  planets  and  their  angels,  v/hom 
they  call  princes  and  potentates,  and  whom  they  fuppo.fe 
to  refide  in  thofe  luminous  bodies  as  in  palaces  or  taber- 
nacles, &c.  More-Neb uchim^  pars  3.  c.  29. 

Page  234..  (46}.  And  even  afex  derived  from  the  gender 
of  its  appellation.  According  as  the  gender  of  the  obje^l 
was  in  the  language  of  the  nation  mafculine  or  feminine, 
the  Divinity  who  bore  its  name  was  male  or  fetfiale. 
Thus  the  Cappadocians  called  the  moon  God,  and  the 
fun  Goddefs ;  a  circumftance  which  gives  to  the  fame 
beings  a  perpetual  variety  in  ancient  mythology. 

Page  235.  (47).  Morality  was  a  judicious  pra^ice  of  all 

that  is  conducive  to  the  prefervaiion  of  e:(i/lenfe*     We  may 

A  a  4  add, 

36o  NOTES. 

add,  fays  Plutarch,  that  thefe  Egyptian  priells  always  re- 
garded the  prefervation  of  health  as  a  point  of  firft  im- 
portance, and  as  indifpenfably  necefiary  to  the  practice  of 
piety  and  the  fervice  of  the  Gods.  See  his  account  of 
Ifis  and  Ofj-'is^  towards  the  end. 

Page  id.  (48}.  That  its  principles  (thofe  of  aftronomy), 
can  he  traced  back  to  a  period  of  ly ^000 years.  The  hiftori- 
cal  orator  follows  here  the  opinion  of  Mr.  Dupuis,  who,  in 
his  learned  memoir  concerning  the  origin  of  the  conftel- 
lations,  has  affigned  many  plaufible  reafons  to  prove  that 
Libra  was  formerly  the  fign  of  the  vernal,  and  Aries  of  the 
nocturnal  equinox  ;  that  is,  that  fmce  the  origin  o^  the 
adtual  aftronomical  fyilem,  the  proceffion  of  the  equi- 
Tioxes  has  carried  forward  by  fevcn  figns  the  primitive 
order  of  the  Zodiac.  Now  eftimating  the  proceiTion  at 
about  feventy  years  and  a  half  to  a  degree,  that  i'S  2,115 
years  to  each  fign ;  and  obferving  that  Jrics  was  in 
its  fifteenth  degree,  1,447  years  before  Chrifr,  it  fo!- 
lov/s,  that  the  firil  cegrce  of  Libra  could  not  have  eoin- 
cided  with  the  vernal  equinox  more  lately  than  15,194 
years  before  Chrifr,  to  which  if  you  add  1790  years  fmce 
ChriR-,  it  appears  that  16,984  have  elapfed  fmce  the 
origin  of  the  Zodiac.  The  vernal  equinox  coincided  with 
the  fird  degree  of  Jrics  2,504.  years  before  Chrift,  and 
TA'ith  the  firll  degree  of  Taurus  4,619  years  before  Chrifl-. 
Now  it  is  to  be  obferved,  that  the  worfiiip  of  ihe  Bull  is 
the  principal  article  in  the  theological  creed  of  the  Egyp- 
tians, Pernans,  Japanefe,  &c.;  from  whence  it  clearly 
follows,  that  fom.e  general  revolution  took  place  among 
thofe  nations  at  that  time.  The  chronology  of  live  or 
fix  thoufand  years  in  Genefis  is  little  agreeable  to  this 
hypothcfis  j  but  as  the  book  of  Genefis  cannot  claim  to 


NOTES.  361 

be  confidered  as  a  hiflory  farther  back  than  Abraham, 
we  are  at  hberfy  to  make  what  arrangements  we  pleafe 
in  the  eternity  that  preceded. 

Page  id.  (49).  When  reafon  finds  there  a  zone  of  heaven 
equally  free  from  the  rains  of  the  equator  and  the  fogs  of  the 
North,  Mr.  Bailli,  in  placing  the  firft  aftronomers  at 
Selingenfkoy,  near  the  lake  Baikal,  paid  no  attention  to 
this  twofold  circumflance:  It  equally  argues  againft  their 
being  placed  at  Axoum  on  account  of  the  rains,  and  th« 
Zi?nh  fly  of  which  Mr.  Bruce  fpeaks. 

Page  238.  (50).  Men  gave  to  the  Jlars^  ^c.  «  The 
'^  ancients,"  fays  Maimonides,  "  direding  all  their  at- 
*'  teniion  to  agriculture,  gave  names  to  the  ftars  derived 
"  from  their  occupation  during  the  year.'*  More  Neb. 
pars  3. 

Page  240.  (51).      They  call  hy  the  name  of  ferpents  the- 
figured  traces  of  the  orbits.     The  ancients  had  verbs  from 
the  fubftantlves  crah^  goaty  tortoife,  as  the  French  have  at 
prefent  the  Y^rhsferpenter^  coquetier.     The  hiftory  of  aU^ 
languages  is  nearly  the  fame. 

Page  243.  (52).  If  they  had  not  feen  in  them  talifmans 
partaking  of  the  nature  ofthejlars.  The  ancient  aftrolo- 
gers,  fays  the  moft  learned  of  the  Jews  (Maimonides)^ 
having  facredly  alligned  to  each  planet  a  colour,  an  ani- 
mal, a  tree,  a  metal,  a  fruit,  a  plant,  formed  from  them 
all  a  figure  or  reprefentation  of  the  ftar,  taking  care  to 
fele6l  for  the  purpofe  a  proper  moment,  a  fortunate  day, 
fuch  as  the  conjunction  of  the  ftar,  or  fome  other  favour- 
able afpe6t.  They  conceived,  that  by  their  magic  cere- 
monies they  could  introduce  into  thofe  figures  or  idols 
the  influences  of  the  fuperlor  beifigs  after  which  they 
were  modelled.    Tbefe  v/ere  the  idols  that  the  Chaldean- 


362  NOTES. 

Sabeans  adored  5  and  in  the  performance  of  their  wor- 
fliip  they  were  obliged  to  be  drelTed  in  the  proper  co« 
lour. . . .  The  aftrologers,  by  their  practices,  thus  in* 
tfoduced  idolatry,  defirous  of  being  regarded  as  the 
difpenfers  of  the  favours  of  heaven  j  and  as  agriculture 
was  the  fole  employment  of  the  ancients,  they  fucceeded 
in  perfuading  them,  that  the  rain  and  other  bleflings  of 
the  feafons  were  at  their  difpofal.  Thus  the  whole  art 
of  agriculture  was  exercifed  by  rules  of  aftrology,  and  the 
priefts  made  taliiinans  or  charms  which  were  to  drive 
away  locufts,  flies,  &c.  See  Maijmnides<^  Morcy  Nehuchm^ 
pars  3.  c.  29. 

The  priefts  of  Egypt,  Perfia,  India,  &c.  pretended  to 
bind  the  Gods  to  their  idols,  and  to  make  them  come 
from  heaven  at  their  pleafure.  They  threatened  the  fun 
and  moon,  if  they  were  difobedient,  to  reveal  the  fecret 
myfteries,  to  fliake  the  Ikies,  &c.  &c.  Ei^feb.  Fracep. 
Bvang.  p.  198,  and  Jamblicus  de  Myjierns  Mgypt. 

Page  /V.  ( 5  3 ) .  The  fun  was  fuppojed  to  a  [fume  their  for m$ 
(the  forms  of  the  twelve  animals).  Thefe  are  the  very 
words  of  lamblicus  de  Symbolis  iEgyptiorum,  c.  2.  fe61:.  7, 
(The  fun  was  the  grand  Proteus,  the  univerfal  meta- 

Page  245.  (  54).  Tour  tonfure  is  the  difk  of  the  fun.  The 
Arabs,  fays  Herodotus,  (have  their  heads  in  a  circle  and 
about  the  temples,  in  imitation  of  Bacchus  (that  is  the 
fun,)  who  fhaves  himfelf,  they  fay,  in  this  manner.  Jere- 
miah fpeaks  alfo  of  this  cuftom.  The  tuft  of  hair  which 
the  Mahometans  preferve,  is  taken  alfo  from  the  fun, 
who  was  painted  by  the  Egyptians  at  the  winter  folftice, 
as  having  but  a  fingle  hair  on  his  head. , . .  Tour  fiole  its 
Xodiac*     The  robes  of  the  goddefs  of  Syria  and  of  Diana 


NOTES.  365 

of  Ephefus,  from  whence  are  borrowed  the  drefs  of 
priells,  have  the  twelve  ?nimals  of  the  Zodiac  painted  on 

them Rofaries  are  found  upon  all  the  Indian  idols, 

conftru6ted  more  than  four  thoufand  years  ago ;  and 
their  ufe  in  the  Eaft  has  been  univerfal  for  time  imme- 
morial.- ....  The  crofier  is  precifely  the  ftafF  of  Bootes 
or  Ofiris  (See  Plate  II.)  All  the  Lamas  wear  the  7mtre 
or  cap  in  the  fhape  of  a  cone,  which  was  an  emblem  of 
the  fun. 

Page  247.  ( 55. )  Having fald  that  a  pla?iet  entered  into  a 
Jign^  their  conjunBlon  was  denominated  a  marriage^  Sec. 
Thcfe  are  the  very  words  of  Plutarch  in  his  account  of 
Ifis  and  Oilris.  The  Hebrews  fay,  m  fpeaking  of  the  ge- 
nerations of  the  Patriarchs,  et  Ingrejfus  eji  in  earn.  From 
this  continual  equivoque  of  ancient  language,  proceeds 
every  mifi-ake. 

Page  248.  (56).  The  combination  of  thefe  figures  had  alfo 
a  meaning.  The  reader  will  doubtlefs  fee,  with  pleafure, 
fome  examples  of  ancient  hieroglyphics. 

"  The  Egyptians  (fays  Hor-appoloJ  reprefent  eternity 
hy  the  figure  of  the  fun  and  moon.  They  defignate  the 
world  by  a  blue  ferpent  with  yellow  fcales  (ftars,  it  is  the 
Chinefe  Dragon ).  if  they  were  defirous  of  expreiling  the 
year,  they  drew  a  pi61:ure  of  IfiS,  who  is  alfo  in  their 
language  called  Sothls,  or  dog-ftar,  one  of  the  iirfl:  con- 
ftellations,  by  the  rifmg  of  which  the  year  commences  ; 
its  infcription  at  Sais  was,  //  is  I  that  rife  In  the  condella-* 
tlon  of  the  Dog, 

"  They  alfo  reprefent  the  year  by  a  palm-tree,  and  the 
month  by  one  of  its  branches^  becaufe  it  is  the  nature  of 
this  tree  to  produce  a  branch  every  month.  They  farther 
reprefent  it  by  the  fourth  part  of  an  acre  of  land."   (The 


364  NOTES. 

whole  acre  divided  into  four  denotes  the  bificxtile  period 
of  four  years.  The  abbreviation  of  this  figure  of  a  field 
in  four  divifions,  is  rrianifcftly  the  letter  hd  or  hcty  the 
feventh  in  the  Samaritan  alphabet ;  and  in  general  all 
the  letters  of  the  alphabet  are  merely  aftronomical  hiero- 
glyphics :  and  it  is  for  this  rcafon  that  the  mode  of 
ivriting  is  from  right  to  left,  like  the  march  of  the  flars). 
- — "  They  denote  a  prophet  by  the  image  of  a  dog^  be- 
caufe  the  dog-xlar  (Anoubis)  by  its  rifmg  gives  notice  of 
the  inundation.  Noiihi  in  Hebrew  fignifics  prophet. — 
They  repcefcnt  inundation  by  a  lion,  becaufe  it  takes 
place  under  that  fign  :  and  hence,  fays  Pkitarch,  the 
cuflom  of  placino;  at  the  gates  of  temples  figures  of  lions 
with  water  iffuing  from  their  mouths. — They  express  the 
idea  of  God  and  Deftiny  by  a  flar.  Iliey  alfo  reprefent 
God,  fays  Porphyry,  by  a  black  flone,  becaufe  his  nature 
is  dai'k  and  obfcure.  All  white  things  exprefs  iheceleilial 
and  luminous  Gods :  all  circular  ones  the  world,  the 
moon,  the  fun,  the  deflinies  :  all  Itmicircular  ones,  as  bows 
and  crefccnts,  are  alfo  defcriptive  of  the  moon.  Fire  and 
the  Gods  of  Olympus,  they  reprefent  by  pyramids  and 
obelifks  :  (the  name  of  the  fun  Baal  is  found  in  this 
latter  word) :  the  fun,  by  a  cone  (the  mitre  of  Ofiris)  : 
the  earth,  by  a  cylinder  (which  revolves)  :  the  generative 
power  of  the  air,  by  the  plains^  and  that  of  the  earth,  by 
a  triangle,  emblem  of  the  female  organ.  Eufib.  Prcrccp. 
Evang.  p.  98. 

«  Clay  (lays  lamblicus  de  Symbolis,  fed.  7.  c.  2.)  de- 
notes m.attcr,  the  gencrati^'c  and  nutrimental  power,  every 
tiling  which  receives  the  warmth  and  fermentation  of  life. 

"  A  man  fitting  upon  the  Lotes  or  Nenuphar^  reprefents 
the  moving  fpirit  (the  fun),  which,  in  like  manner  as 


NOTES.  3&5 

the  plant  lives  in  the  water  without  any  communication 
with  clay,  exifls  equally  diftincSt  from  matter,  fwimming 
in  empty  fpace,  refling  on  itfelf ;  it  is  round  alfo  in  all 
its  parts  like  the  leaves,  the  flowers  and  the  fruit  of  the 
Lotos.  (Brama  has  the  eyes  of  the  Lotos,  fays  Charter 
Neadirfen,  to  denote  bis  intelligence :  his  eye  fwims  over 
every  thing,  like  the  flov/ers  of  the  Lotos  on  the  waters). 
A  man  at  the  helm  of  a  (hip,  adds  lamblicus,  is  defcriptive 
of  the  fun  which  governs  all.  And  Porphyry  tells  us,  that 
the  fun  is  alfo  reprefented  by  a  man  in  a  fhip  refting  upon 
an  amphibious  crocodile  (emblem  of  air  and  water). 

"  At  Elephantine  they  worfhipped  the  figure  of  a  man 
in  a  fitting  pofture,  painted  blue,  having  the  head  of  a  ram, 
and  the  horns  of  a  goat  which  encompafled  a  difk ;  all 
which  reprefented  the  fun  and  moon's  conjun6lion  at  the 
fign  of  the  ram  ;  the  blue  colour  denoting  the  power  of 
the  moon  at  the  period  of  junction,  to  raife  water  into 
clouds.      Eufch.  Pracep,  Evang,  p.  ii6. 

*'  The  hav/k  is  an  emblem  of  the  fun  and  of  light,  on 
account  of  his  rapid  flight,  and  his  foaring  into  the  highcfl 
regions  of  the  air  where  light  abounds. 

"  A  fi(h  is  the  emblem  of  averfion,  and  the  Hippopota^ 
mus  of  violence,  becaufe  it  is  faid  to  kill  its  father  and  ra- 
vifli  its  mother.  Hence,  fays  Plutarch,  the  emblematical 
infcription  of  the  temple  of  Sais,  where  we  fee  painted  on 
the  veftibule,  I.  A  child.  2.  An  old  man.  3.  A  hawk. 
4.  A  fifli.  5.  A  hippopotamus;  which  fignify,  i. Entrance 
(into  life).  2.  Departure.  3.  God.  4.  Hatred.  5.  Li- 
juftice.      (See  Ifis  ^  Ofirh). 

«  The  Egyptians,     adds   he,  reprefent  the  world  by 
a  Scarabeus,  becaufe  this  infecl  pufhes,  in  a  diredion  con- 

365  K    O    T    E    S. 

trary  to  that  in  which  it  proceeds,  a  ball  containing  its? 
co-gs,  juft  as  the  heaven  of  the  fixed  flars  caufcs  the  revo- 
lution of  the  fun  (the  yolk  of  an  egg)  in  an  oppofite  di- 
rection to  its  own. 

"  They  reprefent  the  world  alfo  by  the  number  five^ 
beino'  that  of  the  elements,  which,  fays  Diodorus,  are 
earth,  water,  air,  fire,  and  ether  ox  Jp'iriius,  The  Indians 
have  the  fame  number  of  elements,  and  according  to 
Macrobius's  Myftics  they  are  the  fupreme  God,  or  pri 
mwn  mobile^  the  intelligence,  or  mem^  born  of  him,  the 
foul  of  the  world  v/hich  proceeds  from  him,  the  celeftial 
fpheres  and  all  things  terreftrial.  Hence,  adds  Plu- 
tarch, the  analogy  between  the  Greek  ^ente^  five,  and 
'pan-y  all. 

"  The  afs,'*  fays  he  again,  "  is  the  emblem  ofTyphon, 
becaijfe  like  that  animal  he  is  of  a  reddifh  colour.  Now 
Tvphon  fignifies  whatever  is  of  a  mirey  or  clayey  nature  ; 
(and  in  Hebrew  I  find  the  three  words,  clay^  red^  and  ajs^ 
to  be  formed  from  the  fame  rooty  ha7nr,  laTjiblicus  has 
farther  told  us,  that  clay  was  the  emblem  of  matter ;  and 
he  elfewhere  adds,  that  all  evil  and  corruption  proceeded 
from  matter  :  which,  compared  with  the  phrafe  of  Ma^ 
crobius,  all  is  perijhable^  liable  to  change  in  the  celeftial 
fphere,  gives  us  the  theory,  firft  phyfical,  then  moral,  of 
the  fyftcm  of  good  and  evil  of  the  ancients/* 

Page  252.(57).  Thefenfel.cfs  caufe  cffiiperjlitlrjn.  Thefe 
are  properly  the  v/ords  of  Plutarch,  who  relates,  that 
thofe  various  worfbips  v/ere  given  by  a  king  of  Egypt  to 
the  different  towns  to  difunite  and  enflave  them  (and 
thefe  kings  had  been  taken  from  the  caft  of  priells).  See 
Ifis  ^  Gfirls, 


NOTES.  26f 

Page  255.(58).  In  the  projeSllon  of  the  celejllalfphere^ 
The  ancient  priefts  had  three  kind  of  fpheres,  which  it 
may  be  ufeful  to  make  known  to  the  reader. 

"  We  read  in  Eufebius,"  fays  Porphyry,  «  that  Zo- 
roafter  was  the  firft  who,  having  fixed  upon  a  cavern 
pleafantly  fituated  in  the  mountains  adjacent  to  Perfia, 
formed  the  idea  of  confecrating  it  to  Mithra  (the  fun) 
creator  and  father  of  all  things :  that  is  to  fay,  having 
made  in  this  cavern  feveral  geometrical  divifions,  repre- 
fenting  the  feafons  and  the  elements,  he  imitated  on  a 
fmall  fcale  the  order  and  difpofition  of  the  univerfe  by 
Mithra.  After  Zoroafter,  it  became  a  cuftom  to  confe- 
crate  caverns  for  the  celebration  of  myfteries :  fo  that  in 
like  manner  as  temples  v/ere  dedicated  to  the  Gods, 
rural  altars  to  heroes  and  terreflrial  deities,  &c.  fubterra- 
neous  abodes  to  infernal  deities,  fo  caverns  and  grottoes 
v/ere  confecrated  to  the  world,  to  the  univerfe,  and  to  the 
nymphs :  and  from  hence  Pythagoras  and  Plato  borrowed 
i^Q  idea  of  calling  the  earth  a  cavern,  a  cave,  de  Antn 
Nymph  arum  J'* 

Such  was  the  firfl:  projection  of  the  fphere  in  relief: 
though  tlie  Perfians  give  the  honour  of  the  invention  to 
Zoroafter,  it  is  doubtlefs  due  to  the  Egyptians  :  for 
we  may  fuppofe,  from  this  projecStion  being  the  moft 
fimple,  that  it  was  the  moft  ancient;  the  caverns  of. 
Thebes,  full  of  fimilar  pictures,  tend  to  ftrengthsn  this 

The  following  was  the  fecond  proje6llon,  "  The  pro- 
phets or  hierophants,"  fays  Biihop  Synnefius,  "  who  had 
been  initiated  in  the  myfteries,  do  not  permit  the  com- 
mon workmen  to  form  idols  or  images  of  the  Gods  j  but 
they  dffcend  themfelves  into   the  facred  caves,  where 


368  \  NOT    E    S. 

they  have  concealed  cofters  containing  certain  fphci'es, 
upon  uhich  they  conflruct  thofe  images  fccretly  and 
without  the  knowledge  of  the  people,  who  defpife  fimple 
and  natural  things,  and  wifh  for  prodigies  and  fables.'* 
[Syn,  in  Calvit.)  That  is,  the  ancient  priefts  had  armil- 
lary  fpheres  like  ours ;  and  this  palTage,  which  fo  well 
agrees  with  that  of  Cha^remon,  gives  us  the  key  to  all 
their  theological  aflrology. 

'  Laftly,  they  had  flat  imdels  of  the  nature  of  Plate  II. 
with  this  difference,  that  they  were  of  a  very  complicated 
nature,  having  every  fictitious  divifion  of  decan  and  fub- 
decan,  with  the  hieroglyphic  figns  of  their  influence. 
Kircher  has  given  us  a  copy  of  one  of  them  in  his  Egyp- 
tian CEdipus,  and  Gybelin  a  figured  fragment  in  his 
book  of  the  calendar  ( under  the  name  of  the  Egyptian 
Zodiac).  The  ancient  Egyptians,  fays  the  ailrologer 
Julius  Firmicus  [AjJron.  lib.  ii.  and  lib.  iv.  c,  i6).  divide 
each  fign  of  the  Zodiac  into  three  feitions;  and  each 
fe6tion  was  under  the  direction  of  an  imaginary  being, 
whom  they  called  Decan^  or  chief  of  ten  \  fo  that  there 
were  three  Decans  a  month,  and  thirty- three  a  year. 
Now  thefe  Decans,  who  were  alfo  called  Gods  [fThoi)^ 
regulate  the  deftinies  of  mankind — and  they  were  placed 
particularly  in  certain  ftars.  They  afterward^  imagined 
in  every  ten  three  other  Gods,  whom  they  called  arbiters  j 
fo  that  there  were  nine  for  every  month,  and  thefe  were 
farther  divided  into  an  infinite  number  of  powers.  (The 
Perfians  and  Indians  made  their  fpheres  on  fimilar  plans ; 
and  if  a  picture  thereof  were  to  be  drav/n  from  the  de- 
fcription  given  by  Scaliger  at  the  end  of  Manilius,  we 
ihould  find  in  it  a  complete  explanation  of  their  hierogly- 
phics, for  every  article  forms  one). 
■■  .        .  .        ■  Pago 

NOTES.  36^ 

Page  id.  (59  )  The  adverfe  Genii,  It .  was  for  this 
reafon  the  Perlians  always  wrote  the  name  of  Ahranaiies 
inverted  thus :    •saiiBuiuijy 

Page  256.  (60).  Typbon^  that  is~to  fay  deluge.  Typhon, 
pronounced  Touphon  by  the  Greeks,  is  precifely  the 
touphan  of  the  Arabs,  which  fignlfics  deluge ;  and  thefe 
deluges  in  mythology  are  nothing  more  than  winter  and 
the  rains,  or  the  overflowing  of  the  Nile;  as  their  pre- 
tended fires  which  are  to  deftroy  the  world,  are  fimply 
the  fummer  feafon.  And  it  is  for  this  reafon  that  Ari- 
ftotle  {^De  Meteor,  lib,  I.  c.  xiv.),  fiys,  that  the  v/inter  of 
the  great  cyclic  year  is  a  deluge ;  and  its  fummer  a  con- 
flagration. '•  The  Egyptians,  fays  Porphyry,  "  em- 
ploy every  year  a  talifman  in  remembrance  of  the  world  : 
at  the  fummer  folftice  they  mark  their  houfes,  flocks 
and  trees  with  red,  fuppofmg  tbat  on  that  day  the  whole 
world  had  been  fet  on  fire.  It  was  alfo  at  the  fame 
period  that  they  celebrated  the  pyrric  or  fire  dance." 
(And  this  illuftrates  the  origin  of  purifications  by  fire 
and  by  water :  for  having  denominated  the  tropic  of 
Cancer  the  gate  of  heaven,  and  of  genial  heat  orcelefiial 
fire,  and  that  of  Capricorn  the  gate  of  deluge  or  of  water, 
it  was  imagined  that  the  ij^irits  or  fouls  who  pafTe^ 
through  thefe  gates  in  their  way  to  and  from  heaven, 
were  roajied  or  bathed :  hence  the  baptifm  of  Mithra,  und 
the  pafiage  through  flames,  obferved  throughout  the  Eaft 
long  before  Mofes). 

Page  id.  (61).  In  Perfia  in  a  fubfequent  period.  That  is, 
when  the  ram  became  the  equiiioxial  fign,  or  rather  when 
the  alteration  of  the  Ikies  (hewed  that  it  was  no  longer  the 
Bull.     See  Note  48. 

Bb  Pag© 

570  NOTE    S. 

Page  257.  (.^2).  Whence  are  derived  all  religious  aBi 
af  a  gay  nature.  All  the  ancient  feftivals  refpeding  the 
return  and  exaltation  of  the  fun  were  of  this  defcription : 
hence  the  hilaria  of  the  Roman  calendar  at  the  period  of 
thepafiage  (Pafcha)  of  the  vernal  equinox.  The  dances 
were  imitations  of  the  march  of  the  planets.  Thofe  of 
the  Dervifes  (iiill  reprcfent  it  ta  this  day. 

Page  258.  (63).  All  religioui  a£is  of  the  fo7nhre  kind, 
«'  Sacrifices  of  blood/'  fays  Porphyry,  "  were  only  offered 
fco  Demons  and  evil  Genii  to  avert  their  wrath. . .  Demons 
are  fond  of  blood,  humidity,  ftench."  Apud.  Eufeb.  Prap, 
Ev.p.  173. 

*'  The  Egyptians,"  fays  Plutarch,  "only  offer  bloody  vic- 
tims to  Typhon.  They  facrifice  to  him  a  red  ox,  and  the 
animal  immolated  is  held  in  execration^  and  loaded  with  all 
the  fms  of  the  people."  (The  goat  of  Mofes).  See  Ij^s- 
and  Ofiris. 

Divifion  af  terrejhlal  beings  into  pure  and  impure^  fa- 
cred  and  abo?mnabU.  Strabo  fays,  fpeaking  of  Mofes 
and  the  Jews,  "  Circumcifion  and  the  prohibition  of 
certain  kinds  of  meat  fprung  from  fuperflitLon." — And 
I  obfcrve,  Fe^e6ting  the  ceremony  of  circumcifion,  that 
its  objed  was  to  take  from  the  fymbol  of  Ofiris  [Phal- 
lus) the  pretended  obffacle  to  f.cundity  j  an  obfiacle 
which  bore  the  feal  of  Typhon,  "  whofe  nature,"  fays 
Plutarch,  *'*  is  made  up  of  all  that  hinders^  fppofesy  caufes 

Page  260.  (64).  Elyftan-fields:  Aliz,  in  the  Pheniciam 
or  Hebrew  language  fignifies  dancing  and  joyous. 

Page  262.  (65).  The  Milky  way.  $qq  Mac?'ob,  Sofn^ 
Scip^  c.  I2i  and  Note  (78}. 


NOTES.  371 

Page  265.  (66).      The  bodies  of  its  inhahitanis  edft  no 
Jhade^     There  is  on  this  fubje^l  a  pafTage  in  Plutarch,  {o 
interefting  and  explanatory  of  the  whole  of  this  fyftem, 
that  we  fhall  cite  it  entire.     Having  obferved  that  the 
theory  of  good  and  evil  had  at  all  times  occupied  the  atten- 
tion of  philofophers  and  theologians,  he  adds :   "  Many 
fuppofe  there  to  be  tv/o  Gods  of  oppofite  inclinations,  one 
delighting  in  good  the  other  in  evil ;   the  firft  of  thefe  is 
called  particularly  by  the  name  of  God,  the  fecond  by  that 
of  Genius  or  Demon.     Zoroafrer  has  denominated  them 
Oromaze  and  Ahrimanes,  and  has  faid  that,  of  whatever 
falls  under  the  cognizance  of  our  fenfes,  light  is  the  beft 
reprefentation  of  the  one,  and  darknefs  and  ignorance  of 
the  other.     He  adds,  that  Mithra  is  an  intermediate  be- 
ing, and  it  is  for  this  reafon  the  Perfians  call  Mithra  the 
vudiator  or  intermediator.    Each  of  thefe  Gods  has  diftin6^ 
plants  and  animals  confecrated  to  him;  for  example,  dogs, 
birds  and  hedge-hogs  belong  to  the  good  Genius,  and  all 
aquatic  animals  to  the  evil  one. 

*'  The  Perfians  alfo  fay,  that  Oromaze  was  born  or 
formed  out  of  the  pureft  light;  Ahrimanes,  on  the  contrary, 
out  of  the  thickeft  darknefs:  that  Oromaze  made  Hx  Gods 
as  good  as  himfelF,  and  Ahrimanes  oppofed  to  them  fix 
wicked  ones :  that  Oromaze  afterwards  multiplied  himfelf 
threefold  (Hermes  trifmegiflus),  and  removed  to  a  diftance 
as  remote  from  the  fun  as  the  fun  is  remote  from  the  earth; 
that  he  there  formed  ftars,  and,  among  others,  Syrius^ 
which  he  placed  in  the  heavens  as  a  guard  and  centinel. 
He  made  alfo  twenty-four  other  Gods,  which  he  inclofed 
in  an  egg;  but  Ahrimanes  created  an  equal  number  on  his 
part,  who  broke  the  egg,  and  from  that  moment  good  and 
evil  were  mixed  (In  the  univerfe).  But  Ahrimanes  is 
B  b  2  on« 

372  NOTE    S. 

one  day  to  be  conquered,  and  the  earth  to  be  made  equal 
zndfmootby  that  all  men  may  live  happy. 

Theopompus  adds,  from  the  books  of  the  Magi,  that 
one  of  thefe  Gods  reigns  in  turn  every  three  thoufand 
years,  during  u^hich  the  other  is  kept  in  fubjeftion  ;  that 
they  afterwards  contend  with  equal  weapons, during  a  fimi- 
lar  portion  of  time,  but  that  in  the  end  the  evil  Genius 
will  fall  (never  to  rife  again).  Then  m.en  will  become  hap- 
py, and  their  bodies  caft  no  fhade.  The  God  who  mediates 
all  thefe  things  reclines  at  prefent  in  repofe,  waiting  till  he 
fhall  be  pleafed  to  execute  them."  See  IJts  and  Ofirts. 

There  is  an  apparent  allegory  through  the  whole  of  this 
pafTage.  The  egg  is  the  fixed  fphere,  the  world;  the  fix 
Gods  of  Oromaze  are  the  fix  figns  of  fum.mer,  thofe  of 
Ahrimanes  the  fix  figns  of  winter..  The  forty-eight  other 
Gods  are  the  forty-eight  conftellations  of  the  ancient  fphere, 
divided  equally  between  Ahrimanes  and  Oromaze.  The 
office  of  Syrius^  as  guard  and  centinel,  tells  us  that  the 
origin  of  thefe  ideas  was  Egyptian  :  finally,  the  expreffiou 
that  the  earth  is  to  become  equal 2c,\d,  fmooth^  and  that. the 
bodies  of  happy  beings  are  to  caft  no  fhade,  proves  that 
tiie  equator  was  confidercd  as  their  true  paradife. 

Page  265.  (67  j.  The  ca^je  of  Mithra.  See  Note  (58). 
In  the  caves  which  priefts  every  v/here  conftrucled,  they 
celebrated  myfteries  which  confifted  (fays  Origen  againft 
Celfus)  in  imitating  the  motion  of  the  frars,  the  planets, 
and  the  heavens.  The  initiated  took  the  name  of  conflel- 
lations  and  afTumed  the  figures  of  animals.  One  was  a 
lion,  another  a  raven,  and  a  third  a  ram.  Hence  the  ufe  of 
mafics  in  the  firfl  reprefentation  of  the  drama.  See  Ant, 
Devo'iU^  vol.  ii.  p.  244.  "  In  the  myfleries  of  Ceres  the 
chisf  in  tlie  procellion  called  himfelf  the  cr|ator  j  the  bearer 

NOTES.  373 

€)i  the  torch  v/as  denominated  the  fun ;  the  perfon  near- 
eft  to  the  altar,  the  moon ;  the  herald  or  deacon,  Mercury. 
In  Egypt  there  was  a  feftival  in  which  the  men  and  wo- 
men reprefented  the  year,  the  age,  the  feafons,  the  different 
parts  of  the  day,  and  they  walked  in  proceilion  after  Bac- 
chus. Jthen.  lib.  v.  c.  7.  In  the  cave  of  Mithra  was  a 
ladder  with  kven  fteps,  reprefenting  the  feven  fpheres  of 
the  planets,  by  means  of  which  fouls  afcended  and  de- 
fcended.  This  is  precifely  the  ladder  in  Jacob's  vifion, 
which  fhows  that  at  that  epocha  the  whole  fyftem  was 
formed.  There  is  in  the  French  king's  library  a  fuperb 
volume  of  pictures  of  the  Indian  Gods,  in  which  the  lad- 
der is  reprefented  with  the  fouls  of  men  mounting  it." 

Page  267.  (68).  Exa^ calculation,  Confultthe  ancient 
aftronomy  of  M.  Bailly,  and  you  will  find  our  aflfertions 
refpe61:ing  the  knowledge  of  the  priefts  amply  proved. 

Page  269.  (69).  A  reciprocal  connection.  Thefe  are  the 
very  words  of  Jamblicus.  De  My  ft,  Mgypt, 
.  Page  zV.  (70.)  Or  rather  ek^rical fluid.  The  more  I 
confider  what  the  ancients  underftood  by  ether ^  and 
Jpirii-i  and  what  the  Indians  call  akache^  the  ftrongtr  do 
I  find  the  analogy  between  it  and  ele61:rical  fluid.  A 
luminous  fluid,  principle  of  warmth  and  rhotion,  per- 
vading the  univerfe,  forming  the  matter  of  the  ftars, 
having  fmall  round  particles,  which  infinuate  themfelves 
into  bodies,  and  fill  them  by  dilating  itfelf,  be  their  ex- 
tent what  it  will,  what  can  more  ftrongly  refemble  elec- 
tricity ? 

Page  id.  (71.)  Wasfuppofed  to  have  the  fun  for  its  heart » 

Natural  phllofophers,  fays  Macrobius,  call   the   fun  the 

heart  of  the  world.     Som.  Scip.  c.  20.     The  Egyptian?, 

fays  Plutarch,  call  the  Eaft  the/^^^,  the  North  the  right- 

B  b  3  ftde^ 

374  NOTES. 

fide^  and  the  South  the  lefuftde  of  the  world,  becaufe  there 
the  heart  is  placed.  They  continually  compare  the  uni- 
verfe  to  a  man ;  and  hence  the  celebrated  microcofm  of 
the  Alchymifts.  We  obferve  by  the  by,  that  the  Alchy- 
mifts,  Cabalifts,  Free-mafons,  Magnetifers,  Martinifts, 
and  every  other  fuch  Tort  of  vifionaries,  are  but  the  mif- 
taken  difciples  of  this  ancient  fchool :  we  fay  miftaken, 
becaufe,  in  fpite  of  their  pretenfions,  the  thread  of  the 
occult  fcience  is  broken. 

Page  id.  (72).  That  the  world  was  eternal.  See  the 
Pythagorean  Ocellus  Lucanus. 

Page  270.  (73)»  The  Orphic  egg.  This  comparifon  of 
the  fun  with  the  yolk  of  an  egg  refers,  i.  To  its  round 
and  yellow  figure  j  2.  To  its  central  fituation  j  3.  To 
the  germ  or  principle  of  life  contained  in  the  yolk.  May 
not  the  oval  form  of  the  egg  allude  to  the  elipfis  of  the 
orbs  ?  I  am  inclined  to  this  opinion.  The  word  Orphic 
oiFers  a  farther  obfervation.  Macroblus  fays  {^^om.  Scip, 
c.  14.  and  c.  20),  that  the  fun  is  the  brain  of  the  univerfe, 
and  that  it  is  from  analogy  that  the  fkuU  of  a  human 
being  is  round,  like  the  planet,  the  feat  of  intelligence. 
Now  the  word  Orph  (with  ain)  fignifies  in  Hebrew 
the  brain  and  its  feat  i^cermx) :  Orpheus,  then,  is  the  fame 
as  Bedou,  or  Baits  ;  and  the  Bonzes  are  thofe  veiy 
Orphics  which  Plutarch  reprefents  as  quacks,  who  ate 
no  meat,  vended  talifmans,  and  little  flones,  and  de- 
ceived  individuals,  and  even  governments  themfelves. 
See  a  learned  Memoir  of  Freret  fur  les  Orphiqiies^  Jcad, 
lies  Infer Ip.  vol.  23.  in  ^to. 

Page  id.  (74).  JVearing  on  his  head  a  fphere  of  gold. 
^ee  Porphyry  in  Eufehiui^  Prap.  Evang.  lib.  3.  />.  1 1 5. 

Page  271.  (75).  Alluding  to  the  wind.     The  Northern 


NOTES.  375 

#r  Elejlan  wind,  which  commences  regularly  at  the  folftice, 
with  the  inundation. 

Page  272.  {76).  Ton-flier,  This  is  the  true  pronun- 
ciation of  the  Jupiter  of  the  Latins.  .  .  .  Exijience  ttfelf* 
This  is  the  fignification  of  the  word  You.  See  Note  (84). 
Page  273.  (77).  inducing  the  great  egg.  See  Note  (35). 
Pagez^^  (7^)*  The  immortality  ofthefouly  whkh  utjirft 
was  eternity.  In  the  fyftem  of  the  firft  fpiritualifts,  the 
foul  was  not  created  with,  or  at  the  fame  time  as  the  body, 
in  order  to  be  inferted  in  it :  its  exiftence  was  fuppofed 
to  be  anterior  and  from  all  eternity.  Such,  in  a  few 
words,  is  the  dodirine  of  Macrobius  on  this  head.  Som, 
Scip.  pajjim, 

"  There  exifts  a  luminous,  igneous,  fubtle  fluid,  which, 
under  the  name  of  ether  and  fpiritus,  fills  the  univerfe. 
It  is  the  elTential  principle  and  agent  of  motion  and  life, 
it  is  the  Deity.  When  an  earthly  body  is  to  be  animated, 
a  fmall  round  particle  of  this  fluid  gravitates  through  the 
milky  way  towards  the  lunar  fphere,  where,  when  it 
arrives,  it  unites  with  a  grofler  air,  and  becomes  fit  to 
afibciate  with  matter :  it  then  enters  and  entirely  fills 
the  body,  animates  it,  fufFers,  grows,  increafes,  and  dimi- 
nlfhes  with  it ;  laftly,  when  the  body  dies,  and  its  grofs 
elements  dlflblve,  this  incorruptible  particle  takes  its  leave 
of  it,  and  returns  to  the  grand  ocean  of  ether,  if  not 
retained  by  its  union  with  the  lunar  air:  it  is  this 
air  or  gas,  which,  retaining  the  {bape  of  the  body,  be- 
comes a  phantom  or  ghoft,  the  perfe£^  reprefentation  of 
the  deceafed.  The  Greeks  called  this  phantom  the  image 
or  idol  of  the  foul  i  the  Pythagoreans,  its  chariot,  its 
frame;  and  the  Rabbinical  fchool,  its  veflel,  or  boat.  When 
a  man  had  conduded  himfelf  well  in  this  world,  his 
B  b  4  whole 

37$  NOTE    S. 

whole  foul,  that  is,  its  chariot  and  ether,  afcended  to  the 
rnoon,  where  a  reparation  took  place :   the  chariot  lived  in 
the  lunar  Elyfium,  and  the  ether  returned  to  the  fixed 
fphere,  that  is,   to  God  :   for  the  fixed  heaven,  fays  Ma- 
crobius,  vi^as  by  many  called  by  the  name  of  God  (c.  14..) 
If  a  man  had  not  lived  virtuoufly,  the  foul  remained  on 
earth  to  undergo  purification,  and  vi^as  to  u^ander  to  and 
fro,  like  the   ghofts  of  Homer,  to   whom  this  do6trine 
muft  have  been  known,  fince  he  wrote  after  the  time  of 
Pherecydes  and  Pythagoras,  v/ho   were   is  promulgators 
in  Greece.     Heredotus,  up6n  this  occafion,  fays,  that  the 
whole  romance    at   the  foul  and  its  tranfmigrations  was 
invented  by  the  Egyptians,  and  propagated  in  Greece  by 
men,  v/ho    pretended  to  be  its  authors.     I    know  their 
names,  adds  he,  but  fhall  not   mention  them  (///>.  2.). 
Cicero,  however  has  pofitively  informed  us,   that  it  was 
Pherecydes,  mafter  of  Pythagoras.     Tnfiid.  lib.  i,JeSi.  16. 
Now  admitting   that  this   fyftem  was  at   that  period  a 
novelty,   it  accounts  for  Solomon's  treating  it  as  a  fable, 
who  lived  130  years  before  Pherecydes.     "  Who  know- 
eth,"  fays  he,  "  the  fpirit   of  a  man   that  it  goeth  up- 
wards ?   I  faid  in  my  heart  concerning  the  eftate  of  the 
fons  of  men,  that  God  might  manifeft  them,   and   that 
they  might  fee  that  they  themfelves  are  beafis.     For  that 
which  b>^falleth   the  fCns  of  men,  befalleth  beafts ;  even 
one  thing  befalleth  them  ;  as  the  one  dieth,    fo  dieth  the 
other ;   yea  they  have  all  one  breath,  fo  that  a  man  hath 
no  pre-eminence  above  a  beail: :  for  all  is  vanity."  Eccles* 
c.  iii-  v.  18. 

And  fuch  had  been  the  opinion  of  Mofes,  as  a  tranf- 

lator  of   Herodotus    (M.  Archer  of  the  Academy  of  In- 

fcripticns),  iullly  obfcrves-  in  note  389  of  me  fecond  book, 

,     i       . .  v/here 

NOTES.  377 

•where  he  fays  alfo,  that  the  immortality  of  the  foul  was 
not  introduced  among  the  Hebrews  till  their  intercourfe 
with  the  AfTyrians.  In  other  refpeiSls,  the  whole  Pytha- 
gorean fyftem,  properly  analyfed,  appears  to  be  merely  a 
fyftem  of  phyfics  badly  underftood. 

Page  275.  (79).  T^he  world  is  a  inachine ',  it  has  there'- 

fore  an  artificer.   All  the  arguments  of  the  fpiritualifts  are 

founded  on  this.    See  Macrobius^  at  the  end  of  the  fecond 

book,  and  Plato^  with  the  comments  of  Marciliui  Fi- 


Page  276.  (80).  The  demi-ourgos,the  logosjandthefpl' 
rit.  Thefe  are  the  real  types  of  the  Chriftian  Trinity. 
See  Note  (99). 

Page  277.  (81).  Its  very  names.  In  our  laft  analy- 
fis  we  found  all  the  names  of  the  Deity  to  be  derived 
from  fome  material  obje6l  in  which  it  was  fuppofed  to 
refide.  We  have  given  a  confiderable  number  of  in- 
ftances;  let  us  add  one  more  relative  to  our  word  God, 
This  is  known  to  be  the  Deus  of  the  Latins,  and  the 
Theos  of  the  Greeks.  Now  by  the  confeffion  of  Plato 
(in  Cratylo)^  of  Macrobius  [Saturn^  lib.  j.c.  24),  and  of 
Plutarch  (I/is  ^  0/iris),  its  root  is  thein^  which  fignifies 
to  wander,  like  planein^  that  is  to  fay,  it  is  fynonimous 
with  planets ;  hecaufe,  all  our  authors,  both  the  ancient 
Greeks  and  barbarians  particularly  worfhipped  the  pla- 
nets. I  know  that  fuch  enquiries  into  etymologies  have 
been  much  decried  :  but  if,  as  is  the  cafe,  words  are  the 
reprefentative  figns  of  ideas,  the  genealogy  of  the  one 
becomes  that  of  the  other,  and  a  good  etymological 
didionary  would  be  the  moll:  perfecl:  hiflory  of  the  hu- 
man underfcanding.  It  would  only  be  neceffary  in  this 
enquiry    to    oKerve   certain   precautions,   which    have 


378  NOTES. 

hitherto  been  neglecSled,  and  particularly  to  make  an 
txaB:  comparifon  of  the  value  of  the  letters  of  the  dif- 
ferent alphabets.  But,  to  continue  our  fubje£t,  we  fhall 
add,  that  in  the  Phenician  language,  the  word  ibah 
(with  ain)  fignlfies  alfo  to  wander,  and  appears  to  be 
the  derivation  of  them.  If  we  fuppofe  Detts  to  be  derived 
from  the  Greek  Zeus^  a  proper  name  of  Tou-piter^  having 
%aWy  I  live,  for  its  root,  its  kn^Q  will  be  precifely  that  of 
you^  and  will  me2.n  foul  of  the  world,  igneous  principle. 
See  Note  (84).  Dlv-us^  which  only  fignifies  Genius, 
God  of  the  fecond  order,  appears  to  me  to  come  from 
tiie  oriental  word  d'lv  fubftituted  for  dib^  wolf  and  chacal, 
one  of  the  emblems  of  the  fun.  At  Thebes,  fays  Ma- 
crobius,  the  fun  was  painted  under  the  form  of  a  wolf  or 
chacal,  for  there  are  no  wolves  in  Egypt.  The  reafon  of 
this  emblem,  doubtlefs,  is  that  the.  chacal,  like  the  cock, 
annoimces  by  its  cries  the  fun's  rifing;  and  this  reafon  is 
confirmed  by  the  analogy  of  the  words  lykos^  wolf,  and  lyke^ 
light  of  the  morning,  whence  comes  lux, 

Diusy  which  is  to  be  underftood  alfo  of  the  fun,  muft 
be  derived  from  dihy  a  hawk.  *'  The  Egyptians,"  fays 
Porphyry  [Eufeb.  Pracep.  Evang.  p,  92.)  "  reprefent  the 
fun  under  the  emblem  of  a  hawk,  becaufe  this  bird  foars 
to  the  higheft  regions  of  air  where  light  abounds."  And 
in  reality  we  continually  fee  at  Cairo  large  flights  of  thefe 
birds,  hovering  in  the  air,  from  whence  they  defcend 
not  but  to  ftun  us  with  their  flirieks,  which  are  like  the 
monofyllable  dih  :  and  here,  as  in  the  preceding  example, 
Tve  find  an  analogy  between  the  word  dies^  day,  light,  and 
Diusy  God,  Sun. 

Page  278.    (82).  The  progrcfs  af  fcience  and  difco-very* 

One  of  the  proofs  that  all  thefe  fyftems  were  invented  in 

5  Egypt, 

NOTES.  379 

Egypt,  Is,  that  this  is  the  only  country  where  we  fee  a 
complete  body  of  doctrine  formed  from  the  remoteft  an- 

Clemens  Alexandrlnus  has  tranfmitted  to  us  {Stromas 
lib.  6.},  a  curious  detail  of  the  42  volumes  which  were 
l)orne  in  the  proceflion  of  Ifis.     "  The  prieft-,"  fays  he, 
«  or  chanter,  carries  ore  of  the  fymbolic  inftruments  of 
*'  mufic,  and  two  of  the  books  of  Mercury ;  one  contain- 
'^  ing  hymns  of  the  Gods,  the  other  the  lift  of  kings. 
"  Next  to   him  the  horofcope  (the   regulator  of  time), 
"  carries  a  palm  and  a  dial,  fy mbols   of  aftrology ;  he 
''  iTiuft  know  by  heart  the  four  books  of  Mercury  which 
«  treat  of  aftrology  :  the  firft  on  the  order  of  the  planets; 
*'  the  fecond  on  the  rifmgs  of  the  fun  and  moon,  and 
"  the  two  laft   on  the  rifmg  and   afpeft  of  the   ftars* 
"  Then  comes  the  facred  author,  with  feathers   on  his 
«  head  (like  Kneph)  and  a  book  in  his  hand,  together 
"  with  ink,  and  a  reed  to  write  with   (as  is  ftill  the 
*'  pra(51:ice   among  the  Arabs).    He  muft  be  verfed  in 
*'  hieroglyphics,    muft  underftand  the  defcription  of  the 
"  univerfe,   the  courfe    of  the   fun,   moon,    ftars,    and 
^'  planets,  be  acquainted  with  the  divifion  of  Egypt  into 
"  36  nomes,  with  the  courfe  of  the  Nile,  with  inftru- 
*'  ments,  meafures,  facred  ornaments,  and  facred  placesc 
*'  Next  comes  the  ftole  bearer,  who  carries  the  cubit  of 
"  juftice,  or  meafure  of  the  Nile,  and  a  cup  for  the  liba- 
*'  tions  ;  he  bears  alio  in  the  proceiHon  ten  volumes  on 
«  the  fubjed  of  facrifices,   hymns,    prayers,    ofterings, 
*'  ceremonies,  feftivals.     Laftly  arrive^  the  prophet,  bear- 
^«  ing  in  his  bofom  a  pitcher,  fo  as  to  be  expofed  to  view ; 
**  he  is  followed  by  perfons  carrying   bread  (as   at  the 
**  of  Cana).     This  prophet,  as  prefident  of  the 

^'  mylieries. 

3^b  N    O    1^    E     S. 

«  myfleries,  learns  ten  other  Irxred  volumes,  which  treat 
"  of  the  laws,  the  Gods,  and  the  difciphne  of  the  priefts. 
*'  Now  there  are  in  all  forty-two  volumes,  thirty-fix  of 
«  which  are  ftudicd  and  got  by  heart  by  thefc  perfonao'c-s, 
^  and  the  remaining  fix  are  fet  apart  to  be  confulted  b)'- 
*f  the  pajiophores :  they  treat  of  medicine,  the  con{Lru6tion 
"  of  the  human  body  (anatomy),  difeafes,  remedies,  in- 
<«  ftruments,  kc,  &c." 

We  leave  the  reader  to  deduce  all  the  confequences 
of  fuch  an  Encyclopedia.  It  is  afcribed  to  Mercury;  but 
Jamblicus  tells  us  that  each  book,  compofed  by  priefts,  was 
dedicated  to  that  God,  who,  on  account  of  his  title  of 
Genius  or  decan  opening  the  zodiac,  prefided  over  every 
enterprife.  He  is  the  'Janus  of  the  Romans,  and  the  Gu'ia- 
Tiefa  of  the  Indians,  and  it  is  remiarkable  that  Janus  and 
Gulanes  are  homonymous.  In  fnort,  it  appears  that  thefe 
books  are  the  fource  of  all  that  has  been  tranfmitted  to  us 
by  the  Greeks  and  Latins  in  every  fcience,  even  in  alchy- 
my,  necrom.ancy,  &c.  What  is  mod  to  be  regretted  in 
their  lofs,  i^  that  part  which  related  to  the  principles  of 
medicine  and  diet,  in  which  the  Egyptians  appear  to  have 
made  a  confiderable  progrefs,  and  to  have  delivered  many 
ufeful  obfervations. 

Page  279.  (83).  The  relgmng  religion  in  Lrj:(n-  Bgvpt. 
<«  At  a  certain  period,"  fays  Plutarch  (de  Ifidc)  "  all  tl\?: 
Egyptians  have  their  animal  Gods  painted.  The  The- 
bans  are  the  only  people  who  do  not  employ  paijiters,  be- 
caufe  they  wcrfhip  a  God  whofc  form  comes  not  under 
i!i\Q^  fcnfes,  and  cannot  be  reprefented.  And  this  is  the 
God  whoin  Mofes,  educated  at  Heliopolis,  adopted  i  but 
the  idea  was  not  of  his  invention. 

Page  2S0.  (84).    JndTahouh.     Such  is  th'i  true  pro- 

NOTES.  381 

nuncration  of  the  Jehovah  of  the  moderns,  who  violate 
in  this  refpect  every  rule  of  criticifm  ;  fince  it  is  evident 
that  the  ancients,  particularly  the  Eaflern  Syrians  and 
Phenicians,  were  acquainted  neither  with  the  ^e  nor  the 
/"",  which  are  of  Tartar  origin.  The  fubfifting  ufage  of 
the  Arabs,  which  we  have  re-eftablifhed  here,  is  con- 
firmed by  Diodorus,  who  calls  the  God  of  Mofes  law^ 
[I'lh.  1.),  and  law  and  lahouh  are  manifeftly  the  fame 
word:  the  identity  continues  in  that  of  lou-piter-,  but  in 
order  to  render  it  more  complete,  we  fhall  demonftrate 
the  fio-nification  to  be  the  fame. 

In  Hebrew,  that  is  to  fay,  in  one  of  the  diale6^s  of  the 
common  language  of  Lower  Ana,  Tahouh  is  the  participle 
of  the  verb  h'lh^  to  exift,  to  be,  and  fignifies  exifting ;  in 
other  words,  the  principle  of  life,  the  mover  or  even 
rr.otion  (the  univerfal  fcul  of  beings).  Now  what  is 
Jupiter  ?  Let  us  hear  the  Greeks  and  Latins  explain  their, 
theology.  "  The  Egyptians,"  fays  Diodorus,  after  Ma-s 
natho,  priefl  of  Memphis, "  in  giving  names  to  the  five 
elements,  called  Z^/;//,  or  ether,  Toupitery  on  account  of 
the  true  meaning  of  that  word:  for fpirii  is  the  fource  of 
life,  author  of  the  vital  principle  in  animals;  and  for  this 
reafon  they  confidered  him  as  the  father,  the  generator  of 
beings."  For  the  fame  reafon  Homer  fays,  father,  and 
king  of  men  and  gods  {^Diod.  lib.  \.fe5i.  i.) 

"  Theologians,"  fays  Macrobius,  "  confider  You-piter 
as  the  foul  of  the  world."  Hence  the  words  of  Virgil  • 
"  Mufes  let  us  begin  with  You-piter;  the  world  is  full 
of  You-piter"  [Bomn.  Scip.  ch.  17.)  And  in  the  Satur- 
nalia he  fays,  "  Jupiter  is  the  fun  himfelf."  It  was  this 
alfo  which  made  Virgil  fay :  "  The  Spirit  nourifiies  the 
^'  life  (of  beings),  and  the  foul  difFufed  through  the  vaft 

"  members 

352  NOTES. 

*«  members   (of  the  univerfe),  agitates  the  whole  mafs, 
**  and  forms  but  one  immenfe  body.'* 

"louplter,'*    fays   the  ancient  verfes  of    the   Orphic 
fe6V,   which   originated  in   Egypt;    verfes   colletSled  by 
Onomacritus  in  the  days  of  Pififtratus,  "  loupiter,  repre- 
"  fented  with  the  thunder  in  his  hand,  is  the  beginning, 
*'  origin,  end,   and  middle   of  all    things :  a   fmgle  and 
"  univerfal   power,   he   governs   every   thing ;    heaven, 
"  earth,    fire,    water,  the    elements,    day,   and    night, 
*'  Thefe  are  what  conftitute  his  immenfe  body :  his  eyes 
*^  are  the  fun  and  m.oon:  he  is  fpace  and  eternity;  in 
**  fine,'*  adds  Porphyry,  "  Jupiter  is  the  world,  the  uni- 
*^  verfe,  that  which  conflitutes  the  effence  and  life  of  all 
"  beings.     Now,"  continues  the  fame  author,  "  as  phi- 
''  lofophers  differed  in  opinion  refpe£l:ing  the  nature  and 
"  conllituent  parts  of  this  God,  and  as  they  could  invent 
"  no  figure  that  fhould  reprefent  all  his  attributes,  they 
*^  painted  him  in  the  form  of  man. ...  He  is  in  a  fitting 
"  pofture,    in  allufion   to   his  -immutable  effence ;    the 
"  upper  part  of  his  body  is  uncovered,   becaufe  it  is  in 
"  the  upper  regions  of  the  univerfe,  (the   f^ars)  that  he 
"  mod  confpicuoufly   difplays   himfelf.     He  is    covered 
*<  from   the    waift   downwards,  becaufe    refpeciing  ter- 
*'  refirial  things  he   is  more  fecret  and   concealed.     He 
"  holds  a   fceptre  in  his  left  hand,  becaufe  on  the  left, 
"  fide  is  the  heart,  and  the  heart  is  the  feat  of  the  under- 
*'  {landing,  which   (in    human  beings)  regulates  every 
"  adion,"     Eufeh.  Prape7\  Evang.  p.  lOO. 

The  following  pafTage  of  the  geographer  and  philofo- 
pher  Strabo,  removes  every  doubt  as  to  the  identity  of 
the  ideas  of  Mofes  and  thofe  of  the  heathen  theolo- 

:  r  « Mofes, 

NOTES.  383 

»  Mofes,  who  was  one  of  the  Egyptian  priefts,  taught 
his  folbwers,  that  it  was  an  egregious  error  to  reprefent 
the  Deity  under  the  form  of  animals,  as  the  Egyptians 
did,  or  in  the  fliape  of  man,  as  was  the  pracSlice  of  the 
Greeks  and  Africans.  That  alone  is  the  Deity,  fald  he, 
which  conflitutes  heaven,  earth,  and  every  living  thing; 
that  which  we  call  the  worlds  the  fum  of  all  things^  nature  % 
and  no  reafonable  perfon  will  think  of  reprefenting  fuch 
a  being  by  the  image  of  any  one  of  the  objects  around  us. 
It  is  for  this  reafon,  that,  reje<9:ing  every  fpecies  of  images 
or  idols,  Mofes  v/ifhed  the  Deity  to  be  worfliipped  with- 
out emblems,  and  according  to  his  proper  nature ;  and  he 
accordingly  ordered  a  temple  worthy  of  him  to  be  erecSl- 
ed,  &c.'*  Geograph.  lib.  16.  p,  1 104,  edition  of  1 707, 

The  theofogy  of  Mofes  has,  then,  differed  in  no  refpetSl 
from  that  of  his  followers,  that  is  to  fay,  from  that  of  the 
Stoics  and  Epicureans,  who  confiderthe  Deity  as  the  foul 
of  the  world.  This  philofophy  appears  to  have  taken 
birth,  or  to  have  been  diffeminated  when  Abraham  came 
into  Egypt  (200  years  before  Mofes),  fmce  he  quitted  his 
fyftem  of  idols  for  that  of  the  God  Tahouh ;  fo  that  we 
may  place  its  promulgation  about  the  feventeenth  or 
eighteenth  century  before  Chrift;  which  correfponds  v/ith 
what  we  have  faid,  Note  (78). 

As  to  the  hiftory  of  Mofes,  Diodorus,  properly  repre- 
fents  it  when  he  fays,  lib.  34  ^  40,  "  That  the  Jews 
"  ^were  driven  out  of  Egypt  at  a  time  of  dearth,  when  the 
"  country  was  full  of  foreigners,  and  that  Mofes,  a  man 
« of  extraordinary  prudence  and  courage,  feized  this 
"  opportunity  of  eftablifhrng  his  religion  in  the  moun- 
*<  tains  of  Judea."  It  will  feem  paradoxical  to  aflert, 
that  the  600,000  armed  men  whom  he  condudled  thither 


3^4  NOTES. 

ought  to  be  reduced  to  6,000 ;  but  I  can  confirm  the 
afTertion  by  (o  many  proofs  drawn  from  the  books  them- 
ielveSj  that  it  will  be  necefTary  to  corre<5l  an  error  which 
.ippears  to  have  arifen  from  the  millake  of  the  tranfcribers. 

Page  280.  (85).  Ei,  exijhnce.  This  was  the-monofyl- 
lable  written  on  the  gate  of  the  temple  of  Delphos.  Plu- 
tarch has  made  it  the  fubjeft  of  a  difTertation. 

Page  28 1.  ( 86).^T7;^  name  cf  OfirU  preferved  in  hisfong, 
Thefe  are  the  literal  expreffions  of  the  book  of  Deutero- 
nomy, ch.  32.  "  The  works  of  Tjour  are  perfe6^."  Now 
Tfour  has  been  tranflated  by  the  word  creator;  its  proper 
fignification  is  tog\vefor?ns^  and  this  is  one  of  the  defini- 
tions of  Ofiris  in  Plutarch. 

Page  284.  (87).  Of  the  Archangel  ATichael,  "The 
^'  names  of  the  angels  and  of  the  months,  fuch  as  Gabriel, 
"  Michael,  Yar,  Nifan,  &c.  came  from  Babylon  with 
^'  the  Jews ;"  f:\ys  exprefsly  the  Talmud  of  Jerufalem. 
See  Beaujob.  Hiji.  du  Man'ich.  Vol.  II.  p.  624,  v/here  he 
proves  that  the  faints  df  the  Almanac  are  an  imitation  of 
the  365  angels  of  the  Perfians ;  and  Jamblicus  in  his 
Egyptian  Myfiieries,  _/^'^.  2.  c.  3.  fpeaks  of  angels,  arch- 
angels, feraphim,  &c.  like  a  true  Chriftian.  '--' 

Page  285.  (08).  Theology  ofZoroaJhr.  "  The  whole  phi- 
^*  Icfophy  of  the  gymnofophifts,"  fays  Diogenes  Laertius 
on  the  authority  of  an  ancient  writer,  ''  is  derived  from 
''  that  of  the  Magi,  and  many  afTert  that  of  the  Jews  to 
''  have  the  fame  origin."  Lib.  1.  c.  9.  MagaPchenes,  an 
hiftorian  of  repute  in  the  days  of  Seieucus  Nicanor,  and 
who  wrote  particularly  upon  India,  fpeaking  of  the  pni- 
lofopy  of  the  ancients  refpefting  natural  things,  puts 
the  Brachmans  and  the  Jews  preciiel^'  on  the  fame  foot- 

NOTES.  335 

P'Sig^  287.  (89).  To  rejlore  the  golden  age  upon  earth. 
This  is  the  reafon  of  the  application  of  the  many  Pagan 
oracles  to  Jefus,  and  particularly  the  fourth  eclogue  of 
Virgil,  and  the  Sybilline  verfes  fo  celebrated  among  the 

Page  288.  (90).  At  the  expiration  of  the  fix  thoufand 
pretended  years.  We  have  already  feen,  note  29,  this  tra- 
dition current  among  the  Tufcans ;  it  was  difleminated 
through  moft  nations,  and  fliows  us  what  we  ought  to 
think  of  all  the  pretended  creations  and  terminations  of 
the  world,  which  are  merely  the  beginnings  and  endings 
of  aftronomical  periods  invented  by  aftrologers.  That  of 
the  year  or  folar  revolution,  being  the  moft  iimple  and  per- 
ceptible, ferved  as  a  model  to  the  reft,  and  its  comparlfon 
gave  rife  to  the  moft  whimfical  ideas.  Of  this  defcription 
is  the  idea  of  the  four  ages  of  the  world  among  the  In- 
dians. Originally  thefe  four  ages  were  merely  the  four 
feafons ;  and  as  each  feafon  was  under  the  fuppofed  in- 
fluence of  a  planetj  it  bore  the  name  of  the  metal  appro- 
priated to  that  planet:  thus  fpring  was  the  age  of  the 
fun,  or  of  gold ;  fummer  the  age  of  the  moon,  or  of  filver  5 
antumn  the  age  of  Venus,  or  of  brafs ;  and  winter  the 
age  of  Mars,  or  of  iron.  Afterwards  when  aftronomers 
invented  the  great  year  of  25  and  36  thoufand  common 
years,  which  had  for  its  obje£i:  the  bringing  back  all  the 
ftars  to  one  point  of  departure  and  a  general  conjunction, 
the  ambiguity  of  the  terms  introduced  a  ftmilar  ambi- 
guity of  ideas;  and  the  myriads  of  celeftial -figns  and 
periods  of  duration  which  were  thus  meafured,  were  eafily 
converted  into  fo  many  revolutions  of  the  fun.  Thus  the 
different  periods  of  creation  which  have  been  fo  great  a 
fource  of  difficulty  and  mifapprehenfion  to  curious  en- 
C  e  quirers. 

3S6  NOTES. 

qu'.rers,  were  in  reality  nothing  more  than  hypotheticai 
calculations  .f  afironomical  periods  In  the  fame  manner 
the  creation  of  the  world  has  been  attributed  to  different 
feafons  of  the  year,  juft  as  thife  difFerent  feafons  have 
fcrved  for  the  ficticious  period  of  thefe  cojijunclions  ;  and 
of  iias^been  adop:ed  by  difterent  nations  for 
the  commencement  of  an  ordinary  yvar.  Among  the 
Egyptrans  this  period  fell  upon  the  follHce,  vwhich 
was  the  commencement  of  their  year ;  and  t.:ie  departure 
of  the  fpheres,  according  to  their  conjedures,  fell,  in  like 
j-nanner,  upon  the  period  when  the  fun  enters  Cancer, 
Among  the  Perfians  the  year  commenced  at  firft  in  the 
fpring,  or  when  the  fun  enters  Aries;  and  fiom  thence 
thefirft  Chriftians  were  led  to  fuppofe  that  G-od  created 
the  world  in  the  flaring  :  this  opinion  is  alfo  f.ivoured  by 
the  book  ct  Geneus ;  and  it  is  farther  remarkable,  that 
the  world  is  not  there  faid  to  be  created  by  the  God  of 
Mofes  (Tahouh)^  but  by  the  klohun  or  gods  in  the  plural, 
that  is,  by  the  anieh  or  gmii^  for  fo  the  word  conftantly 
means  in  fhe  Hebrew  books.  If  we  farther  obfervc  that 
the  root  of  the  word  Ehhim  fignifies  ftrong  or  pov/erful, 
and  tnat  the  Egyptians  called  their  decam  llrong  and  pow- 
erful kr-Jers,  attributing  to  them  the  creation  of  ihe  world, 
we  fhall  prefentiy  perceive  that  the  book  of  Genelis  af- 
llrms  neither  more  nor  lefs  than  that  the  world  was  created 
by,  the  decans^  by  thufe  very  genii  whom,  according  to 
Sanchouiathon,  Mercury  e:  cited  againft  Saturn,  and  who 
were  called  Eiohim.  It  may  be  fafther  afked,  why  the 
plural  fubflantive  Eioh'im  is  made  to  agree  with  the  fin- 
gular  verb  hara  (the  Klohim  creates).  The  reafon  is,  that 
p.fter  the"  BabyloniOi  captivity  the  unity  of  the  Supreme 
lacing  was  the  prevailinj;  opinion  cf  the  Jews;  it  was 
'  ^  therefore 

NOTES.  387 

therefore  thought  proper  to  introduce  a  pious  folecifm 
in  language,  which  it  is  evident  had  no  exiftence  before 
Mofes  :  thus  in  the  names  of  the  children  of  Jacob  many 
of  them  are  compounded  of  a  plural  verb,  to  u^hich  Elo-* 
him  is  the  nominative  cafe  underftoodj  as  Raouhcn  (Reu- 
ben), ihey  have  looked  upon  ?ne^  and  Samao72iti  (Simeon), 
they  have  granted  me  rny  -prayer-^  to  wit,  the  Eiohim.  The 
reafon  of  this  etymology  is  to  be  found  in  the  religious 
creeds  of  the  wives  of  Jacob,  whofe  gods  were  the  tai'<i^ 
phlm  of  Laban,  that  is,  the  angels  of  the  Perfians,  and  the 
Egyptian  decan?. 

Page  id.  (91).  Six  thoujand  years  had  aheady  77£arly 
elapfedfmce  the  j^uppofed  creation  of  the  zvorld.  According 
to  the  computation  of  the  Seventy,  the  period  elapfed^con- 
fifled  of  about  5,600  years,  and  this  computation  was 
principally  followed.  It  is  well  known  how  much,  in  the 
firil  ages  of  the  church,  this  opinion  of  the  end  of  the 
zvorld  agitated  the  minds  of  men.  In  the  fequel,  the  ge- 
neral councils,  encouraged  by  finding  that  the  general  con- 
flagration did  not  come,  pronounced  the  expectation  that 
prevailed  heretical,  and  its  believers  were  called  Millena- 
rians ;  a  circumftance  curious  enough,  fince  it  is  evi- 
dent from  the  hiftory  of  the  Gofpels  that  Jefus  Chrifl 
was  a  Millenarian,  and  of  confequence  a  heretic* 

Page  290.  (92).  Conjlellation  of  the  ferpent.  "The 
^«  Perfians,"  fays  Chardin,  «  call  the  conftellation  of  the 
*«  ferpent  Ophiucus,  {erpent  of  Eve:  and  this  ferpent  Ophi- 
"  ucus  or  Ophtoneus  plays  a  fimilar  part  in  the  theology  of 
<«  the  Phenicians,**  for  Pherecydes,  their  difciple,  and  the 
mafter  of  Pythagoras,  laid  "  that  Ophionem  ferpentinns  had 
«  been  chief  of  the  rebels  againft  Jupiter/'  See  Marfl 
C  c  a  Ficin. 

388  NOTES. 

Ficin.  ApoL  Socrit.  p.  m.  797.  col.  2.  I  ihall  add  that 
aphah  (with  am)  fignifies  in  Hebrew  ferpent. 

Page  id.  (93).  Seduced  the  maru  In  a  phyfical  fenfe  to 
feduce,  fsducere^  means  only  to  attrad^,  to  draw  after  us. 

Pa-^e  id.  (94).  Figure  of  Mithriu  See  this  picture  in 
Hyde,  page  ill,  edition  of  1 760. 

Page  291.  (95).  Per  feus  r'ljes  on  the  cppofje  ftde.  Ra- 
ther the  head  of  Medufaj  that  head  of  a  woman  once  fo 
b'jautiful,  which  Perfeus  cut  ofF,  and  which  he  holds  in  his 
hand,  is  only  that  of  the  virgin,  whofe  head  fmks  below 
the  horizon  at  the  very  moment  that  Perfeus  rifcs ;  and 
the  ferpents  which  furround  it  are  Ophiucus  and  the 
Polar  Dragon,  who  then  occupy  the  zenith.  This  fhews 
•us  in  what  manner  the  ancients  compofed  all  their  figures 
and  fables.  They  took  fuch  conftellations  as  they  found 
at  the  fame  time  on  the  circle  of  the  horizon,  and  col- 
lecling  the  different  parts,  they  formed  groupes  which 
ferved  them  as  an  almanac  in  hieroglyphic  chnra6Lers. 
Such  is  the  fecret  of  all  their  pi6lure=,  and  the  folution 
of  all  their  mjthological  monfters.  The  Virgin  is  alfo 
Andromeda,  delivered  by  Perfeus  from  the  whale  that 
purjues  her  (pro-feqnitur.) 

Page  id.  (96).  By  a  chnfte  virgin.  Such  was  the  pic- 
ture of  the  Perfian  fphere,  cited  by  Aben  Ezra  in  the  Cce" 
li'.m  Pceiicum  of  Blaeu,  p.  71.  "  The  picture  of  the  firft 
"  decan  of  the  Vi-rgin,"  fays  that  writer,  "  reprefents  a 
*^  beautiful  virgin  with  flowing  hair,  fitting  in  a  chair, 
*^  with  two  ears  of  corn  in  her  hand,  and  fuckling  an  infant, 
"  called  Jefus  by  fome  nations,  and  Chrift  in  Greek." 

In  the  library  of  the  king  of  France  is  a  manufcript  in 
Arabic,  marked  1165,  in  which  is  a  picture  of  the  twelve 

ligns ; 

NOTES.  389 

figns;  and  that  of  the  Virgin  reprefents  a  young  woman 
vvith  an  infant  by  her  fide :  the  whole  fcene  indeed  of  the 
birth  of  Jefus  is  to  be  found  in  the  acijacent  part  of  the 
heavens.  The  ftable  is  the  conftcllation  of  the  charioteer 
and  the  goat,  formerly  Capricorn  j  a  conftellation  called 
prtsfepe  Jovis  Hen'iochi^Jiahle  of  Iou\  and  the  word  lou  is 
found  in  the  name  lou-feph  (Jofeph).  At  no  great  dif- 
tance  is  the  afs  of  Typhon  (the  great  (he-bear),  and  the 
ox  or  bull,  the  ancient  attendants  of  the  manger.  Peter 
the  porter,  is  Janus  with  his  keys  and  bald  forehead :  the 
twelve  apoftles  are  the  genii  of  the  twelve  months,  &c. 
This  Virgin  has  a6led  very  different  parts  in  the  various 
fyftems  of  mythology:  fhe  has  been  the  Ifis  of  the  Egyp- 
tians, who  faid  of  her  in  one  of  their  infcriptions  cited 
by  Julian,  the  fniit  I  have  brought  forth  is  the  fw2.  Th^ 
majority  of  traits  drawn  by  Plutarch  apply  to  her,  in  the 
fame  manner  as  thofe  of  Ofiris  apply  to  Bootes  :  alfo  the 
feven  principal  f^arsof  the  flie-bear,  called  David's  chariot, 
were  called  the  chariot  of  Ofiris  (See  Kirker)\  and  the 
crown  that  is  fituated  behind,  formed  of  ivy,  was  called 
Chen  ■  Ofiris^  the  tree  of  Ofiris.  The  Virgin  has  likewife 
been  Ceres,  whofe  myfterics  were  the  fame  with  thofe  of 
Ifis  and  Alirhraj  fhe  has  been  the  Diana  of  the  Ephe- 
lians  ;  the  great  goddefs  of  Syria,  Cybele,  drawn  by  lions; 
Minerva,  the  mother  of  Bacchus  \  Aftraea,  a  chafte  vir- 
gin taken  up  into  heaven  at  the  end  of  the  golden  age ; 
Thems,  at  whofe  feet  is  the  balance  that  was  put  in  her 
hands ;  the  Sybil  of  Virgil,  who  defcends  into  hell,  or 
finks  belov/  the  hemifphere  with  a  branch  in  her  hand, 

Page  292.  (97).  Rofe  again  in  the  firmament,  Rcfurgere^ 

t.o  rife  a  fecon  j  time,  cannot  fignify  to  return  to  life,  but 

C  c  3  in 

390  NOTES. 

in  a  metaphorical  fenfe  ;  but  we  fee  continually  miilakes 
of  this  kind  refult  from  the  ambiguous  meaning  of  the 
words  made  ufe  of  in  ancient  tradition. 

Page  id.  (98  \  Chris^or  confcrvator.    The  Greeks  ufed 

to  exprefs  by  X,  or  Spanifh  iota,  the  afpirated  ha  of  the 

Orient J-,  who  faid  harh.     In  Hebrew  heres  fignifies  the 

fan,  but  in  Arabic  the  meaning  of  the  mdical  word  is,  to 

guard,    to   preferve,  and   of  haris.^  guardian,    preferver. 

It  is  the  proper  epi.het  of  Vichenou,  which  demonflrates 

at  once  the  identity  of  the  Indian  and  Chriftian  Trinities, 

ana  their  common  origin.    It  is  manifeftly  but  one  fyftem, 

which,  divided  into  two  branches,  one  extending  to  the 

eaft,  and  the   other   to  the  weft,  afTumed  two  different 

forms  :  its  principal  trunk  is  the  Pythagorean  fyftemi  of 

the  foul  of  the  v/orld,  or  lou-tiier.     The  epithet />/>ir,  or 

father,  having  been  applied  to  the  demi-ourgos  of  Plato, 

gave  rife  to  an  ambiguity  which  caufed  an  enquiry  to  be 

made  rcfpeding  the  fon  of  this  father.     In  the  opinion  of 

the  philofophers  the  fen  was  underftanding,  A^i;;:j  and  Logos-^ 

from  which  the  Latins  made  their  Ferbu??i,    And  thus  we 

clearly  perceive  the  origin  of  the  eternal  father  and  of  the 

Verhum  his  fon,  proceeding  from  him  (Mens  ex  Deo  nata^ 

fays  Macrobius) :  the  anima  or fpirit us  inundi  was  the  Holy 

Ghoft ;  and  it  is  for  this  reafon  that  Mane?,  Bafilides, 

Valentinius,   and  other   pretended  heretics   of  the  firft 

-■  ages,  who  traced  things  to  their  fource,  faid,  that  God 

the  Father  was  the  fupreme  inacceilibje  light  (that  of  the 

heaven,  the  primum  mcbiky  or  the  aplanes)  ;    the  Son  the 

feccndary  light  refident  in  the  fun,  and  the  Holy  Ghoft 

the  atmofphere  of  the  earth  (See  Bcaufcb.Y  o\,  II.  p.  586): 

hence,  among  the  Syrians,  the  reprefentation  of  the  Holy 

Ghoft  by  a  dove,  the  bird  of  Venus  Urania,  that  is,  of 


NOTES.  3^ 

the  air.  The  Syrians  (fays  Nigldius  de  Germanic o)  afiert 
that  a  dove  fat  for  a  certain  number  of  davs  on  the  egg  of 
a  fiih,  and  that  from  this  incubation  Venus  was  born  : 
Sextus  Empiricus  airoobfcrves  {hji.  Pyrrh.  lib.  3.  c.  23.) 
that  th2  Syrians  abftain  from  eating  doves  ;  whic:;.  iad* 
mates  to  us  a  period  commencing  in  the  hgn  Pifces^  in  the 
winter  folftice.  We  may  farther  obftrve,  that  if  Chris 
comes  from  Harifch  by  a  chin^  it  v/ill  Tignify  artificer^  an 
epithet  belonging  to  the  fun.  Thefs  variations,  v^hich 
muft  have  enibarrafL-d  the  ancients,  prove  it  to  be  the  real 
type  of  Jcfus,  as  had  been  already  remarked  in  the  time  of 
Tertullian.  "  xvlany,"  fays  this  writer,  "  fuppof^  with 
*'  greater  probability  that  the  fun  is  our  God,  ^nd  they  re- 
*'  ftr  us  to  the  religion  of  the  Pcrfan;:."    Jpokget.  c.  16. 

Page  293.  (99).  One  of  the  jolar  periods.  See  a  curious 
ode  to  the  Sun,  by  Martianus  Capelln,  tranflated  by  Ge- 

Page  304.  (100).  Human  facrijiccs.  Read  the  coJjd 
declaration  of  Eufebius  fPnsp.  Evang.  lib.  i.  p.  11.) 
who  pretends  that,  fmce  the  coming  of  Chrift,  there  have 
neither  been  wars,  nor  tyrants,  nor  cannibals,  nor  fodo- 
mites,  nor  petfons  committing  incell,  nor  favages  devour- 
ing their  parents,  &c.  When  we  read  thefe  fathers  of 
the  church,  we  are  adonifned  at  their  inuncerity  or  in- 

Page  306.  (lOi).  Se'l  of  Samaneans.  The  equality  of 
mankind  in  a  ftate  of  nature,  and  in  tne  eyes  of  God,  was 
©ne  of  the  principal  tenets  of  ihe  Samaneans,  and  they 
appear  to  be  the  only  ancients  that  entertained  this  opi- 

Page  309.  (102.)  Perverted  the  confciences  of  men.    As 

long  as  it  fhall  be  poJible  to  obtain  purification  from 

C  c  4.  crimes, 

392  NOTE    S. 

Climes,  and  exemption  from  punifhment  by  means  of 
money  or  other  frivolous  pradlices  ;  as  long  as  kings  and 
crcat  men  fhall  fuppofe  that  building  temples  or  infti- 
tU'ing  foundations,  v/ill  abfolve  them  from  the  guilt  of 
oppreiHon  and  homicide ;  as  long  as  individuals  flrall  ima- 
gine that  they  may  rob  and  cheat,  provided  they  obferve 
■f:.{i  during  Lent,  go  to  confefTion,  and  receive  extreme 
un6lion,  it  is  impolTible  there  ihould  exift  in  fociety  any 
morality  or  virtue;  and  it  is  from  a  deep  convidion  of 
truth,  that  a  modern  philofopher  has  called  the  dodrinc 
of  expiations  la  vercle  desfocictcs. 

Pa^e  310.  (103).  Has  carried  its  itiqtafulone'uentQ  the 
facred  farMuary  of  the  nuptial  bed.  The  MufTulmans,  who 
fuppofe  v/omen  to  have  no  fouls,  are  fhocked  at  the  idea 
of  confeffion,  and  hy ;  How  can  an  honeft  man  think  of 
liftening  to  the  recital  of  the  ailions  or  the  fecret  thoughts 
of  a  woman  ?  May  we  not  alfo  afk,  on  the  other  hand, 
how  can  an  honeft  woman  confent  to  reveal  them  ? 

Page  id.  ( 104).  That  every  where  they  had  formed  jeer  et 
ajjociations^  enemies  to  the  reft  of  the  fociety.  That  we  may 
underftand  the  general  feelings  of  prlefts  refpe61:ing  the 
reft  of  mankind,  whom  they  always  call  by  the  name  of 
the  people,  let  us  hear  6r\Q  of  the  do6lors  of  the  church. 
*'-  The  people,"  faysBiftiopSynnefius,  in  Cahit.  page  315, 
*'  are  defirous  of  being  deceived,  we  cannot  act  otherwife 
"  refpe61:ing  them.  The  cafe  was  fimilar  with  the  ancient 
"  priefts  of  Egypt,  and  for  this  reafon  they  (hut  them- 
"  fclves  up  in  their  temples,  and  there  compofed  their 
"  myfteries  out  of  the  reach  of  the  eye  of  the  people.'^ 
And  forgetting  what  he  has  juft  before  faid,  he  adds— - 
*'  For  bad  the  people  been  in  the  fecret,  they  might  have 
*'  been  offended  at  the  deception  played  upon  them.     In 

"  the 

NOTES,  393 

"  the  mean  time  how  is  it  pofliWe  to  condu6i:  onefelf 
«  otherwlfe  with  the  people  To  long  as  they  are  the 
*»  people  ?  For  my  ov/n  part,  to  myfelf  I  fhali  always  be 
*'  a  philofopher,  but  in  dealing  with  the  mafs  of  man- 
«  kind  I  fiiali  be  a  prieft." 

"  A  little  jargon,"  fays  Qregory  Nazianzen  to  St. 
Jerome  (Hieron»  ad  Nep.)  *'  is  all  that  is  necefTary  to 
"  impofe  on  the  people.  The  lefs  they  comprehend,  the 
<«  more  they  admire.  Our  forefathers  and  doctors  of 
"  the  church  have  often  faid,  not  what  they  thought, 
« but  what  circumftances  and  necelTity  dictated  to 
«  them.'* 

"  We  endeavour,"  fays  Sanchoniathon,  "  to  excite  ad- 
"  miration  by  means  of  the  marvellous."   (Pr^ep.  Evang, 

i'i.  30 

Such  was  the  condudl  of  all  the  priefts  of  antiquity,  and 
is  ftill  that  of  the  Bramins  and  Lamas,  who  are  the  exa<3: 
counterpart  of  the  Egyptian  priefts.  Such  was  the  prac- 
tice of  the  Jefuits,  who  marched  with  hafty  ftrides  in  the 
fame  career.  It  is  ufelefs  to  point  out  the  whole  depravity 
of  fuch  a  doflrine.  In  general  every  aflbciation  which  has 
myflery  for- its  bafis,  or  an  oath  of  fecrecy,  is  a  league  of 
robbers  againft  fociety,  a  league  divided  in  its  verybofom 
into  knaves  and  dupes,  or  in  other  words  agents  and  in- 
ftruments.  It  is  thus  we  ought  to  judge  of  thofe  modern 
clubs,  which,  under  the  name  of  lUuminatifts,  Martinifts, 
Cagliofi:ronift:s,  Free-mafons  and  Mefmerites,  infeft  Eu- 
rope. Thefe  focieties  ape  the  follies  and  deceptions  of  the 
ancient  Cabalifts,  Magicians,  Orphics,  Sec.  who,  fays 
Plutarch,  led  into  errors  of  confiderable  magnitude  not 
only  individuals,  but  kings  and  nations. 

Page  311.  ( 1 06).  They  made  thsfnfelvss  in  turns  ajiro* 


394  NOTES. 

logers-i  cajlers  of  planets^  niagiclans^  Sec.  What  is  a  ma- 
gician, ill  the  lenfe  in  which  the  people  undcriland  the 
ward  ?  a  man  \vho  by  words  and  <j;elh]res  pretends  to  aft 
on  fupernatural  beings,  and  compel  them  to  defcend  at  his 
call  and  obey  his  orders.  Such  was  the  condu6r  of  the 
ancient  priefts,  and  fuch  is  flill  that  of  all  prlefts  in  ido- 
latrous nations,  for  which  reafon  we  have  given  them  the 
denomination  of  mao-icians, 

^ijd  when  a  Chriftian  prieft  pretends  to  make  God 
defeend  from  heaven,  to  fix  him  to  a  morfel  of  leaven, 
and  to  render,  by  means'  of  this  talifraan,  fouls  pure  and 
in  a  ikte  of  grace,  what  is  all  this  but  a  trick  of  magic-  ? 
And  where  is  the  diiference  between  a  Chaman  of  Tartary 
who  invokes  the  genii,  or  an  Irdian  Bramin,  who  makes 
his  VichenoLi  deicend  in  a  veflel  of  water  co  drive  av/ay 
evil  fpirits  ?  Yes,  the  identity  of  the  fpirit  of  pnefts  in 
every  age  and  country  is  fully  eftabliihed  !  Every  where  | 
it  is  the  ailumption  of  an  exclufive  privilege,  the  pretended 
iacuity  of  moving  at  will  the  powers  of  nature ;  and  this 
aflumption  is  fo  direct  a  violation  of  the  right  of  equality, 
that  whenever  the  people  fhall  regain  their  importance, 
they  will  for  ever  aboliih  this  facrilegious  kind  of  nobility, 
v.'hich  has  been  the  type  and  parent  ftock  of  the  other 
fpecies  of  nobility. 

Page  312.  (107).  JVho  paid  for  them  as  fcr  commodities 
of  the  greateji  value,  A  curious  v/ork  would  be  the  com- 
parative hiftory  of  the  agnufes  of  the  pope  and  the  paflih 
of  the  grand  Lama.  It  would  be  woith  while  to  extend 
this  idea  to  religious  ceremonies  in  general,  and  to  con- 
tVont,  column  by  column,  the  analogous  or  contralling 
pojnts  of  faith  and  fuperftitious  practices  in  all  nations. 
There  is  one  more  fpecies  of  fuperftition  which  it  would 


NOTES.  395 

be  equally  falutary  to  cure,  blind  ve;ieration  for  the  great; 
and  for  this  purpole  it  would  be  alone  fuincient  to  write 
a  minute  detail  cf  the  private  life  of  kings  and  princes. 
No  work  could  be  fo  philofophical  as  this  ;  and  accord- 
ingly we  have  feen  what  a  general  outcry  was  excited 
among  kings  and  the  panders  of  icings,  when  the  /Anec- 
dotes of  the  Court  of  Berlin  hrft  appeared.  What 
would  be  the  alarm  were  the  public  put  in  pofTeilion  of 
the  fequel  of  this  work  ?  Were  the  people  fairly  ac- 
quainted with  all  the  crimes  and  all  the  abfurdities  of 
this  fpecies  of  idol,  they  would  no  longer  be  expofed  to 
covet  their  fpecious  pleafures,  of  which  the  plaufible  and 
hollow  appearance  difturbs  their  peace,  and  hinders  them 
from  enjoying  the  much  more  Tolid  happineis  of  their  owa 


,i.l..  IC    J- 




GE,  new        .  -        -        - 

Ariftocracy  >  -  - 

Aftronomy,  origin  of  the  ftudy  of 

_«.  antiquity  of       -  -         - 

— —    foiirce  of  mythology      360, 

Authority,  paternal,  remarks  on 
Babylon  -  -  - 

built  after  Nineveh 

Jiooks,  borne  in  the  proceffion  of  Ifis 
Brama,  religion  of      -       » 
Budoifm      -         - 


Celellial  bodies,  invention  of  names  for 
Chacal,  animal  like  the  fox 
China,  government  of         -  - 

-~-  obftacle  to  the  improvement  of 
Chrift,  etymology  of  the  name  of 

on  the  proofs  of  the  exiftence  of 

Chriftianity       -  -  -  - 

Circumcilion,  origin  of      -         - 
Civil  war  -  -  - 

Confeffion,  remarks  on      - 


Demi-o'urgos,  worfhip  of  the 
Democracy         -  -  - 

Defpotifm         -  -  - 

Doubt  not  a  crime 
Dualifm     -  -  -  - 


Egypt,  firft  civilized  country 
'  ■  Lower^  whence  peopled 

various  religions  originated  from 

Empires,  revolutions  of         -  - 

— i  caufes  of  the  profperity  of    - 

■  revolutions  of    - 

Ethiopia,  ancient         -  -  - 

the  cradle  of  fcience 

Etymology,  obfervations  on       -         * 






-      232,  258 



385,  387,  388 

-        336 







165,  199,28s 








-      -        341 

292,  390 








-          6; 

310,  39» 





-      655  33^ 




-        253 


-        235 



-      -        353 


-    •        2 

-      -     5i»  57 

-     - 

-      -      53^^' 

-      328,  330 






























>  34C> 




'  337 




EupBraf^?,  banks  of  the,  artincial     - 
Evils  tccafioned  by  man,  not  by  God 

Fatalifm,  remarks  on  -  - 

French  about  to  engage  in  a  war  for  the  Turks,  note  - 
■  i-evohition         -         - 

Ger.efis,  remarks  on  fome  parts  of        -  - 

God  not  the  caufe  of  our  evils 
— —  origin  of  the  ider.  of         -         - 

niyfterious  name  of  -  - 

on  the  name  oi      - 

Governmient,  origin  of  »  -  - 

various  kinds  of     -        - 

" corruptions  of      -         - 

Guebres  ,  -  -  - 

Hieroglyphics  -  -  -  -         •         -     363 


Idolatry     -                  -                  -  -                  -237 

fource  of         -         -           -  -          -         -     361 

liiiprovement,  grand  obiiacle  to       -  -         -         -117 

Indian  fects         .              -              -  -      164,   199,  282 

Ifi?,  books  borne  in  the  prccefTjon  of  -      -       -       -     379 

Jefus,  etymology  of  the  name  of      -  -      ----292 

Judaifm        -----    162,  190,  279 

Kings,  obfervations  on         -  -  -  -     337,395 

I.ama,  religion  of  the       -  -  -         -         169,  204 

I^ws,  origin  of         -  -  -  -  -       4B 

obfervations  on-         -         -         -         -         -5<^ 

Liberty  originates  from  equality      -----     342 

Mahometanifm       _        -       -       _       -     i^-,  180,  303,  339 
Man,  the  caufe  of  his  ov/n  misfortunes     -         -  17,  313 

condition  of,  in  the  univerfe      -         -         -.      -       33 
»■        original  Hate  of-  --  -  -37 

— - —  how  brought  into  a  Hate  of  fociety  -  -  -  40 
— —  fource  of  the  evils  attendant  on,  in  fociety  -  -  44 
— • — in  a  flate  of  improvem.ent       -         -  -         -     104 

•— —  grand  obftacle  to  the  impro^-cment  of  -  -  -  117 
»—— rights  of         --.-.--     136,348 


I    N    D"    E    X. 

Man,  natural  equality  of    -     -       -       -      -       -     13  7)3  3'^ 

Mithriacs,  ancient,  the  fame  with  the  modern  Parfes     -     349 
Monarchy  -  -  -  -  -64,  337 

Mofes,  religion  of         -  '         ^' .    162,  190,  279,  38i 

on  tlie  antiquity  of  the  books  afcribed  to     -       -     347 

Myilerles,  ancient         --  -  -  -37^ 

— 1 modern.         -  -  -  -     374>  393 

Mvilical,  or  moi%  wcrfliip      -         -         -         -         -259 

Oph"r,  (ituation  of     -  -  -  -  -     327 

Opinion,  \\  lience  arife  difference  and  agreement  of      -     315 
Orphics,  who  -  -  -  -  '     11^ 

Parfes         -  -  -  .  .     163,194, 2'8i 

People,  free  and  legiflalive       -         -  =>         -         -     13^ 

. rights  of  the      -        -  -  -  -     136 

P^rfia,  unfortunate  ftate  of,  after  the  death  of  Tharaas 

Koulikan  .  .  -  _  -     53Q 

Priellcrart,  origin  of  -  -  -  -     -245 

-— — every  where  tli€  feme     -     -     -      -     -     310,39.2 

Privileged  orders         -  _  -  -         127,248,341 


Religions,  various          -         -         --  -         ^     ^^% 

derived  from  Egypt        -         -  -         -     353 

end  of  all,  the  fame         _         «  -           -     2^7 

Religious  ideas,  origin  of         -         -          -  -     2i8,  294 

Revolutions  of  empires         -           -          _  -          -         % 

^. —  caufes  of      -           -  -     51?  ^^ 

Pvomans,  on  the  freedom  of  the        -         -  -         ^337 


Sabeifm       -             -             -             '»  -'             -231 

Samaneans,  religion  of  the          _           -  -         282,  391 

Science,  cravlle  of         -              -               -  -     23^,331 

Self-love,  the  principle  of  fociety       -         -  -         -       43 

— —— —  efrecis  of     -         *         -         ~  -         40,  4^.,  50 

Slavery,  obfervations  on         -              -  -              -       '62 

Societies,  fecret,  remarks  on         -          -  «           -     393 

Society,  origin  of        -           -    .          -  -              -       40 

— — — fource  of  the  evils  of         -  -             -       44 

evils  of,  how  to  be  avoided     -       -  -         -     100 

on  privileged  orders  in          -         -  -      127,  341 

Solomon,  trade  of       -          -              -  -             -     332^ 

Soul  of  the  world,  worfliip  of  the      -         -  271,  279,  381 

—— ancient  opinions  concerning  the        -  -         -     375 




Soul,  irnrrortalit^  of  the,  not  taught  by  ivlofes     -  -     376" 

Spheres  Of  the  ancients         -  -  -  -  _     ^5^ 

State,  future,  origin  of  the  do(flrine  of  a        -        -  -     2^9 

States,  caufes  of  the  revolutions  of  -  -  53561 

■  rife  of  -  -  -  -  54,  90 

——- ancient,  caufes  of  the  profperity  of      -       -         -     57 

— , . revolutions  and  ruin  of       -     61 

weakened  by  enlargement  -        -^    -  -     67 

caufes  of  the  fall  of       -  -  -  -     92 

Syria,  populoufnefs  of  -         -  -  -  -328 


Talifmans      -  -  -  -  -  -36r 

Tartars,  evacuate  the  Crimea  on  its  being  incorporated 

with  Ruffia  -  -  -  -  -     3^7. 

drefs,  &c.  of     -        »  -  -  -     338 

Thebes         -  -  -  -  _  _  .     ^29 

Theocracy       -  -  -  -  -  -       64. 

Trade  of  the  ancients  -  -  -  -     3 '3  2 

Trinity,  origin  of  the  doctrine  of  the      -       -       -  -     276 

Truth,  inquiry  into  -  -  -  -     1 72 

Turks,  Sultan  of  the,  cannot  cede  land  to  unbelievers      338 

U.  V. 

Univerfe,  worflriip  of  the,  under  dirterent  emblems      -     266 
Venality      -  -  -  -  -  "94 

War,  obfervations  on  -  •  -  -     340 

World,  on  the  creation  of  the       -  -  -  -     348 

"  antiquity  of  the  .  -  .         -     360,  385 

W^ordjipcfthe  elements,  and  the  phyficai  powers  of  nature,  227 

fymbols         -              -            -           -              -  237 

. two  principles        -           -          -           -          -  253 

■■  myftical  or  moral                            -              -  2£;9 

of  the  univerfe  under  different  em.blems      -  266 

..  foul  of  the  world,  or  of  the  element  of 

fire             -                -             -              -              -     271,  279 

— —  Demi-ourgos,  or  fupreme  artificer  274 

Zoroafter,  religion  of 163.  194,  281,  33.^ 

Plate  I  . 

\l  .  Oinua  . 

4  .  J^. 
S-  Ball 
6.  Fd'A 
7  .  I'^ch 

■  (.oiufhiiUinoplc 
J^a-^ft!  . 


Soul,  immortality  of  the,  not  taught  by  Tvlofes  -  -  376' 
Spheres  of  the  ancients         -  _  -  .  _     367 

State,  future,  origin  of  the  doftrine  of  a        -        -       -     259 
States,  caufes  of  the  revolutions  of  -  -  ?.3,  61 

rife  of  -  -  -  -         54,  90 

— —  ancient,  caufes  of  the  profperity  of      -       -         -     57 

_ revolutions  and  ruin  of       -     61 

weakened  by  enlargement  -       -^   -  .-67 

caufes  of  the  fall  of       -  -  -  -     92 

Syria,  populoufnefs  of  -         -  -  -         -328 

Talifmans      -  -  -  -_-  -     ^6r 

Tartars,  evacuate  the  Crimea  on  its  being  incorporated 
with  Ruffia  -  -  -  -  -     327. 

=-  dreis,  &c.  of      -        ^  -  -  -     358 

Thebes  -  - 329 

Theocracy       -  -  -  -  -  -       64. 

'Trade  of  the  ancients  -  -  -  -     3 '3  2 

Trinity,  origin  of  the  do6lrine  of  the      -       -       -       -     276 

Truth,  inquiry  into  -  -  -  -      17- 

Turks,  Sultan  of  the,  cannot  cede  land  to  unbelievers      338 

U.  V. 
Univerfe,  worfhip  of  the,  under  dirterent  emblems      -     266 
Venality      -  -  -  -  -  "94 

War,  obfervations  on  -  •  -  -     340 

World,  on  the  creation  of  the       -  -  -  -     34-8 

— antiquity  of  the  .  -  .         -     360,  385 

WoriTiip  of  the  elements,  and  the  phyfical  powers  of  nature,  22  7 

•  fymbols         -  -  -  -  -     ^3  7 

. —  two  principles       -  -         -  -         -     -53 

m. mvftical  or  moral  ..  -  _     259 

cfthe  univerfe  under  different  em.blems      •     266 

--—_.——  foul  of  the  world,  or  of  the  element  of 

fire             -  -  -  -  _-     271,  279 

^ —  Demi-ourgos,  or  fupreme  artificer         274 


Zoroafter,  religion  of    -     -     -      -     -     163.194,281,33.^ 

IM-.Uo  1  . 

^t^  J«^ro~[T.>^nv\  jo^iioxSS\l' 

A  VitMv  t)f  tin- 

'l'.;«  lo  j>unii  lo  iw^i^U'' 

K.XOQ'?^.  0^^.  001^0 

U  ill